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U/\SA 



Management NASASP-7500(23) 

A Bibliography April 1989 

for NASA 
Mctnagers 



National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration 



anagementIV 
ntManageme 
ment Manage 
agementMan 
'anagementIV 
ntManageme 




This bibliography was prepared by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Facility operated 
for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration by RMS Associates. 



NASA SP-7500(23) 



MANAGEMENT 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR 
NASA MANAGERS 



A selection of annotated references to unclassified reports 
and journal articles that were introduced into the NASA 
scientific and technical information system during 1988. 



NASA 



National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Office of Management 
Scientific and Technical Information Division 
Washington, DC 1989 



This document is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, 
Virginia 22161. price code A09. 



FOREWARD 



Management gathers together references to pertinent documents — reports, journal articles, 
books — that will assist the NASA manager to be more productive. Items are selected and 
grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. A methodology or approach 
applied to one technical area may be worthwhile for a manager in a different technical field. 

Individual sections can be quickly browsed. Indexes will lead quickly to specific subjects or items. 



Xll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 



Category 01 Human Factors and Personnel issues 1 

Includes organizational behavior, ennployee relations, employee attitudes and 
morale, personnel management, personnel development, personnel selection, 
performance appraisal, training and education, computer literacy, human factors 
engineering, ergonomics, human-machine interactions. 

Category 02 Management Theory and Techniques 10 

Includes management overviews and methods, decision theory and decision 
making, leadership, organizational structure and analysis, systems approaches, 
operations research, mathematical/statistical techniques, modeling, problem solv- 
ing, management planning. 

Category 03 industrial Management and Manufacturing 19 

Includes industrial management, engineering management, design engineering, 
production management, construction, aerospace/aircraft industries, manu- 
facturing. 

Category 04 Robotics and Expert Systems 29 

Includes artificial intelligence, robots and robotics, automatic control and 
cybernetics, expert systems, automation applications, computer-aided design 
(CAD), computer-aided manufacturing. 

Category 05 Computers and information Management 38 

Includes information systems and theory, information dissemination and retrieval, 
management information systems, database management systems and 
databases, data processing, data management, communications and communi- 
cation theory, documentation and information presentation, software, software 
acquisition, software engineering and management, computer systems design 
and performance, configuration management (computers), networking, office au- 
tomation, information security. 

Category 06 Research and Development 55 

Includes contracts and contract management, project management, program 
management, research projects and research facilities, scientific research, inno- 

I vations and inventions, technology transfer and utilization, R&D resources, 

j agency, national and international R&D. 

j Category 07 Economics, Costs and Marlots 83 

I Includes costs and cost analysis, cost control and cost effectiveness, productivity 

I and efficiency, economics and trade, financial management and finance, 

j investments, value and risk (monetary), budgets and budgeting, marketing and 

market research, consumerism, purchasing, sales, commercialization, competi- 
I tion, accounting. 



Category 08 Logistics and Operations IManagement 91 

Includes inventory management and spare parts, materials management and 
handling, resources management, resource allocation, procurement manage- 
ment, leasing, contracting and subcontracting, maintenance and repair, trans- 
portation, air traffic control, fuel conservation, operations, operational 
programs. 

Category 09 Reliability and Quality Control 98 

Includes fault tolerance, failure and error analysis, reliability engineering, 
quality assurance, wear, safety management and safety, standards and mea- 
surement, tests and testing inspections, specifications, performance tests 
certification. 

Category 10 Legality, Legislation, and Policy 103 

includes laws and legality, insurance and liability, patents and licensing, legis- 
lation and government, regulation, appropriations and federal budgets, local, 
national, and international policy 



A-1 
B-1 
C-1 



Subject Index 

Personal Author Index 

Corporate Source Index 

Foreign Technology Index ...".."."!......"!.." D-1 

Contract Number Index 

Report Number Index 

Accession Number Index 



E-1 
F-1 
G-1 



VI 



TYPICAL REPORT CITATION AND ABSTRACT 



NASA SPONSORED 



ACCESSION NUMBER 
TITLE - 



AUTHORS- 



REPORT NUMBERS 



COSATI CODE 



\r 



ON MICROFICHE 



CORPORATE SOURCE 



N68-21074*# Boeing Aerospace Co., Seattle, WA. 
APPLICATION OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN PROJECT 
MANAGEMENT DECISION AIDING Fin^ Technical Report No. 
2092 

REGINA HARRIS, STEVEN SHAFFER, JAMES STOKES, and 
DAVID GOLDSTEIN Aug. 1987 122 p 

(Contract NAS5-30040) ^"^^ 

(NASA-CR-1 80762; NAS 1.26:180762) 
AOI^ raCL 05A 



Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 



The feasHMlity of developing an exp^ system$-t>ased project 
management dec^ion aid to enhance the performance of NASA 
project managers was assessed. The research effort included 
extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management 
project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, 
and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were 
augmented t)y focused int^vlews with NASA managers. Time 
estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity 
f^r decision augmentation, and a design was develop for an 
integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). 
The proposed INSITE design was judged feastole with a low tevet 
of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was perfonned and 
was successful. Specific conclusk>ns drawn from the research and 
analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable 
in arty management sphere, commercial or government where 
time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project 
scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range 
of pos^Mlities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds 
potential for enhancir^ other management tasks, especially in areas 
such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-anak>gy is already a 
proven method. Author 



PUBLICATION DATE 
AVAILABIUTY SOURCE 

ABSTRACT 



TYPICAL JOURNAL ARTICLE AND ABSTRACT 



ON MICROFICHE 



ACCESSION NUMBER 

TITLE 

AUTHOR 



'A88-21205* Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 
Pasadena. 

A VIBROACOUSTIC DATABASE MANAGEMENT CENTER FOR 
SHUTTLE AND EXPENDABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE PAYLOADS 

VALERIE C. THOMAS (California Institute of Technology, Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena) (Institute of Environmental 
Sciences and Aerospace Corp., Aerospace Testing Seminar. 10th, 
Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 1987) Journal of Environmental Sciences 
(ISSN 0022-0906). vol. 30. Noy.-Dec. 1987. p. 24-26. 

USAF-sponsored research, refs ^'^^ 

A Vit>roacoustic Database Management Center has recently 
been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The center 
uses the Vitn-oacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System . 
(VAPEPS) computer program to maintain a database of flight and 
ground-test data and sti\ictural parameters for both Shuttle and 
expendable launch-vehicle payloads. Given the launch-vehicle 
environment, the VAPEPS prediction software, which employs 
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) methods, can be used with or 
without the database to establish the vibroacoustic environment 
for new payload components. This paper summarizes the VAPEPS 
program and descrit>es the functions of the Database Management 
Center at JPL. Author 



AUTHORS AFFILIATION 

- JOURNAL TITLE 
PUBLICATION DATE 



ABSTRACT 



VI X 



MANAGEMENT 



A Bibliography for NASA Managers 



APRIL 1989 



01 



HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 

Includes Organizational Behavior. Employee Relations. Employee 
Attitudes and Morale. Personnel Management. Personnel 
Development. Personnel Selection. Performance Appraisal. Training 
and Education. Computer Literacy. Human Factors Engineering. 
Ergonomics. Human-MacNne Interactions. 



A86-10958*# Texas Urw.. Austhi. 

THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGISTS IN FUTURE SPACEFLIGHT 

ROBERT L HELMREICH (Texas. Ur^versity, Austin) SPACEFAIR 
'85. Meeting. Bostcm. MA. Apr. 14. 1985, Paper. 9 p. 
(Contract NAG2-137) 

The need for psychologists to have a more active role in 
planning space missions is discussed. It is suggested that it would 
be beneficial if psychologists conducted research aimed at 
optimizing the organization, composition, and performance of crews; 
participated in the selection and trair^ of crews; and monitored 
the actual performance and ad|ustment of crews during missions. 
The areas wtiich require further resestfch and the types of resesffch 
strate^es to be irT^>temented are described. The desirable traits 
for future space pereonnel and the role of psychologists In mission 
control are examined. I-F. 

A88-1096J*# Texas Univ.. Austin. 

WHAT CHANGES AND WHAT ENDURES - THE CAPABILITIES 

AND UIMTATIONS OF TRAINING AND SELECTION 

ROBERT L HELMREICH (Texas. Urwersity, Austin) Irish Air 
Line Pilots Association and Aer Lingus. Flight Operations 
Symposium. Dublin. Ireland. Oct 19. 20. 1983. Paper. 13 p. refs 
(Ck)ntract NAG2-137) 

The contributions of psychology to aviation in the areas of 
selection, training, and evaluation, ar)d the implementation of rww 
technologies are cfiscussed. The cor>cept of personality traits versus 
modification of human behavior through principles of learning are 
analyzed. Particular consideration is given to achievement 
motivation (defined in terms of mastery, worte, and competitiveness) 
and the differences between traits and attitudes. It is argued that 
personality traits are important dimensions of the self and are 
useful measures of individual differences. The selection of 
inctividuals with desired personality chsracteristics and the training 
of personnel to improve crew coordination, flight-deck management, 
and interpersonal efficacy are examined. IF. 

A88-1096r# Texas Univ.. Austin. 

TRAINING - BEHAVIORAL AM) MOTIVATIONAL SOLUTIONS? 

ROBERT L HELMREICH (Texas. University. Austin) Air Line 
Pilots Association. Beyond Pilot Enor - A Symposium of Scientific 
Focus. Washington. DC. Dec. 6-8. 1983. Paper, lip. refs 
(Contract r4AG2-137) 

Psychological factors which govern interpersonal activities in 
the cockpit are examined. It is suggested that crew members 
shoukj be selected based on personality characteristics rec^red 
for the position and that training does not cause k)ng lasting 
personality changes, it only teaches and improves task performance 
skills. The effects of mincflessness as defined by Langer (1978) 



and the attribution theory of Jones and Nisbett (1971) on flight 
deck commuracations and cocMt management are descrit>ed. The 
needs for a new system of training crew members, with emphasis 
on strategies tiiat induce cognitive processes and awareness, and 
for flM investigations of pitots are discussed. I.F. 

A88-12429# 

THE ESA ANTHRORACK PROJECT - INTEGRATED 

RESEARCH IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 

D. LINNARSSON (Karolinska Institutet. Stockholm, Sweden) 
(International Unkxi of Physiok>gkjal Sciences. Commission on 
Gravitational Physk)*ogy. Annual Meeting. 8th. Tokyo. Japan, Nov. 
4-8. 1986) Physkjiogist Suf^lement (ISSN 0031-9376), vol. 30. 
F^. 1987. p. S-10toS-12. 

The ESA project for studying human phystology under the 
condittons of space flight, termed Anthrorack. is discussed. 
Conskteration is ^ven to the projected experiments. wf)k:h will 
study the control of balance and locomotion, cardiovascular 
dynarrocs. endocrine responses to fluW and bk>od shifts, pulmonary 
function, and metatx>lism. as well as to the hardware involved in 
the project The first flight opportunity for the Anthrorack 
experiments will be with the Spacelab flight D-2 in the eariy 
1990's. I.S. 

A88-12642 

MODELS OF PROCEDURAL CONTROL FOR HUMAN 

PERFORMANCE SIMULATION 

PAUL J. STICHA (Human Resources Research Organization. 
Alexandria. VA) Human Factors (ISSN 0018-7208). vol. 29, Aug. 
1987. p. 421-432. refs 
(Contract MDA903-81-C-0517) 

Ttiis paper describes and evaluates two general technkfues to 
simulate human performance of procedural tasks. A procecfejral 
task is characterized as a partial ordering of task elements in 
whteh the control of task-element sequencir^g is represented within 
the task, rather than as an interaction between the task ar>d the 
environment in whrch the task is performed. The primary concern 
in simulating the performance of procedures is determining the 
mechanism that controls task-element sequencing. Two modeling 
framewortcs have been used to represent task-element sequencing. 
The first method represents the constraints on task-element 
sequendrig directty in a network. A second method represents 
sequencing constraints indirectly as a set of production mles. Both 
frameworks offer conskterat>le generality and flexilMlity in the kinds 
of structures that can be represented. The relative advantages of 
the two metfK>ds depend upon the (^jestions addressed tyy the 
nK)del and the characteristics of the tasks being modeled. 

Author 

A8S-12951* 

PHYSIOLOGIC ADAPTATION OF MAN IN SPACE; 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL MAN IN 
SPACE SYMPOSIUM, HOUSTON, TX, FEB. 10-13, 1966 

ALBERT W. HOLLAND, ED. Symposium sponsored by NASA. 
Univw^ities Space Research Association, Baylor University, and 
IntoDational Academy of Astronautics. Aviation. Space, and 
Environmental Medkane (ISSN 0095-6562), vol. 58, Sept 1987. 
288 p. For indivKhjal items see A88-12952 to A88-13004. 

Topk:s (Ascussed in this volume include space motion sk^kness. 
cardiovascular adaptation, fluid shifts, extravehkxilar activity, 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



general physiology, perception, vestibular response modifications, 
vestibular physiology, and pharmacology. Papers are presented 
on the clinical characterization and etiology of space motion 
sickness, ultrasound techniques in space medicine, fluid shifts in 
weightlessness, Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts 
measured by leg volume changes, and the probability of oxygen 
toxicity In an 8-psi space suit. Consideration is also given to the 
metabolic and hormonal status of crewmembers in short-term space 
flights, adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and 
mental image rotation in microgravity, the effects of a 
visual-vestibular stimulus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex, rotation 
tests in the weightless phase of parabolic flight, and the 
mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs. I.S. 

A88-13236* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
REACHING FOR THE STARS: THE STORY OF ASTRONAUT 
TRAINING AND THE LUNAR LANDING 

STANLEY H. GOLDSTEIN NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, 
TX New York, Praeger Publishers, 1987, 204 p. 

The training for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs is 
described. The form and function of training and the historical 
background which shaped the nature of that training are reviewed. 
For the three programs, the astronaut selection, the meeting of 
training requirements, and program management are addressed. 

CD. 

A88-16145# 

SPACE TOPICS INSPIRE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS 

EDWARD G. HOWARD (Colorado, University, Colorado Springs) 
lAF, International Astronauttcal Congress, 38th, Brighton, England, 
Oct. 10-17. 1987. 8 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-518) 

The development of the new space studies program at the 
University of Colorado in Colorado Springs is examined. The 
program began with the appointment of a Director of Space Studies 
who is to oversee the project and enhance student interest in 
space. The Masters of Engineering Space Operations Option 
offered by the University is described. The need for interdisciplinary 
projects in order to promote space studies is discussed, and 
examples of space related courses in departments other than 
engineering are presented. The use of campus TV and radio and 
art and space displays to create interest In space studies is 
considered. I.F. 

A88-17922 

BEFORE LIFT-OFF: THE MAKING OF A SPACE SHUTTLE 

CREW 

HENRY S. F. COOPER. JR. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins 
University Press, 1987, 285 p. 

This book is a day-to-day story of the training of the seven 
men and women who orbited the earth on Space Shuttle Mission 
41 -OG, and of the flight itself. The use of simulators, the training 
exercises, and the rotes of instructors are shown. The 
intenrelatlonshlps of the crew members from the formation of the 
mission through its completion is described. CD. 

A88-20069 

ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF SPACE EDUCATION 

THROUGH PROGRAMME EVALUATION 

BETTYE B. BURKHALTER (Auburn University. AL) and GEORGE 
S. JAMES (Rocket Research Institute, Inc., Glendale, CA) British 
Interplanetary Society. Journal (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 40, Nov. 
1987. p. 519-526. refs 

The basis of astronautics-related educational programs' 
evaluation Is a threefold method involving the formulation of 
objectives In measurable terms, the careful planning of instructional 
activities, and the selection of those measures by which the 
attainment of each objective will be determined. A detailed account 
is given of the management of these processes. The data acquired 
through the evaluation process can be used to justify further funding 
or support from the public and political forces that control such 
resource bases. O.C. 



A88-22330*# Loyola Univ., Chicago. IL. 

CREW PRODUCTIVITY ISSUES IN LONG-DURATION SPACE 

FLIGHT 

JOHN M. NICHOLAS (Loyola University, Chicago. IL), H. CLAYTON 
FOUSHEE (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field. CA), and 
FRANCIS L. ULSCHAK (H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Research Institute, 
Tampa, FL) AlAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 26th, Reno, 
NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 13 p. refs 
(AlAA PAPER 88-0444) 

Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, 
coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival 
of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With 
the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of 
crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper 
discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms 
on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines 
and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, 
training, and team building for crew productivity and social 
well-being in long-duration spaceflight. Author 

A88-22718 

HIRING, FIRING, AND RETIRING - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 

IN AIRLINE LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW 

FRANKLIN A, NACHMAN (Semple and Jackson, Denver, CO) 
Journal of Air Law and Commerce (ISSN 0021-8642), vol. 53, Fall 
1987, p. 31-84. refs 

Recent significant developments in labor and employment cases 
Involving the airline industry are analyzed. Cases arising under 
the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Title VII of the 
Civil Rights Act of 1964 are reviewed. Expanding theories of the 
law of wrongful discharge are discussed with emphasis placed on 
the ways in which these theories have affected the alriine 
Industry. K.K. 

A88-30185 

THE SOVIET COSMONAUT TEAM, 1978-1987 

REX HALL British Interplanetary Society, Journal (Soviet 
Astronautics) (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 41, March 1988, p. 111-116. 
refs 

The crews who have flown missions in Soyuz-T and Soyuz-TM 
spacecraft starting in 1980 are considered. The new cosmonauts 
appointed in 1976-1978, the crews on Soyuz-T test flights, the 
Salyut 7 training group, visiting mission training groups, the 
operational Salyut 7 group, the second Salyut 7 residency, 
International missions in 1984, a visiting mission In 1984, and 
Salyut 7 operations in 1984 are covered. The crew involved in 
the rescue of Salyut 7 are cited, and the various Mir crews are 
given. CD. 

A88-35087 

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL SPACE 

EDUCATION 

RICHARD H. SCHECK IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space missions 
and policy; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International 
Conference, Boulder, CO. Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univelt, 
Inc., 1987, p. 545-547. 
(AAS PAPER 86-457) 

U.S. Senator Spark Matsunaga. a leading proponent of 
Soviet-American space activities cooperation, has proposed that 
an International Space Year be instituted for 1992 in order to 
foster cooperative efforts by scientists and scholars in the same 
way as the 1957 International Geophysical Year; he hope a joint 
U.S./U.S.S.R. mission to Mars will be a prominent outcome of the 
1992 exchanges. An account is presently given of additional 
international space-related educational and scholarly exchanges 
under the aegis of the U.N. and of major museums and 
universities. O.C. 

A88-35401 

HUMAN FACTORS SOCIETY, ANNUAL MEETING, 31ST, NEW 

YORK. NY, OCT. 19-23, 1987, PROCEEDINGS. VOLUMES 1 & 

2 

Meeting organized by the Human Factors Society; Sponsored by 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.. Bell Communications 
Research. Inc.. IBM, et al. Santa Monica, CA. Human Factors 
Society. 1987. p. Vol. 1. 753 p.; vol. 2. 728 p. For kKfivkfcjal items 
see A88-35402 to A88-35498. 

Topics discussed trtclude macroergonomics. automation safety, 
general techniques of test and evaluation, issues in trailing design, 
performance issues in cfisf^ys and control, tMomechanical 
methods. tt>e criterion task set. simulator sickness, capacity 
limitations in human informatk>n processffig, and tt>e use of 
ptiysk>k)gk^ measures in aviatk>Fhrelated research. Attention is 
also given to ergonomk; design, hands and gk>ves. database access 
and format, envrironmental design, visual and aucStory detection 
performance, development of test methods, and tools and 
technkfues for interface design. B.J. 

A88-35425 

RELATIONSHtP BETWEEN CBITCRION TASK SET 
PERTORMANCE AND THE PERSONALITY VARIABLES OF 
SENSATION SEEKING AND STIIIULUS SCREENING 

KIRBY GILLILAND. ROBERT SCHLEGEL, and SHARON 
DANNELS (Oklahoma. University. Norman) IN: Human Factors 
Society, Annual Meeting. 31st, New Yoric. NY, Oct 19-23. 1987, 
Proceedings. Volume 1 . Santa Monk:a. CA, Human Factors Society. 
1987, p. 402-404. refs 
(Contract F33615-85-D-0514) 

The purpose of tNs study was to demonstrate the utttity of tt)e 
Criterion Task Set (CIS) as a method for personatity theory testing. 
Sutyjects in a large CTS Standardization study were acbninistered 
the Sensation Seeking scale and the Stimukis Screenkig scale. 
two personality dimenskxis based tt)eoreticalty on perceptual or 
bk>logk^ processes that are t>elieved to mectote task perfomnanoe. 
Results indk^ted that high sensation seekers resporKJ faster. tMit 
not necessarily more accurately, than tow sensation seekers to 
cerrtral processing tasks. No differences were found for 
input/perceptual or motor/output tasks. Also, rK> differences were 
found t)etween screeners ar>d nonscreer>ers for any GTS tasks. 
The results of this study suggest tiiat the CTS can be used profitat>ly 
by personality researchers to test the t>ask; assun^jtions of tt)e 
theories of some personality dimenstons. Author 

A88-35426 

THE CRITERK>N TASK SET - AN UPDATED BATTERY 

JOHN R. AMELL (Systems Research Laboratory, inc., Dayton, 
OH). F. THOMAS EGGEMEIER (Dayton, University; USAF. Harry 
G. Armstrong Aerospace Mecfical Research Laboratories. 
Wright-Patterson AFB. OH), and WILLIAM H. ACTON (New Mexico. 
University. Albuquerque) IN: Human Factors Society. Annual 
Meeting. 31st. New Yori^, NY, Oct 19-23, 1987. Proceecfings. 
Votume 1. Santa Monk^ CA, Human Factors Society, 1987, p. 
405-409. refs 

The Criterion Task Set (CTS) is a battery of human periormanoe 
tasks desigr>ed to place demands on a range of operator 
information processing functions required in complex tasks. Several 
tasks in the CTS have t>een moditied as a result of vatkiation 
studies earned out on the origirial turttery. New toadir^g levels for 
tf>ese tasks have t>een established. In addition to task changes, 
several modificatior^ have been made in the user interface. Added 
features include: a 30-sec trial option, automatic trial number 
incrementing, a file naming convention, and a data reductk)n 
program. BJ. 

A88-35437* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Carter. Moffett ReW. CA. 
SIMULATOR SICKNESS RESEARCH raOGRAII AT 
NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER 

MICHAEL E. MCCAULEY (Monterey Technotogies. Inc.. Carmel 
CA) and ANTHONY M. COOK (NASA. Ames Research Center. 
Moffett FteM. CA) IN: Human Factors Society, Annua) Meeting. 
31st. New Yoric. NY, Oct 19-23. 1987. Proceedings. Volume 1. 
Santa Monk:a. CA. Human Factors Society, 1987. p. 502-504. 
refs 

The simulator sickness syndrome is receiving increased 
attention in the simulation community. NASA-Ames Research 



Center has initiated a program to facilitate the exchange of 
information on this topk; among the tri-servk>es and other inte re st e d 
government organizations. The program objectives are to ktontify 
priority research issues, promote effrcient research strategies, serve 
as a repository of information, and dissemiriate information to 
simulator users. Author 

A68-35439 

THE E FF ECTS OF MODAUTY AND STRESS ACROSS TASK 

TYPE ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE 

KENNETH L. PAMPERIN and CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS 
(Illinois. University. Savoy) IN: Human Factors Society. Ammal 
Meeting, 31st New Yoric. NY. Oct 19-23, 1987, Proceedings. 
Volume 1. Santa Monk». CA. Human Factors Society. 1987. p. 
514-518. refs 
(Contract DAAA15-86-K-0013) 

This investigation intonates foifl* (Cerent approaches to the 
study of attention and miritif^ task performance, to inchJde the 
effects of stimulus nxxtality presentation, the influence of spatial 
separation in visual stimulus presentation, the effects of stress, 
and the influence of task type (dual-task versus information- 
integration task), in a spatial vector monitoring task. A 
significant benefit of cross-modal (visual-auditory) presentation was 
found wt)en information was integrated at tx>tii levels of stress. 
white an interaction t)etween modality ar>d stress level occurred in 
the dual task corxJition, favoring the intra-modal (visual-visual) 
presentations at tt>e k>wer stress level. Ttie aucStory display tended 
to t>e more stress resistant The results support Kahr)eman*s (1973) 
concept of stress-related resource expanskHi. provkle weak support 
for p^ceptual nan-owing, and provkte littie si4>port for a processing 
modalities dimension of the Muttipte Resource Model. Author 

A88-35444* Illinois Univ.. Urbana<)hampaign. 
ATTENTION THEORY AND TRAINING RESEARCH 

JAMES G. CONNELLY, JR., CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS. GAVAN 
UNTERN. and KELLY HARW(X>D (IHinois. University. Urbana) IN: 
Human Factors Society. Annual Meeting. 31st New York. NY, 
Oct 19-23. 1987, Proceedings. Votume 1. Santa Morwca, CA. 
Human Factors Society. 1987. p. 648-651. Sponsorsh^ 0. refs 
(Contract NAG2-308) 

This study used elements of attention theory as a 
metlKXJologk^ basis to decompose a complex training task m 
order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a 
mk;rocomputer flight simulation where sut}jects were required to 
control the statnlity of their own helkx)pter wtiile acquiring arxl 
er>gaging enemy hetcopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were 
drvkjied into wftole-task, part-task, and part/open kx)p adaptive 
task groups in a transfer of trairw>g paradigm. The effect of reducir^g 
mental workk)ad at the earty stages of leamir>g was examined 
with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the 
complex task could be automated ttirough practice of consistent 
leamable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends 
suggesting the ber>efit of isolating consistentty mapped sub-tasks 
for part-task training and the preserve of a time-sharing skW over 
and above the skill required for the separate subtasks. Author 

A88-35445 

HIGH PERFORMANCE COGNITIVE SKILL ACQUISmON - 

PERCEPTUAL/RULE LEARNING 

ARTHUR D. FISK ((3ieor^ Institute of Technok)gy, Atianta) IN: 
Human Factors Society, Annual Meeting, 31st New York. NY. 
Oct 19-23, 1987. Proceecfings. Volume 1. Santa Monk:a. CA. 
Human Factors Society. 1987, p. 652-656. refs 
(Contract F30602-81-C-0193) 

Two experiments examined the effects of inter-component 
consistency on skill acquisition in a class of co^iitive dernuKfing 
tasks requiring rapkj integration of information as well as rapkJ 
applk:ation of rules. The role of consistency of external 
stimulus-to-rule linkage in facilitating the teaming and performing 
of a rule-t>ased classification task was examined. The present 
data have implk:ations for the understanding and training of skiHed 
problem solving tasks. When training alk)ws the devekipment of 
automatization of subcomponents of the problem solving activity. 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



the chance of memory overload is reduced. The present data 
point to one such trainable subcomponent clearly present in most 
real-world problem solving situations - the perceptual and 
rule-based components. Author 

A88-35464 

THE INTERACTION OF BOTTOM-UP AND TOP-DOWN 

CONSISTENCY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS 

NATALIE A. ORANSKY. PAULA R. SKEDSVOLD (South Carolina, 

University, Columbia), and ARTHUR D. FISK (Georgia Institute of 

Technology, Atlanta) IN: Human Factors Society, Annual Meeting, 

31st, New York, NY, Oct. 19-23, 1987, Proceedings. Volume 2. 

Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors Society, 1987, p. 1044-1048. 

refs 

(Contract F30602-81-C-0193) 

An experiment is reported that was conducted to examine 
the possible value of higher-order consistency in skill development. 
Subjects made judgments about ordinal properties of stimuli. The 
presence or absence of consistency was defined by the type of 
decision - consistent or varied decisions. In both decision 
conditions the stimuli were inconsistent at the individual stimulus 
level; however, subjects making consistent decisions concerning 
the stimuli could make use of consistent relationships among the 
stimuli. Subjects in the consistent decision were faster and more 
accurate at identifying target stimuli when compared with the 
inconsistent decision subjects. In addition to the quantitative 
differences, subjects receiving consistent decision training were 
qualitatively different in performance when compared to the 
inconsistent decision group. The pattern of results from the present 
experiment is quite consistent with previous memory/visual search 
investigations. The experiment supports the suggestion that local 
level (or stimulus based) consistency is not necessary for automatic 
process development if task relevant higher-order (or global) 
consistency can be identified and used by the trainees. Author 

A88-35481 

TRAINING DEVELOPMENT FOR COMPLEX COGNITIVE 

TASKS 

JOAN M. RYDER, RICHARD E. REDDING, and PETER F. 
BECKSCHI (Pacer Systems, Inc.. Horsham, PA) IN: Human 
Factors Society, Annual Meeting, 31st, New York, NY, Oct. 19-23, 
1987, Proceedings. Volume 2. Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors 
Society. 1987, p. 1261-1265. USAF-supported research, refs 

The Instructional Systems Development (ISD), introduced as a 
military training methodology in the 1970's and based on 
psychological principles derived mainly from behaviorism, was 
adequate for training for tasks with fixed procedural sequences 
and largely psychomotor skills. This paper evaluates the 
applicability of ISD to the design of training required for advanced 
aircraft operators and compares the principles and procedures of 
the ISD with recently developed training methodologies in order 
to determine how recent developments in cognitive science can 
be applied to ISD to modify the training procedures for tasks 
which require complex cognitive skills. It is concluded that the 
ISD is still viable if the cognitive approach is used. While the 
traditional appoaches leave later stages of training (automation 
and fine tuning of skills) to be accomplished on the job. a cognitive 
approach would concentrate on developing automated skill 
component practice and skill refinement to build higher levels of 
expertise. IS. 

A88-37450 

PSYCHOSOCIAL TRAINING FOR PHYSICIANS ON BOARD 

THE SPACE STATION 

NICK KANAS (USVA, Medical Center, San Francisco. CA) 
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ISSN 0095-6562) 
vol. 59, May 1988, p. 456, 457. refs 

The training and specialty areas of the physicians who might 
be sent to the Space Station is discussed. It is argued that these 
candidates not only should be broadly trained to handle a number 
of acute physical problems and to conduct research on the effects 
of weightlessness on the human body physiology, but be also 
trained to handle various psychological and interpersonal problems 



related to long-term isolation and confinement. The knowledge 
areas that should be included in the psychological training of a 
space physician are outlined. I.S. 

A88-38686*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
TRAINING FOR 21ST CENTURY SPACE MISSIONS 

FRANK E. HUGHES and ROBERT K. HOLKAN (NASA, Johnson 
Space Center, Houston. TX) NASA. AIAA, Lunar and Planetary 
Institute et al., Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities 
in the 21st Century, Houston, TX, Apr. 5-7, 1988, Paper. 9 p. 

Although specific recommendations are difficult to make about 
spacecraft and missions not yet designed, several general 
guidelines are presently formulated concerning the training of future, 
long-duration space mission crews. Training systems should be 
embedded in the normal controls and displays of the spacecraft 
used, so that critical maneuvers can be practiced as often as 
possible. Some system for computer-based training should be 
available onboard, in order to maintain the spacecraft 
system-knowledge of the crew at a high level and deepen 
understanding of malfunction responses. O.C. 

A88-38764# 

A PROJECT-ORIENTED INTRODUCTION TO FLIGHT TEST 

ENGINEERING 

DONALD T. WARD (Texas A & M University, College Station) 
AIAA, Flight Test Conference, 4th, San Diego, CA, May 18-20, 
1988. 12 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2116) 

This paper describes a flight test course designed to teach 
senior undergraduates in Aerospace Engineering the fundamentals 
of flight test engineering. While the engineering subject matter Is 
based on performance and stability and control principles (which 
are reviewed with emphasis on measurement techniques), the 
centerpiece of the course is a laboratory project designed to 
simulate a flight test project similar to ones encountered by a 
new flight test engineer on his first assignment. Students learn to 
work in a group, they practice both oral and written communication, 
and they lay out a schedule of critical events for their project that 
is used to measure their performance during the course. Two 
examples of projects assigned are discussed in some detail. The 
most beneficial outcomes of this project-oriented approach, 
according to feedback from students, is an opportunity to apply 
what they have studied for four years. The positive motivation 
that results has led several of these students to seek jobs in 
flight test. Author 

A88-42921# 

TRAINING OF TECHNICAL PERSONNEL FOR QUALITY 

MAINTENANCE 

TRYGVE El DEM (Helikopter Service A/S, Stavanger, Norway) IN: 
Vertical flight training needs and solutions; Proceedings of the 
AHS National Specialists' Meeting. Ariington, TX, SepL 17. 18, 
1987. Alexandria. VA. American Helicopter Society. Inc.. 1987, p. 
73-76. 

The training of technical personnel involved in manufacturing 
and maintaining rotorcraft is discussed. It is suggested that aircraft 
manufacturers follow ICAO standards and recommendations for 
training. Training programs should be evaluated according to goal 
achievement, cost/benefit analysis, and development of working 
relatioships. Aspects of training to be evaluated include the 
knowledge, skills, and attitude towards the job of those involved, 
the company training methods and techniques, the student's study 
technique and attitude towards training. It is proposed that 
requirements in basic and specialized training and competence 
level definitions should be developed. Maintenance organizations 
and their performance are also examined. R.B. 

A88-42961# 

THE EVALUATION OF PILOT JUDGMENT DURING 

CERTIFICATION FLIGHT TESTS 

DENIS A. CARAVELLA (FAA, West Chicago. IL) IN: International 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 4th, Columbus, OH, Apr. 27-30. 
1987, Proceeding. Columbus, OH, ONo State University, 1987, 
p. 328-336. 

A nrmthod which evaluates five attitude pattenns of pilots during 
certification tests to examine judgment in addition to skill is 
discussed. The attitude patterns studied are macho 
(agressive/forceful vs. timid), attitude to authority (defiant vs. 
conformist), persistence (insistent vs. yielding), time of thought 
(impulsive vs. pondering), and fear (carefree vs. trepid). Examiners 
look for a balance t)etween the two extremes of each pattern. 
With this method, a pik)t could recieve an unsatisfactory 
determiruitk>n based on poor judgment, even if all tasks were 
performed successfully, possibly helping to pir^nt reasons for 
unsatisfactory performence resulting from poor attitude ratfier than 
a tack of skill. R.B. 

A8»-42963# 

COCKnT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND 
TRAINING STRATEGIES - DEVELOPING AN ANALYSIS OF 
TRAINING NEEDS 

T. L SAMS (American Airlines, Inc.. Fort Worth, TX) IN: 
Intematiortal Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 4th, ColumtHis, 
OH, Apr. 27-30. 1987, Proceedings. Columbus. OH. Ohio State 
University, 1987. p. 360-371. refs 

A study assessing Cockpit Resource Managemnt (CRM) 
cor>cepts. training media and instructk>nal methods is preserned. 
A questionnaire was sent to aviatron psychok>gtsts. airline training 
directors, and pik)ts to provide statistk^ for respondent 
demographk:s, the importance of various CRM concepts, training 
effectiveness for each concept, and (DRM training issues, including 
training media, instructk>nal methods, assessment. ar>d training 
problems and support It was found that communk:ations and 
command/leadership skills were fett to be mc^ important, with 
very tittle interest taken in social and interpersonal skills. In the 
area of CRM media and irmtructk>nal methods, priority was given 
to simulation, line-oriented flight training, small group seminars 
and vkieo tape review of actual CRM case studdies. R.B. 

A88-42966*# San Jose State Univ.. CA. 
'BUT CAPTAIN, I'VE BEEN DOING THIS A LOT LONGER 
THAN YOU HAVE* - THE EFFECTS OF 'ROLE-REVERSAL' ON 
CREW INTERACTION 

SANDRA C. LOZITO (San Jose State University. CA). BARBARA 
G. KANKI. and H, CLAYTON FOUSHEE (NASA, Ames Research 
Center. Moffett FieW. CA) IN: International Symposium on Aviation 
Psychology, 4th, Columbus, OH, Apr. 27-30, 1987. Proceedings. 
Columbus. OH. Ohk) State University. 1987, p. 413-418. 

Legislatk>n provkiing for airiine deregutatk>n has, among other 
things, created some ambiguity with respect to cockpit role 
structures. With the demise of some airiines. the at)Sorptk>n of 
others, the mergir>g of seruority tists. and a new shortage of pilots, 
indivkJuals with 6xperier>ce equivalent to or greater than that of 
the pilot in commarxj may t>e placed in roles of lesser status. A 
formerly senk>r captain may be flying in the right seat as a first 
offrcer with an indivkiual very much *iunk>r' in terms of both age 
and experience. Moreover, the mar^datory retirement of airiir>e pibts 
at age 60 does not apply to flight engineers, an6 some are 
'down-grading' to fly in that capacity. The effects of this 
'rote-reversal* phenornenon on the crew coordinatk>n process have 
not been expkxed. The purpose of this study was to begin 
investigating this phenomenon using data obtained from a previous 
'short-haul' full misskKi study conducted by Foushee, Lauber, 
Baetge. and Acomb (1986). Author 

A88-42969# 

THE SYNERGY DIAMOND AS A MODEL FOR HUMAN 

BEHAVIOR (IN TEAM PROBLEM SOLVING SITUATIONS) 

CONRAD S. BlECaALSKI (USAF, Travis AFB, CA) IN: Intematwnal 
Symposium on Aviatwn Psychology, 4th, Columbus. OH, Apr. 27-30. 
1987. Proceedings. Columbus. OH. Ohk) State University. 1987, 
p. 419-425. 

A model is presented whk:h can be used to depkn short-term 
individual behavk>r patterns, how behavkw affects the team's effort 



to develop synergy, positive and negative levels of synergy 
attainat}le. and how indtvk^uats can modify their behavk>r to irx:rease 
their effectiveness as team memt)ers. It is noted that the diamond 
depk^ts short-term behavior, rrot attitude or personality. The main 
limitation of the 'synergy diamond* is that it is neither a graph nor 
a mattiematical model. K.K. 

A8a-4297r# Texas Univ.. Austin. 

EVALUATING COCKPIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

TRAINING 

ROBERT L HELMREICH and JOHN A. WILHELM (Texas. 
University. Austin) IN: tntemational Symposium on Aviation 
Psychology. 4th, Columbus. OH. Apr. 27-30, 1987, Proceedings. 
Columbus. OH. Ohio State University. 1987, p. 440-446. refs 
(Contract NCC2-286) 

The determinants of effective or ineffective cocicpit resurce 
management and the difficulties these multiple factors pose for 
validation of the effectiveness of cockpit resource management 
(CRM) training are discussed. A model of an evaluation design 
that may be applied to this type of training is presented. Concept 
validation is discussed as welt as criteria for judging crew 
proficiency. Attention is given to accidents and proficiency checks, 
incidents and repeated maneuvers, attitude measuremet, and 
self-report evauatk>n of trainir>g. K.K. 

A88-42972*# Natronal Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Center. Moffett Field. CA. 
SELECTION FOR OPTIMAL CREW PERFORMANCE - 
RELATIVE IMPACT OF SELECTION AND TRAINING 

THOMAS R. CHIDESTER (NASA. Ames Research Center. Moffett 
Reld. CA) IN: lntematk>nal Symposium on Aviatton Psychok>gy, 
4th. Columbus, OH, Apr. 27-30. 1987. Proceedings. Columbus. 
OH, Ohio State University, 1987, p. 473-479. Amny-supported 
research, refs 
(Contract NCC2-286) 

An empirical study supporting Helmrech's (1986) theoretical 
work on the distinct manner in which training and setectk>n impact 
crew coordinatk>n is presented. Training is capable of changing 
attitudes, while selectk)n screens for stable personality 
characteristics. Training appears least effective for leadersh^, an 
area strongly influenced by personality. Selectk>n is least effective 
for influencing attitudes about personal vulnerability to stress. whk:h 
appear to t>e trair>ed in resource management programs. Because 
personality con-elates with attitudes before and after training, it is 
fett that selection n^y be necessary even with a leadersh^>-oriented 
training cirriculum. R.B. 

A88-42982# 

ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT ATTITUDES IN THE FLIGHT 

TRAINING ENVIRONMENT 

DAVID L. HOWELL (New Hampshire, University. Durham) and 
CATHERINE CASSELMAN VUKSANOVIC IN: International 
Symposium on Aviatbn Psychology, 4th, Columbus. OH, Apr. 27-30, 
1987. Proceedings. Columbus, OH. Ohio State University, 1987. 
p. 544-549. refs 

This study was designed to identify student attitudes toward 
their flight training program to determine if there was a change in 
student attitude from the beginnir>g of a flight program to the ernj 
and to investigate variables that may have had an effect on student 
attitude toward tt>etr flight trairiing program. Means were examined 
for both pre and post semester groups indicating a trend toward 
a positive change in attitude. Variat>les that hekj significance on 
the .05 level were the class in which the student was ervolled 
and students who intended to continue with the same flight 
insfructor. Implications of instructor impact on student performance 
is discussed. Author 

A88-43004# 

'WERE YOU DISTRACTED BY THE OTHER PLANE'S SUDDEN 

APPEARANCE?' - THE CASE FOR STANDARDIZED 

POST-ACCIDENT INTERVIEWS FOR AIR TRAFFIC 

CONTROLLERS 

DARLENE A. COUCHMAN (New Mexico State University. Las 



Q^ HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



Cruces) IN: International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 
4th, Columbus, OH, Apr 27-30. 1987, Proceedings. Columbus 
OH, Ohio State University. 1987, p. 733-738. rets 

The problem of obtaining early information after accidents is 
examined, arguing that a standaradized set of questions, to be 
asked of air traffic controllers immediately after an accident, should 
be designed and implemented to reduce the distortion that occurs 
due to the influence of past experiences and published or 
broadcasted news reports of the event. Relevant studies 
concerning memory, post-accident questionnaires in use, and the 
need for a preliminary study to develop a standardized 
questionnaire are discussed, including possible sample questions. 
It is proposed that a neutral organization such as the FBI should 
be responsible for isolating and inten/iewing air traffic controllers, 
whether or not they could have had a role in the accident. R.B. 

A86-43961# 

THE OVERVIEW EFFECT - A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF 

SPACE EXPLORATION ON INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL 

AWARENESS 

FRANK WHITE (Human Systems Inc., Newton, MA) IN: Space 
manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial resources, biosciences, and space 
engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI 
Conference, Princeton. NJ, May 6-9, 1987. Washington, DC, 
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987, p. 
120-125. refs 

This paper discusses the changes in awareness caused by 
spaceflight in astronauts, cosmonauts, and society as a whole. 
The paper reports findings based on interviews with sixteen people 
who have been in space as well as an examination of secondary 
materials. The Overview Effect is defined as viewing the earth 
from space and experiencing its inherent unity as a whole system. 
In addition, other changes in awareness are described, as are the 
conditions producing the shifts in perception. A series of 
propositions is offered as the foundation for continuing research 
into the philosophy and psychology of the new civilizations now 
being created on earth and in space. Author 

A8S-43962# 

USE OF A 2-METER RADIUS CENTRIFUGE ON SPACE 

STATION FOR HUMAN PHYSIOLOGIC CONDITIONING AND 

TESTING 

PETER H. DIAMANDIS (MIT; Harvard University, Cambridge, MA) 
IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nonten-estrial resources, biosciences, 
and space engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth 
Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference. Princeton. NJ, May 6-9, 1987. 
Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics. 1987, p. 133-136. 

NASA Space Station life sciences experiments are planned to 
employ two centrifuges of 0.9 and 2.0 m radii; of these, the larger 
would be used to keep the crew in good health during long duration 
missions, counteracting the physiologic deconditioning that occurs 
in extended exposure to microgravity by exerting artificial gravity 
during sleep. Such exercises as deep knee bends cound also be 
conducted on the 2.0-m centrifuge. The crewmember will be 
disposed on the centrifuge with head at center and feet at the 
radially most outward point. O.C. 

A8S-46443 

ISSUES IN MANAGING TOTAL TRAINING SYSTEMS 

J. S. BRESEE and C. T. MOORE (Singer Co., Stamford, CT) IN: 
The acquisitk)n and use of flight simulation technology in aviation 
training; Proceedings of the International Conference, London, 
England. Apr. 27-29, 1987. Volume 2. London, Royal Aeronautical 
Society. 1987. p. 345-355. 

The new role of the training support industry in relation to the 
management of total training systems is examined. Differences 
between training tools and training systems are assessed, with 
partteular attention given to new measures of product quality, new 
factors affecting cost and schedule, the difference between 
specification generatk)n and specification compliance, the 
management of an interdisciplinary design team, and differences 



in managing training systems development and training systems 
operations. Recommendations for action connected with these 
issues are presented. B.J. 

A88-46514 

MENTAL MODELS AND FAILURES IN HUMAN-MACHINE 

SYSTEMS 

GERRIT C. VAN DER VEER (Vrije Universiteit. Amsterdam, 
Netheriands) IN: Information systems: Failure analysis; 

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bad 
Windsheim, Federal Republic of Germany, Aug. 1 8-22, 1 986. Berlin 
and New York, Springer-Veriag. 1987, p. 221-230. refs 

The analysis of failures and failure prevention is analyzed from 
the viewpoint of cognitive ergonomics or the cognitive psychology 
of man-computer interactions. The causes of failures and the ways 
to prevent them are reviewed using theoretical notions on human 
behavior in man-machine communication processes. B.J. 

A88*51496 

ENGINEERING DATA COMPENDIUM: HUMAN PERCEPTION 

AND PERFORMANCE 

KENNETH R. BOFF, ED. (USAF. Aerospace Medical Research 
Laboratory. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH) and JANET E. LINCOLN, 
ED. (Dayton. Univertsity. OH) Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, USAF 
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, 1988, 142 p. No individual 
items are abstracted in this volume. 

Information and instructions for users of the Engineering Data 
Compendium on human perception and performance are presented. 
The layout of the two-page entries which make up the Compendium 
is explained and illustrated with a diagram. A table of contents for 
volumes 1-3, a glossary of terms, a hierarchically arranged design 
checklist, and a complete alphabetical index are provided. T.K. 

A88-53751# 

AEROSPACE DESIGN EDUCATION AT TEXAS A & M 

UNIVERSITY 

THOMAS U. MCELMURRY (Texas A & M University. College 
Station) AIAA, AHS, and ASEE. Aircraft Design, Systems and 
Operations Meeting. Atlanta, GA, Sept. 7-9, 1988. 10 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4413) 

The effectiveness of such aerospace engineering design 
courses as those taught at Texas A & M University entails the 
teaching of computational methods and computer programs in basic 
engineering courses; similarly drawing and technical writing skills 
should be refined in basic studies prior to enrollment in aerospace 
studies. A comprehensive and accessible source of design 
reference material is also essential. Project-oriented aerospace 
vehicle design electives for the design, development, and 
demonstration of hardware are highly recommended. O.C. 

A88-54856# 
COMPUTER-ENHANCED LEARNING 

AHMED K. NOOR (George Washington University, Hampton, VA) 
Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 26, Sept. 1988, p. 
40-42. 

The applications of recent advances in aerospace technology 
to the enhancement of engineering education is considered. The 
use of computer workstations, expert systems, videodisks, and 
optical fit>er networks is discussed. The t)enefits of instructional 
teams using all these technologies are emphasized. CD. 

N88-12240# Ryan Research International, Chico. CA. 

HEALTH HAZARDS OF VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS. A 

COMPREHENSIVE, ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON A 

CRITICAL ISSUE OF WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY 

WITH SOURCES FOR OBTAINING ITEMS AND LIST OF 

TERMINAL SUPPLIERS 

META NISSLEY. Comp. 1987 67 p 

(RSI-IAS-4; LC-87-90423; ISBN-0-9421 58-04-0) Avail: NTIS HC 

A04/MF A01 

A bibliography is presented on health hazards of video display 
terminals. The comprehensive and annotated bibliography is about 
critical issues of workplace health and safety. Incresing attention 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



is paid to the overall workplace health and comfort of the steadily 
growing nun^ier of video terminal users, and ergonomics is now 
a central theme in industrial health and safety. An*angement of 
items is t>y title. A name index is also provided for access by 
author or researcher, E.R. 

N88-12924*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field. CA. 
RESEARCH PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS (198M987): 
WORKLOAD RESEARCH PROGRAM 

SANDRA G. HART. cOfT^. Aug. 1987 124 p 
(NASA-TM-100016; A-87196: NAS 1.15:100016) Avail: NTIS HO 
A06/MF A01 CSCL 061 

An annotated bibliography of the research reports written by 
participants in NASA's Workload Research Proyam since 1981 is 
presented, representing the resutts of theoretical and applied 
research conducted at Ames Research Center and at universities 
and industrial laboratories funded by the program. The major 
program elements included: 1) developing an understanding of 
the woricload concept; 2) providirig valid, reliable, and practicai 
rmasures of workload; and 3) creating a computer model to predtet 
workload. The goal is to provide wori^toad-related design principles, 
measures, guidelines, and computatk>nai models. The research 
results are transfen-ed to user groups by estabiisNng ctose ties 
with manufacturers, civil and military operators of aerospace 
systems, and regulatory agencies; publishing scientifk: articles; 
participating in and sponsoring wortcshops and syn^x>sia; providing 
infomrmtion. guidelines, and computer models; and contributing to 
the fonnulatk)n of standards. In addition, the methods and theories 
devek>ped have been applied to specific operational and design 
problems at the request of a number of industry and government 
agencies. Author 

N88-14875*# Houston Univ.. TX. Dept of National Sciences. 
A GENERAL ARCHITECTURE TOR INTELUGENT TRAINING 
SYSTEMS FIniri Report 

R. BOWEN LOFTIN in NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 
Houston. Tex. NASA/ American Society for En^neering Educatk>n 
(ASEE) Summer Facutty Fellowship Program, 1987. Volume 2 (date) 
15 p Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A15/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

A preliminary design of a general architecture for autonomous 
intelligent training systems was developed. The architecture 
integrates expert system technology with teaching/training 
n>ethodologies to permit the production of systems suitat)le for 
use by NASA, other govemment agencies, industry, and academia 
in the training of personnel for the performance of complex, 
missk)n-critk:al tasks. The proposed architecture consists of five 
elements: a user interface, a don^n expert a training sessk)n 
manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The 
design of this architecture was gukled and its effk^acy tested 
through the devek>pment of a system for use by Misskw Control 
Center Right Dynamtes Offk»rs in trainir^ to perfomt 
Payload-Assist Module Depkyys from the ort»ter. Author 

N88-15433# Joint PubHcattons Research Servtee, Ariington. VA 
NEW US BOOK ON AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY REVIEWED 

A. A. GYURD2HIAN. V. F. TOKAREV. and YU. YU. SHIPKOV In 
its JPRS Report Scienoe and Technok)gy. USSR: Space Bk)k>gy 
and Aerospace Medk^ine, Volume 21, No. 4. July - August 1987 p 
126-137 13 Jan. 1988 Transl. into ENGLISH from 

Kosmrcheskaya Bk)k)giya i Aviakosmicheskaya MecKtsina (Moscow, 
USSR). V. 21. no. 4. Jul. - Aug. 1987 p 82-88 
Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 

The history of aviatkjn psychology in the U.S., bask: corK»pts 
of aviatk>n psychok>gy, directbns, and prospects of its devek)pm6nt 
are covered. The professional performance of a pikrt is sul>mitted 
to psychologwal analysis. The main gukielines of engineering 
psychok)gy arxj its applk:atk>n to the design of tnformatk>n display 
systems and controls are discussed. Perceptual phenomena of 
flight work is examined. Indtvkiual tendencies and abilities of flight 
personnel, their work capacity and quality of performance are 
evaluated. Different aspects of pik)t training are discussed. The 



advantages of using the systems method to orgaruze air traffic 
control, conduct research with optimum and mutuaHy 
complementary distributk>n of functk>ns among man and machine 
are discussed. Finally, the methodok)gy of research in aviatkm 
psychology, starting with the onset of some problem to practk:al 
introductk>n and the theoretical generaHzatkm are discussed. 

B.G. 

N8a-16420*# Alabama Univ.. Huntsville. Cognitive Systems 

Lab. 

SPACE LANGUAGES 

DAN HAYS In Hf<Sk. Marshall Space Flight Center. Third 

Conference on Artifk:iai Intelligence for Space Applk^ations, Part 1 

p 333-337 Nov. 1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

App)kmtk>ns of linguistk: prir>ctples to potential problems of 
human aixi machir>e communk:ation in space settings are 
discussed. Variations in language among spHsakers of different 
backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new 
experiences or reduced contact with ottier groups r)B&d to be 
considered in the design of intelligent macNne systems. AutiXH" 

N86-18151# Joint Publications Research Sendee. Ariington. VA. 
PRESENT STAGE OF SPACE MEDICINE 
B. S. ALYAKRINSKIY In its JPRS Report Science and 
Technotogy. USSR: Space Biotogy and Aerospace Medfcine. v. 
21. no. 6, Nov. - Dec. 1987 p 1-9 11 Mar. 1988 Transl. into 
ENGLISH from Koshmkrheskaya Bk>k>gfya i Aviakosmk^heskaya 
Meditsina (Moscow. USSR), v. 21. no. 6, Nov. - Dec. 1987 p 3-10 
Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

Devek>pment of Soviet cosmonautics has resulted fan 
consklerable achievements referable to many disciplines, tnckiding 
btotogy and medk»ne. whk^ ori^nated new scientifk: dkections. 
Numerous important problems were formtMed and solved; results 
of broad scientific relevance were obtained, and, at the same 
time, new diffrcutt problems were advanced, whk:h require bokj 
overcoming of many dogmas reinforced by tradition, restructuring 
of sdentifk: ttiinking. The real achievements of such restructuring 
will be the contribution of space medk^ine to the advances, with 
which the Soviet Unk)n is celebrating its 70th anniversary of the 
Great Octot)er Socialist Revolution. Author 

N88-18515# Sandia National Labs.. Albuquerque. NM. 
INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY: A CRITICAL UNKAGE 

J. M. HUETER 1987 7 p Presented at the CoHege Industry 

Education Conference. San Diego. Calif., 8 Feb. 1988 

(Contract DE-AC04-76DP-00789) 

(DE88-003309; SAND-87-2801C; CONF-880234-1) Aval: NTIS 

HCA02 

Creativity involves the associating of hitherto unrelated 
elements to form a new and useful combination. All have ti>e 
ability but most seldom use it because of some false beliefs and 
failure to understand the creative process. Deteoents to creativity 
include fear of criticism, narrowness of education and trairwig, 
habit, negative attitudes toward problems, lack of motivation, tack 
of setf-confkience, lack of courage and (focoiragement by faihires. 
The recognition and devek)pment of creative kleas requires mental 
effort, an open rr^nd, searching seemingly imretated fiekto and 
definition of the proMm. Brainstorming is wklely used to produce 
alternate kieas. Modifk^ations of it are the GonJon Technk|ue and 
Synectics. Morphok>^cal analysis and the ^camination of attributes 
are other akte to creativity. Recognition of a need, or of a new 
use of an oM klea can be helpful. Manag^nent shouM encourage 
attempts at creativity. If tiie will exists, creativity can be devek)ped 
by consckMJS effort instead of being left to chance. DOE 

N88-19883*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Ames Research Center. Moffett FieW. CA. 

SPACE STATION HUMAN FACTORS RESEARCH REVIEW. 

VOLUME 3: SPACE STATION HABITABILITY AND FUNCTION: 

ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH 

MARC M. COHEN, ed.. ALICE EICHOLD. ed.. and SUSAN HEERS. 

ed. Oct 1987 211 p Wori^shop heW at Moffett FieW. Calif.. 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



3-6 Dec. 1985 

(NASA-CP-2426-VOL-3; A-86263-VOL-3; NAS 1 .55:2426-VOL-3) 

Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements 
model study, space station group activities habitability module 
study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space 
stations, and social factors in space station Interiors. 

N88-19886*# Southern California Inst, of Architecture, Santa 
Monica. Inst, for Future Studies. 

SPACE STATION GROUP ACTIVITIES HABITABILITY 
MODULE STUDY: A SYNOPSIS 

DAVID NIXON and TERRY GLASSMAN In NASA. Ames Research 
Center. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 
3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research 
p 145-153 Oct. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew 
activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group 
volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. 
Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications 
may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity 
will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to 
three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon 
enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic 
bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person 
quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed 
solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a 
two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on 
the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human 
habitat. j.P.B. 

N88-19893# European Space Agency, Paris (France). 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD EUROPEAN SYMPOSIUM ON 
LIFE SCIENCES RESEARCH IN SPACE 

J. HUNT, ed. Dec. 1987 339 p Symposium held in Graz. 
Austria, 14-16 Sep. 1987; sponsored by ESA, the Austrian Solar 
and Space Agency, and Technische Univ., Graz, Austria 
(ESA-SP-271; ISSN-0379-6566; ETN-88-91970) Avail: NTIS HC 
A15/MF A01 

The role of ESA in life sciences, and mission opportunities; 
human physiology in microgravlty (respiratory system, 
cardiovascular system, metabolic systems, neurophysiology, animal 
models); plant and cell biology; radiation, biophysics, and 
exobiology; and biotechnology were discussed. 

ESA 

N88-20827# Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.. Long Beach, CA. 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON THE ASSESSMENT 
OF CREW WORKLOAD MEASUREMENTS METHODS, 
TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES. VOLUME 1: PRELIMINARY 
SELECTION OF MEASURES Final Report, 24 - 25 Feb. 1987 
MICHAEL A. BIFERNO and GEORGE P. BOUCEK. JR. (Boeing 
Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.) Jun. 1987 386 p 
Workshop held in Long Beach. Calif., 24-25 Feb. 1987 
(Contract F3361 5-86-C-3600) 

(AD-A1 89004; AFWAL-TR-3043-VOL-1) Avail: NTIS HC A17/MF 
A01 CSCL 05H 

The objectives of the workshop were to: gather information 
from workload experts regarding which measures have evkjence 
supporting their reliability or validity; provide an irtdependent review 
of the facts concerning the validity and reliability of workload 
measures; and provide a means for systematically reviewing and 
modifying the fact matrices. A schedule of the events Is Included. 

QRA 

N88-22525# Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA. 
NAPPING AND HUMAN FUNCTIONING DURING PROLONGED 
WORK Interim Report 

PAUL NAITOH and ROBERT G. ANGUS 30 Apr. 1987 41 p 
(AD-A1 90228; NHRC-87-21) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 
CSCL 06J 

In prolonged work periods, men and women often forego 



satisfying their sleep need to complete their assigned jobs, resulting 
In an accumulation of performance/mood degrading sleep loss 
and fatigue. Sleep need can be satisfied only by a slow process 
of sleeping for an average of 7 to 8 consecutive hours per 24 
hour period. I.e., a long period of time-out. However, sleep 
management suggests that recovery from fatigue and sleepiness 
during a prolonged work period can be accomplished by short or 
ultra-short sleep (naps) taken during a prolonged work period. 
Naps are shown not only to refresh and restore human functioning, 
but also to maintain performance and mood during a prolonged 
work period. In this paper, naps power as a counter-degradation 
measure are described first through the literature review, and then 
through critical evaluation of studies conducted at the Defense 
and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine. Canada and the 
Naval Health Research Center. GRA 

N88-23298# Institut fuer Angewandte Geodaesie. Frankfurt am 

Main (Germany, F.R.). 

MAPS FOR THE BLIND AND METHODS OF THEIR 

PRODUCTION 

EDWIN PODSCHADLI In Its Contributions to Geodesy, 

Photogrammetry and Cartography. Series 1 , Number 46 p 229-244 

1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A11/MF A01 

Alphabets, teaching aids, and maps for the blind are reviewed. 
Thermoplastic, silk screen printing, and stereo copying methods 
of tactile map production are described. ESA 

N88-23370*^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton. VA. 
MENTAL-STATE ESTIMATION, 1987 

J. RAYMOND COMSTOCK. JR.. comp. May 1988 393 p 
Workshop held in Williamsburg, Va., 3-4 Jun. 1987; sponsored by 
NASA. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. and Old Dominion 
Univ., Norfolk, Va. Sponsored by NASA, Washington 
(NASA-CP-2504; L-16420; NAS 1.55:2504) Avail: NTIS HC 
A17/MF A01 CSCL05J 

Reports on the measurement and evaluation of the physiological 
and mental state of operators are presented. 

N88-23371*# Advanced Resource Development Corp., Columbia, 

MD. 

AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE 

CHALLENGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING 

RICHARD L HORST In NASA. Langley Research Center. 
Mental-State Estimation, 1987 p 25-42 May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A17/MF A01 CSCL 05J 

Sufficient evidence exists from laboratory studies to suggest 
that physiological measures can be useful as an adjunct to 
behavioral and subjective measures of human performance and 
capabilities. Thus it is reasonable to address the conceptual and 
engineering challenges that arise in applying this technology in 
operational settings. Issues reviewed include the advantages and 
disadvantages of constructs such as mental states, the need for 
physiological measures of performance, areas of application for 
physiological measures In operational settings, which measures 
appear to be most useful, problem areas that arise in the use of 
these measures in operational settings, and directions for future 
development. Author 

N88-23384*# Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN. 
POPEYE: A PRODUCTION RULE-BASED MODEL OF 
MULTITASK SUPERVISORY CONTROL (POPCORN) 

JAMES T. TOWNSEND. HELENA KADLEC, and BARRY H. 

KANTOWITZ In NASA. Langley Research Center, Mental-State 

Estimation, 1987 p 189-210 May 1988 

(Contract NAG2-307) 

Avail: NTIS HC A17/MF A01 CSCL 05J 

Recent studies of relationships between subjective ratings of 
mental workload, performance, and human operator and task 
characteristics have indicated that these relationships are quite 
complex. In order to study the various relationships and place 
subjective mental workload within a theoretical framework, we 



8 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



developed a production system model for the performarK^e 
compor>efrt of the complex si4)ervisoiy task called POPCORN. 
The production system model is represented by a hierarchial 
structure of goals and subgoals. and the information flow is 
controlled t^ a set of condition-aclion rules. The implementation 
of this prociiction system, called POPEYE. generates computer 
simulated data under Afferent task diffkxrtty conc£tk>ns whk:h are 
conr^xarable to those of human operators perfonming the task. 
TNs model is ttie performance aspect of an overall dynamk: 
psychok)gk:al model whk:h we are devetopnig to examine and 
quantify relationsh^ t>etween performance and psychok>gicat 
aspects in a complex environmenl Author 

N8a-2338r# Massachusetts Univ.. Worcester. Dept. of 

Ne(rok>gy. 

ATTENTIOli EFFORT, Altt> FATIGK: 

NEUROPSYCHOLOGK^AL PERSPECTIVES 

RONALD A. COHEN and BRIAN F. ODONNELL /n NASA Lartgley 

Research Center. Mental-State EsttmatkKi, 1987 p 237-268 May 

1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A17/MF A01 CSCL 05J 

Models of attsntkHi. effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods 
are discussed for measurvig these phenomwui from a 
neuropsychological and psychophysk^togical perspective. Tt>e 
followir>g methodologies are ir^duded: (1) the autonomic 
measinement of cogititive effort and quality of ertcoding; (2) serial 
assessment approsKshes to neurophysk)k>^cal assessment; and 
(3) the assessment of sUsiective reports of fatigue usmg 
mumdimensk>nal ratings and their Felatk>n8hip to neurobehavkxal 
measwes. Author 

N88-24151*# Natk>nal Aeronautk» and Space AcMnistratkja 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Fteki, CA. 
NASA-AMES WORKLOAD RESEARCH PROGRAM 

SANDFJA HART /n its Space Statton Human Factors Research 
Review. Volume 4: Inhouse Advanced Devek)pment and Research 
p 29-76 May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

Research has been underway for several years to devek)p 
valid and reliable measures and predictors of workk>ad as a function 
of operator state, task requirements, and system resources. 
Although the initial focus of this research was on aeronautk^s, the 
underlying principles and mettiodok)gies are equally appHcable to 
space, and provide a set of toots that NASA and its con tra ctors 
can use to evaluate design attematives from the perspective of 
the astronauts. Ot>jectives and approach of the research program 
are descr!t>ed, as weH as the resources used in corKkJCting research 
and the conc^ituat framework around whk:h the program evolved. 
Next standar(foed tasks are descrit>ed. in additk>n to piedk:tive 
models and assessment techr^ques and their applcatkm to the 
space program. Rnatty. some of the operatk>nal applcatkxis of 
these tasks and measures are reviewed. Author 

N88-24162*# Martm Marietta Aerospace, Denver. CO. 
TELEOPERATOR HUMAN FACTORS STUDY Final Report 

May 1986 68 p 

(Contract NAS8-35184) 

(NASA-CR-1 78930; WS 1.26:178930; MCR-86-542) Avail: NTIS 

HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

An investigatk>n of the spectrum of space teleoperatk>n activities 
likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on tt\e resolutkXY of 
critical human engineering issues and characterizatkxi of the 
technok>gy effect on performarwe of remote human operators. 
The study t)egan with the kientifk^atxMi and documentatk>n of a 
set of representative reference t^eoperator tasks. For each task, 
technology, devek)pment. and design optx>ns. issues, and 
alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined 
and categorized. A literature survey klentified existing studies of 
man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an 
assessment was made of tt\e state of knowledge on a scale from 
adequate to vokj. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary 
to provkJe the musing elements of knowledge were then defined. 



A limited set of tests were actually performed, tndudtng (H>erator 
selection, baseline task definitk>n, control mode study, lighting 
study. can>era study, and preliminary time delay study. J.P.B. 

N88-25156*# McDonnelt-Dougtas Astronautk^ Co.. Huntington 
Beach. CA. 

HUMAN PERFORMANCE ISSUES ARISING FROM MANNED 
SPAC^ STATI^4 MISSIONS 

WILLIAM K. DOUGLAS Washington NASA Oct 1986 61 p 
(Contract NAS2-1 1723) 

(NASA-CR-3942; NAS 1.26:3942; MDC-H1363) Avail: NTIS HC 
A04/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

Ten former NASA astronauts were interviewed using a set of 
51 questk>ns devek>ped to encourage the contacts to discuss any 
ttKXjghts, optnk>ns. conclusk>ns. or suggestk)ns wtw^h might fiave 
evolved sirxse they left the astronaut program. Strict confklentiality 
was nraintained. At least one astronaut from each of the NASA 
manned space flight programs, excluding the Space Transportatkm 
System (Stnittle). was interviewed. The report records the answers 
to the questkK^ asked, spontaneous comnDents. and the 
investigator's own personal evaluatk^ns of the material obtained. 
No statistical analysis of tt\e material was attempted. The 
professk>nal opirvons of these ten experienced astronauts will k>e 
of value to persons cor)c^ned with the design and operatk>n of 
manned spacecraft arxl manned space stations. Author 

N88-25372*# Anacapa Sciences. Inc., Santa Barisara. CA. 
SPACE STATION HABITABILITY RECOMMENDATIONS 
BASED ON A SYSTEMATIC COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 
ANALOGOUS CONDITIONS 

JACK W. STUSTER Washington NASA Sep. 1986 209 p 

(Contract NAS2-1 1690) 

{NASA-CR-3943; NAS 1.26:3943) Avafl: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 

CSCL06K 

Conditk>ns analogous to the proposed NASA Space Statk>n 
are systematkally analyzed in order to extrapolate design guklelines 
and recommendatbns concerning hatMtatMlity and crew productivity. 
Anak>gous environments studied included Skylab, Sealab. Tektite, 
submarines. Antarctk; stations and oil drilling platforms, among 
others. These anak>gues were compared and rated for size artd 
corT^>ositk>n of group, social organizatk>n, preparedness for missron, 
duratkm of tour, types of tasks. physk>al and psychok)gk:al isoiatk)n. 
personal motivatk>n. perceived risk, and quality of habitat and life 
support condttk>rYS. One-hundred design recommendattons 
corK:emir)g. sleep, clothing, exercise. medk:al support, personal 
hygiene, food preparatkm. group tnteractkMi. habitat aesthetk:s. 
outskle communk^tk>ns, recreatkmal opportunities, privacy and 
personal space, waste disposal, onboard training, simulatbn and 
task preparatkKi, and behavkxal and physk>k)gk:at requrements 
associated with a mk^ogravrty erwironment. are provkJed. AuttKX 

N88-26103# Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA. 
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN FACTORS 

J. M. WINTERS Mar. 1988 10 p Presented at the SHARE 

Conference. Anaheim. Calif.. 28 Feb. 1988 

(Contract DE-AC03-76SF-00515) 

(DE88-009021; SU-SLAC-PUB-4561 ; CONF-880233-2) Avail: 

NTIS HC A02/MF A01 

Some t>ackground is given on the fietd of human factors. The 
nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is 
discussed, some costs are klentified, kieal attrit>utes of graceful 
system imerfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indk^ted 
why it's not easy to fix the problems. DOE 

N88-26263# Department of Energy. Washington. DC. Offrce of 

Program Analysis 

PROCEDURES FOR PEER REVIEW ASSESSMENTS 

1988 31 p 

(DE88-007749; DOE/ER-0357) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

The Offfce of Program Analysis (OPA) conducts peer reviews 
of DOE research and devetopment programs. The reviews are 
performed by examining indivkjual projects wf)k;h comprise the 



01 HUMAN FACTORS AND PERSONNEL ISSUES 



programs and assess the quality of the research, quality of the 
research team, productivity, and mission relevance for each project 
reviewed. CX)E 

N88-27967# Engineering Research Associates, Inc., Vienna, 

VA. 

RULES, SCHEMA AND DECISION MAKING Interim Report 

DAVID NOBLE, CARLA GROSZ, and DEBORAH BOEHM-DAVIS 

Sep. 1987 91 p 

(Contract N00014-84-C-0484) 

(AD-A1 93389; R-1 25-87) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 

05H 

The development and use of schemata in decision making is 
examined. Subjects are trained to evaluate alternatives by 
calculating expected outcomes. In subsequent tests, subjects are 
required to select the best alternative without being given enough 
time to compute outcomes. Under these conditions subjects 
adopted a hybrid decision strategy employing both schemata and 
approximations to outcome calculation. The schemata were 
organized around a prototype. They specify a judgement associated 
with the prototype and also contain feature oriented data useful 
for accommodating differences between observed situations and 
the situation prototype. There was no evidence for other memory 
reference structures examined. These included indicator/ 
counter/indicator features and wholistic schemata that 
could entirely replace the learned outcome calculation procedure. 
There was also no support for memory structures that define 
discriminator boundaries between different types of judgements or 
decisions. GRA 

N88-29287# Human Resources Research Organization, 

Alexandria VA. 

LITERATURE REVIEW: VALIDITY AND POTENTIAL 

USEFULNESS OF PSYCHOMOTOR ABILITY TESTS FOR 

PERSONNEL SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION 

JEFFREY J. MCHENRY and SHARON R. ROSE Apr. 1988 

254 p Prepared in cooperation with Personnel Decisions Research 

Inst., Minneapolis. Minn. 

(Contract MDA903-82-C-0531 ; DA PROJ. 2Q2-63731-A-792) 

(AD-A1 93558; ARI-RN-88-13) Avail: NTIS HC A12/MF A01 

CSCL 14B 

The psychomotor ability literature was reviewed to determine 
the validity and potential usefulness of psychomotor ability tests 
for personnel selection and classification. Over 2,200 psychomotor 
test validity coefficients were located. These were tabulated by 
ability (using Fleishman's psychomotor ability taxonomy), criterion 
(e.g., school vs. training vs. job performance), and job type. 
Analyses of these data showed that psychomotor tests had been 
used successfully to predict training and job performance for many 
different occupations. Barriers to the use of psychomotor tests 
were also investigated. Reliability data indicate that psychomotor 
measures are not unstable. Moreover, the possibility of using 
computerized tests in the future to assess psychomotor abilities 
should eradicate the problem of apparatus differences. GRA 



02 



MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 

Includes Management Overviews and Methods, Decision Theory 
and Decision Making, Leadership, Organizational Structure and 
Analysis, Systems Approaches, Operations Research, 
Mathematical /Statistical Techniques, Modelling, Problem Solving, 
Management Planning. 



A88-10366*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE 

ANDREW J. STOFAN (NASA, Washington, DC) Aerospace 
America (ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 25, Sept. 1987, p. 16-18, 20, 22 



Technologies and programs related to the development, 
construction, and operation of the Space Station are examined. A 
phase approach has been chosen for the construction of the Space 
Station, which is to have a revised baseline configuration. 
Consideration is given to the use of automation on the Space 
Station; the assembly and servicing of the Station; user 
requirements; and Space Station operations. The benefits the 
Space Station will provide to space exploration are discussed. 

I.F. 

A88-10401 

BUILDING HIGH PERFORMING ENGINEERING PROJECT 

TEAMS 

HANS J. THAMHAIN (Bentley College, Waltham, MA) and DAVID 
L. WILEMON (Syracuse University, NY) IEEE Transactions on 
Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. EM-34, Aug. 
1987, p. 130-137. refs 

This article summarizes four years of research into the drivers 
and barriers of effective teambuilding in engineering work 
environments. A simple input-output model is presented for 
organizing and analyzing the various factors which influence team 
performance. The field survey results supported by correlation 
analysis indicate that team performance is primarily associated 
with six driving forces and six barriers which are related to: 
leadership, job content, personal needs, and general work 
environment. Specific recommendations are made. Author 

A88-10402 

CHARACTERISTICS OF R&D MANAGEMENT WHICH 

INFLUENCE INFORMATION NEEDS 

ROBERT G. BATSON (Alabama, University, Tuscaloosa) IEEE 
Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 
EM-34, Aug. 1987, p. 178-183. refs 

The information needs of mid- and upper-level R&D managers 
are identified by reviewing their environment, functions, and 
communication patterns from an information systems perspective. 
The information problems in R&D, such as inability to respond 
rapidly and failure of analytical support methods, are seen as 
symptoms of the mismatch of information needs and the information 
systems employed. The new technology of decision support 
systems is discussed as the ideal solution approach to R&D 
information management and decision-making. A comprehensive 
list of candidate data bases is provided. Author 

A88-15810*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION OPERATIONS: NEW 
DIMENSIONS - OCTOBER 13, 1987 

GRANVILLE E. PAULES, PETER LYMAN, and CARL B. SHELLEY 
(NASA, Washington, DC) lAF, International Astronautical 
Congress, 38th, Brighton, England, Oct 10-17, 1987. 17 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-13) 

One of the principal goals of the participants in the International 
Space Station program is to provide a management support 
structure which is equitable and fair to all participants, responsive 
to the needs of users, responsible to other partners, and mutually 
supportive to the participation of other partners. Shared-utilization, 
shared-cost, and shared-operations policies considerations are 
discussed. Special attention is given to the methodology for 
identifying costs and benefits of this program, in which each partner 
should be provided with benefits in proportion to his contribution, 
and no partner would be forced to share in cost the inefficiencies 
introduced by other partners. The Space Station hierarchy of 
operations functions are identified, and the recommended 
framework planning and control hierarchy is presented. I.S. 

A88-15843*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

NASA AND THE SPACE STATION - CURRENT STATUS 

THOMAS L. MOSER (NASA, Office of Space Station, Washington. 
DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton, 
England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 6 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-64) 



10 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



In the baseline configuration of the Space Station, NASA 
engineers have provided for a range of modifications that wilt 
enlarge the capabilities available to future users. An extensive 
definition and design study has been completed which is 
supplen>ented by a critical evaluation of the Space Station 
configuration; a three-year technolc>gy-<*evelopment effort has also 
drawn to a close which examined operational factors arKi 
restructured program management resportsibilities. Costs have 
been estimated on the basis of the revised configuration in order 
to insure full consistency for program funding plans. O.C. 

A88-15870*# McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington 

Beach, CA. 

SPACE STATION SERVICES AND DESIGN FEATURES FOR 

USERS 

PETER R. KURZHALS and ROYCE L MCKINNEY (McDonnell 
Douglas Astronautics Co., Space Station Div., Huntington Beach, 
CA) lAF, International Astronautical Congress. 38th. Brightort. 
England, Oct 10-17. 1987. 11 p. 
(Contract NAS9-17367) 
(lAF PAPER 87-99) 

The operational design features and services planned for the 
NASA Spade Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities 
and facilities, low^ costs through interface standardization and 
automation and faster access by means of computer-aided 
integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for 
large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station wilt possess 
industrial production and operational services capal>tlities that may 
be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could 
also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft 
assembly and launch facilities. O.C. 

A88-15928*# National Aeronautics and Space Admintetration. 
Washington, DC. 

SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEMS - CURRENT UNITED STATES 
PLANS AND THE NEXT LOGICAL STEPS THROU(»4 2000 

DARRELL R. BRANSCOME (NASA, Office of Space Flight 
Washington, DC) lAF, International Astronauticat Congress. 38th. 
Brighton, England, Oct 10-17, 1987. 7 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-187) 

The United States space transportation plans &re discussed 
with emphasis on returning the Trtan and the Shuttle to operational 
status. In particular. Shuttle enhancements via advanced solid 
rocket boosters and replacement of s(^id rocket txx)Sters try Ik^ 
rocket boosters are examined. The Shuttled vehtele is then 
discussed as the next logical step that could provide a heavy 
launch capability in the earty 1990s. The Shuttle-C will provide 
assured and fiexible access to space for large Centaur-class 
payloads, for Space Station assembly, ar>d for planetary missions. 

V.L 

A88-16243*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

LONG RANGE PLANNING AT NASA 

IVAN BEKEY (NASA. Program Ranning. Washington, DC) lAF, 
International Astronautical Congress. 38th, Brighton, England. Oct 
10-17. 1987. 7 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-670) 

NASA's current plar« for the U.S. space program are descrft)ed. 
Consideration is given to the det)ate between manr>ed or unmanned 
expkxation of space, missions to the moon versus missk>ns to 
Mars, and the exploration of space applk^ations or science. NASA 
has created the Office of Poltoy and Planning and the Office of 
Exploration in order to improve the planning of future space 
activities. Long-range trends such as secorKJ-gerveration Shuttles, 
cargo launch vehicles with large capacity systems, an advanced 
Space Station, the use of rot>otics, closed cycle life support, health 
maintenance techniques, and the processing of extraterrestrial 
materials are considered. IF. 

A88-16244# 

THE EUROPEAN LONG-TERM SPACE PLAN 

KARL-EGON REUTER (ESA, Coordination and Monitoring Office. 



Paris, France) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 38th, 
Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17. 1987. 16 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-671) 

ESA*s Long-Term Space Ran encon^wsses as its infrastructural 
compor>ents tf^e Columbus Space Station, the Ariane 5 launch 
vehicle, and the Hermes reusable orbiter; these are further 
supported by the Data Relay satelilte. In the coming years, tiiis 
infrastrucUire wll be applied to an Earth Observation Program, a 
Microgravity Research Program, and a Telecommunications 
Program. Additional accounts are given of plans for an expanskKi 
of ground station infrastructure, scheduling and funding 
conskJeratiof^, an industrial support policy for these expanded 
space efforts, and the management of cooperative ventures with 
the U.S. O.C, 

A88-21568 

EARTH OBSERVATION AND THE SPACE STATION 

DAVID L CROOM (British National Space Centime. London; SERC. 
Rutfierford Appleton Latx>fatory. Dkicot England) (Columt>us It; 
Proceedir>gs of the Second Workshop. Hanover, Federal Republk; 
of Germany, June 9-11, 1986) Space Technology - Industrial and 
Commercial Applications (ISSN 0277-4488), vol. 7, no. 1-2. 1987, 
p. 143-147. 

The organization, objectives, and preliminary results of U.S. 
and European planning studies on terrestrial remote sensing from 
the international Space Station are briefly reviewed. Consideration 
is given to the NOAA-NASA Earth Ot>servation System program, 
the UK Columbus Utilization Core Group, the Anglo-French 
Columbus Polar Platform Utilization Worthing Group, and the ESA 
Polar OrtMting Platform Group. A number of specific 
recommerniations by these groups are presented, and ihe need 
for broad-based international cooperation on the spacecraft, 
payload, data-management, and institutional levels of the Columtnis 
Polar Platform program is stressed. T.K. 

A88-21573 National Aercnautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE SPACE STATION 

WILLIAM P. RANEY (NASA, Utilization and Perfonnance 
Requirements Div., Washington, DC) (Columbus II; Proceedings 
of the Second Woricshop. Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, 
June 9-11. 1986) Space Technology - Industiiat and Commercial 
Applications (ISSN 0277-4488), vol. 7. no. 1-2, 1987. p. 171-173. 

The principles and policies governing participation in the 
International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. 
The history of t^ie program is reviewed; the nwst important aspects 
of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, 
and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the 
ongoing outfitting studies are briefly charactertEed. Major issues 
remainir>g to be negotiated include (1) the overall management 
structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, 
integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of 
operatir>g costs. T.K. 

A88-21575 

PARTNERSHIP, A KEY ISSUE IN THE INTERNATIONAL 

SPACE STATION COOPERATION 

MARIO DE LEO (Ministero per il Coordinamento della Ricerca 
Scientifica e Tecnologica, Rome. Italy) (ColumtHJS II; Proceedings 
of the Secoruj Workshop. Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, 
June 9-11, 1986) Space TechrK}logy - Industrial and Commercial 
Applications (ISSN 0277-4488), vol. 7. no. 1-2. 1987, p. 185-189. 

The organizational approach to be followed in implen>entir>g 
the ESA Columbus program for participation in the International 
Space Station is examined. The recent history of ESA-NASA 
negotiations is traced, and the present Columbus reference 
configuration is described. Possible organizational structures are 
presented in a series of block diagrams and briefly characterized, 

T.K. 

A88-22044*# Martin Marietta Corp.. Denver, CO. 
HUMAN EXPLORATION OF MARS 

BENTON C. CLARK (Martin Marietta Planetary Sciences 



11 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



Laboratory, Denver, CO) AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting 
26th, Reno, NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 6 p. refs 
(Contract NAS8-371 26) 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0064) 

A systems study is underway of astronaut missions to Mars 
that could be accomplished over the next four decades. In addition 
to an emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure 
required for such missions, other relevant technologies and mission 
constraints are also being considered. These induce on-orbit 
assembly, trajectory type, launch opportunities, propellant storage, 
crew size, cabin pressure, artificial gravity, life-support systems! 
radiation hazards, power/energy storage, thermal control, humari 
factors, communications, abort scenarios, landing techniques, 
exploration strategies, and science activities. A major objective of 
the study is to identify enabling and significantly enhancing 
technologies for accomplishing the goal of the human exploration 
of Mars. Author 

A88-22567# 
SPACEWARD HO 

JOHN F. YARDLEY (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co.. Saint 
Louis, MO) AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 26th, Reno, 
NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 7 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0750) 

The paper compares the differences between the U.S. and 
Soviet space programs in the past 30 years to determine what 
steps the U.S. can take to regain its leadership position in space. 
After briefly examining the space flight technology and the 
development processes utilized by the two space programs, it is 
suggested that the U.S. become more evolutionary in its programs 
and more streamlined in its development practices. Most important, 
however, is the gaining of public support for a robust, long-range 
space plan. The key is effective communication with the American 
people; it is suggested that the AIAA take the lead in organizing 
this communication thrust. Author 

A88-22628* European Space Agency. European Space 

Operations Center, Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). 

OPERATION OF A MULTI-YEAR, MULTI-AGENCY PROJECT 

JUERGEN FAELKER (ESA, European Space Operations Centre, 
Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany), FREDERICK GORDON 
(NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD), and 
MICHAEL C. W. SANDFORD (SERC. London, England) IN: 
Exploring the universe with the lUE satellite. Dordrecht. D. Reidel 
Publishing Co., 1987. p. 21-42. 

Organizational and technological aspects of the operation by 
NASA and ESA of the lUE satellite observatory since its launch 
in 1978 are discussed. Topics addressed include the division of 
responsibilities among the ground stations, the lUE orbit and its 
evolution, the lUE spacecraft, normal operations (proposal selection 
and observation planning, shift handover, and spacecraft 
operations), and a typical observation (target identification and 
acquisition, telescope focus, spectrograph modes, camera 
operations, calibration, and data reduction). Consideration is given 
to constraints on lUE operation due to the sun-earth-moon 
configuration (eclipses), spacecraft power, radiation, temperature, 
and momentum-wheel speed; problems encountered with gyros, 
onboard computers, the fine sun sensor, and cameras; and the 
reliable high-efficiency overall performance of the lUE. Diagrams, 
drawings, and graphs are provided. T.K. 

A88-22992 

ALLOTMENT PLANNING FOR TELECOMMUNICATION 

SATELLITES 

MILTON L SMITH (USAF. Space Command, Peterson AFB. CO) 
Space Communication and Broadcasting (ISSN 0167-9368), vol. 
5, Nov. 1987, p. 359-364. refs 

This article examines one of the most critical issues that 
must be resolved at the 1988 Space World Administrative Radio 
Conference (WARC): the definition of the Allotment Plan for 
telecommunication satellites. It reviews the results of the 1985 
Space WARC, and then focuses on the Allotment Plan called for 
by that session. As the 1985 Space WARC closed, the fundamental 



nature of the Allotment Plan remained undefined. Some nations 
considered that it should be an a priori-type plan, characterized 
by rights to a specific orbital position for each country that would 
be assigned when the plan was devised. Other nations maintained 
that it should be a more flexible plan characterized by rights to a 
position somewhere within an allotted predetermined orbital arc, 
with a specific position to be assigned only when a satellite system 
is to be implemented. The article concludes that a plan emphasizing 
predetermined arcs can provide a realistic and continuing guarantee 
of equitable access, as well as many other benefits that an a 
priori plan cannot provide. This conclusion is supported by a review 
of the computer software being used by the ITU for intersessional 
planning exercises which should validate the advantages of a 
predetermined arc concept. Author 

A88-23867 

SO YOU THINK YOU KNOW WHERE YOU ARE? A REVIEW 
OF SOME TECHNIQUES USED IN EVALUATING AND 
PREDICTING DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULES 

LEE R. BALTHAZOR (Portsmouth Business School. England) IN: 
Development time scales: Their estimation and control; 
Proceedings of the Symposium. London, England, Feb. 12, 1987. 
London, Royal Aeronautical Society, 1987, p. 105-133. refs 

The paper first considers the requirements of managers planning 
and controlling development projects. Various techniques are 
examined in conjunction with these requirements. The conclusion 
Is drawn that many of the simpler techniques in use can be very 
misleading. An improvement in understanding and accuracy may 
be achieved if the simple presentations are supported by detailed 
and more complex analyses which are becoming readily available 
with advances in information technology. Author 

A68-23868 

EXPERIENCES OF PROGRAMME PLANNING AND 

MANAGEMENT FROM THE CUSTOMER'S VIEWPOINT 

C. J. U. ROBERTS (Ministry of Defence Procurement Executive, 
London, England) IN: Development time scales: Their estimation 
and control; Proceedings of the Symposium, London, England, 
Feb. 12, 1987. London. Royal Aeronautical Society, 1987, p. 
134-139. 

The methodology of Technology Demonstrator Programs (TDPs) 
is presently suggested to be capable of making major contributions 
to controlling the costs and time-scales associated with high 
technology, defense-related projects. TDPs yield a quantity and 
quality of knowledge, and an infrastructural resource, that can 
help in the formation of effective design and management teams 
when the same technology is applied in subsequent weapon system 
development projects. It is noted that if a TDP is launched too 
eariy. the technology used may not be relevant to subsequent 
projects; if too late, the technology development effort involved 
may prove irrelevant. O.C. 

A88-24197 

TELECONFERENCING-FROM-THE-COLLEGE-CLASSROOM- 
SPACE DEVELOPMENT, GLOBAL PROBLEMS AND 
EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION 

HOWARD I. THORSHEIM (Saint Otaf College, Northfield. MN) 
Space Technology - Industrial and Commercial Applications (ISSN 
0277-4488). vol. 7, no. 3. 1987, p. 235-242. refs 

A88-28590 

UNCERTAINTY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE 

CONTROL 

HAGOP V. PANOSSIAN (HR Textron, Inc.. Valencia, CA) IN: 
System identification and adaptive control. Part 1. Oriando, FL, 
Academic Press, Inc., 1987, p. 1-53. refs 

The optimization and control of stochastic dynamic systems 
under conditions of uncertainty require that the decision-making 
process take into account the possibility of feedback, as well as 
the risk involved. The stochastic formulation presented, with either 
time-dependent or constant parameters, allows the simultaneous 
treatment of several important classes of problems, such as 
stochastic adaptive control, control of finite-state Markov chains, 



12 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



and aerospace systems and macroeconomic control. Attention is 
given to a framework for optimization and control of linear discrete 
time multidimensional stoct^stic systems under partial information 
conditions. O.C, 

A88-30675 

SYSTEMS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 

TOM N. CORKILL (British Aerospace. PLC. London. England) 
Aerospace Dynamics (ISSN 0263-2012), no. 23, 1988, p. 23, 24. 

The application of systems-management (SM) techniques to 
product design and development in the aerospace ir)dustry is briefty 
considered. The increasing complexity of aerospace hardware arKl 
weapon systems and the need to strictty limit development costs 
are pointed out, an6 their inr^>act on managemerrt problems is 
indicated. SM is d6fir>ed as the management, on terms agreed to 
with the customer, of alt technical events leading from the 
conception of a product to its realization and use by the customer. 
SM includes setting technical objectives for the total system and 
its subsystems and monitoring their acheivement The role of SM 
IS seen as complenientary to that of project management which 
has a more limited scope centered on costs and scheduling. 

T.K. 

A8a-30835 

AN OVERVIEW OF MATERIALS PROCESSING IN SPACE 

HARVEY J. WILLENBERG (Boeing Aerospace Co.. Huntsville, 
AL) SAE. Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, 
Long Beach. CA. Oct 5-8. 1987. 7 p. 
(SAE PAPER 871891) 

An overview is given of the physical phenomena that are 
affected by the gravitational environment found in low earth oft)it 
These phenomena are related to specific classes of materials 
that may benefit from microgra^ processing, including 
biotechnolo^cal materials, semiconductors and crystals, metals 
and alloys, polymers, glasses, and fundamental fluid dynamic 
research. Examples are given of experimental results and potent^ 
applications for commercial development. The growth of 
commercial interest in microgravity processing within the United 
States is reviewed, with projections of future development 
scenarios. The status of domestic and international programs is 
summarized, including an overview of Japanese and European 
Spacelab and Soviet Salyut and Mir research. The role of Space 
Shuttle systems and plans for a materials laboratory on the Space 
Station is described. Author 

A88-38710# 

SKUNK WORKS PROTOTYPING 

HAROLD C. FARLEY and RICHARD ABRAMS (Lockheed 
Aeronautical Systems Co., Burt>ank, CA) IN: AIAA Flight Test 
Conference. 4th, San Diego, CA. May 18-20, 1988, Technk:al 
Papers. Washington, DC. American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1988, p. 72-84. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2094) 

This paper discusses the Skunk Works' management approadi 
to prototype devek}pment programs. A histork^al perspective of 
different types of prototype programs is presented ak>ng with 
descriptions of some of the more notable Skunk Works* prototypes. 
The paper then highlights tf>e Company's preferred system of 
mar^agement along with important factors to be conskJered in the 
planning and corxJuct of a prototype program. Author 

A88-39594 

KNOWLEDGE-BASED PLANNING AND REPLANNING IN 

NAVAL COMMAND AND CONTROL 

J. A. GADSDEN (Admiralty Research Establishment Portsmouth, 
England) IN: Conferer>ce on Artifk^al IntelligerK^e Applicatiorts, 
4th. San Diego, CA, Mar. 14-18. 1988, Proceedings. Washington. 
DC, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988, p. 286-292. refs 

A description is given of Vhe progress of a research program 
that is addressing the applk^ation of knowledge-based technk|ues 
to resource planning and replanning for naval command and 
control. The domain of resource planning in this context is defined 
together with some specifk; examples. The reasons for a 



knowledge-t)ased approach are outlined and the results of the 
three-year research program are reported. Finally, future research 
is described, together with a discusskw of some of the problems 
that will arise in the development of knowiedge-t>ased 
decision-support systems for operational use. I.E. 

A88-42964# 

THE CAPTAIN'S MANAGERIAL TASKS 

ANDRE DROOG (Psychotechniek. Utrecht Netherlands) IN: 
International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 4th. Columbus, 
OH, Apr. 27-30. 1987. Proceedings. Columbus, OH. Ohk> State 
University. 1987. p. 372-378. refs 

The roles whk^h a captain has as leader of an air crew are 
analyzed and compared with the Mintzt)erg (1973) nKXlet for 
managerial work. Interpersonal, communrcation, arid decisional 
roles are discussed. The managerial characteristics presented 
include work at an unrelenting pace, the performance of varioi^ 
brief and fragmented activities, preference for live action, attraction 
to the vert)al media, use of a network of contacts outskJe his 
organization, arid a blerKJ of rights ar>d duties. It is found that 
many characteristics of a manager are sin>ilar to those of a captain, 
with those of leader, monitor, disseminator, resource allocator, 
and disturbance handler being the most important R.B. 

A88-42970# 

COCKPIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - NEW DEVELOPMENTS 

AND TECHNIQUES 

WILLIAM R. TAGGART (Cockpit Resource Management Austin, 
TX) IN: International Symposium on Aviation Psychotogy. 4th, 
Columbus, OH. Apr. 27-30. 1987, Proceedings. Columbus, OH. 
Ohto State University. 1987, p. 433-439. 

A model for developing a cockpit resource management (CRM) 
training design is presented. Issues pertaining to the design and 
implementation of CRM tralr^ng are addressed. The key elements 
kientified in the devek>pment of the CRM concept are initiative. 
Inquiry, advocacy, conflict resolution, decision making, and 
critique. K.K. 

A88-43006# 

A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE SEARCH FOR 

INDIRECT (HUMAN) EVENTS RELATED TO MISHAPS 

KINGSLEY M. HENDRICK (Transportation Safety Institute. 
Oklahoma City. OK), LUDWIG BENNER. JR. (Events Analysis. Inc.. 
Oakton. VA), and RUSSELL LAWTON (AOPA Air Safety 
Foundation, Frederick, MD) IN: International Symposium on 
Aviation Psychology. 4th, Columbus. OH. Apr. 27-30, 1987. 
Proceedings. Columbus, OH, Ohio State University. 1987, p. 
753-760. refs 

The applk:ation of sequentially timed events pk>ttir)g (STEP), a 
disciplining methodology based on multiliriear events sequer>cing 
to docunnent arid display human decision events associated with 
acckients to improve decision making in aviation is discussed. 
The STEP a)ethodology can document the recurrence of specifk: 
dedsKKi making events and can assist the development of 
hypotheses from observation and documerrtation. Hypotheses 
generated using the methodology call for careful examinatkm of 
concrete observations of events rather than at>stract condusior^s 
about phenomena. The DECIDE dedsk^n making model, developed 
for hazardous material transportation, was modified dwing 
refinement of the STEP methodok>gy and was applied to the pik>t 
decisk>n making process. R.B. 

A88-47907 

ASTRODYNAMICS PROBLEMS OF THE SPACE STATION 

J.-P. MAREC, P. BAINUM. J. V. BREAKWELL. C. MARCHAU V. 
J. MOD! (lAF, Paris, France) et al. Acta Astronautica (ISSN 
0094-5765), vol. 17. May 1988, p. 491-494. 

The preliminary views of the lAF Astrodynarracs Committee on 
the astrodynamk:s problems related to the Space Station concept 
are presented. A brief description of the Space Station system 
and of its original features is given. Some astrodynarrocs problems 
are considered in more detail, concerning attitiide motion (modeling. 



13 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



attitude determination and control, and tether applications) and 
orbital motion (transfer, docking, navigation/positioning/guidance, 
collision hazards, and data links). Author 

A88-51133 

SPACE FOR RENT? 

ANDREW LAWLER Space World (ISSN 0038-6332), vol. Y-9-297, 
Sept 1988, p. 15-19. 

Plans to build an industrial space facility which would consist 
of a manned, free-flying platform and would be serviced by the 
Shuttle are discussed. The plan was sponsored by the Space 
Industries Partnerships, made up of several private aerospace 
companies. Efforts to gain governmental support for the project 
are examined, and the possiblities for the future of the plan are 
considered. R.B. 

A88-51978# 

WRIGHT BROTHERS LECTURESHIP IN AERONAUTICS: THE 

SKUNK WORKS' MANAGEMENT STYLE - IFS NO SECRET 

BEN R. RICH (Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Ck)., Buriaank, CA) 
AIAA, AHS, and ASEE, Aircraft Design, Systems and Operations 
Meeting, Atlanta. GA, Sept. 7-9, 1988. 10 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4516) 

An historical development and organizational-principles account 
is presented for the 'Skunk Works' management philosophy created 
at the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company by Clarence 'Kelly' 
Johnson, beginning in 1 943, in order to tightly organize and expedite 
small, highly-classified advanced aircraft design and prototype 
construction projects. This management philosophy has produced 
such aircraft as the U-2 and SR-71 spy aircraft and the P-80 and 
F-104 fighters. The 14 management principles formulated by 
Johnson are presented and discussed. O.C. 

A88-53694 

AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH TO R&D PROJECT SELECTION 

AND TERMINATION 

JONATHAN F. BARD (Texas, University, Austin), RAMAIYA 
BALACHANDRA (Northeastern University, Boston. MA), and 
PEDRO E. KAUFMANN (Portable Solutions, Austin, TX) IEEE 
Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 
35. Aug. 1988, p. 139-146. rets 

A decision support toot is developed that can be used by the 
R&D manager to effectively update his or her portfolio when a 
review is called for. The approach is interactive and builds on two 
sets of critical factors. Initially, projects are screened to see if 
they are at an acceptable level, and if they are making reasonable 
progress toward completion. Those failing the test are terminated, 
those remaining are weighed with candidate projects to determine 
which should be included in the portfolio. This is achieved with a 
mathematical programming routine that maximizes expected 
returns. A case study centering on a peripheral equipment 
manufacturer is presented to demonstrate the methodology. I.E. 

N88-10072*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

SPACE STATION: LEADERSHIP FOR THE FUTURE 

FRANKLIN D. MARTIN and TERENCE T. FINN 1987 10 p 

Original contains color illustrations 

(NASA-PAM-509/8-87) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 CSCL 

22B 

No longer limited to occasional spectaculars, space has 
become an essential, almost commonplace dimension of national 
life. Among other things, space is an arena of competition with 
our allies and adversaries, a place of business, a field of research, 
and an avenue of cooperation with our allies. The space station 
will play a critical role in each of these endeavors. Perhaps the 
most significant feature of the space station, essential to its utility 
for science, commerce, and technology, is the permanent nature 
of its crew. The space station will build upon the tradition of 
employing new capabilities to explore further and question deeper, 
and by providing a permanent presence, the station should 
significantly increase the opportunities for conducting research in 
space. Economic productivity is, in part, a function of technical 



innovation. A major thrust of the station design effort is devoted 
to enhancing performance through advanced technology. The 
space station represents the commitment of the United States to 
a future in space. Perhaps most importantly, as recovery from the 
loss of Challenger and its crew continues, the space station 
symbolizes the national determination to remain undeterred by 
tragedy and to continue exploring the frontiers of space. B.G. 

N88-10685# Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM. 
DOCUMENTATION AS A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR 
REACHING GOALS IN HIGH-RISK RESEARCH-ORIENTED 
PROJECTS 

C.G.SHIRLEY 1987 12 p Presented at the Project Management 

Institute Seminar/Symposium, Milwaukee, Wis., 2 Oct. 1987 

(Contract DE-AC04-76DP-00789) 

(DE87-012394; SAND-86-2829C; CONF-8710103-2) Avail: NTIS 

HCA03 

The paper reports experience bearing especially on construction 
projects in an R and D environment. From experience has come 
a set of principles about the key purposes of documentation. The 
paper first describes characteristics of a project environment that 
combines research and construction, then goes on to discuss 
basic project management goals that documentation can help the 
manager reach. The final sections present some specifics of 
documentation that may assist project managers who are 
considering what kind of documentation their projects need. 

DOE 

N88-16118# Joint Publications Research Service, Ariington, VA. 
ADVANTAGES OF MANNED LUNAR BASE 

V. V. SHEVCHENKO In its JPRS Report: Science and Technology. 
USSR: Space p 145-156 24 Nov. 1987 Transl. into ENGLISH 
from Zemlya i Vselennaya (Moscow, USSR), no. 2, Mar. - Apr. 
1987 p 60-68 
Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 

The Soviet Union has submitted to the member states of the 
UN a stage-by-stage program for joint operations in the peaceful 
development of space. The program goes up to the year 2000. It 
is suggested that conditions be created during that period of time 
that will enable the practical development and use of the Moon 
to begin as early as the first decades of the 21st century, with 
lunar settlements used as a base for flights to other planets. This 
would signify the creation of the actual prerequisites for Earth's 
civilization becoming, at the very beginning of the third millennium, 
an interplanetary civilization. The advantages of lunar bases for 
space exploration is examined. Author 

N88-17250*# Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, NY. 
ADVANCED DECISION AIDING TECHNIQUES APPLICABLE TO 
SPACE 

ROBERT J. KRUCHTEN In NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space 

Center, Houston, Texas, First Annual Workshop on Space 

Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR 87) p 321-326 Oct. 

1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of 
applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding 
situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite 
Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, 
RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the 
advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; 
decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert 
systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. 
Some of the key techniques that could be used in space 
applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along 
with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given 
of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC 
experience in decision aiding techniques. Author 

N88-17690# Moreton Hall Associates, Maidenhead (England). 
STUDY FOR HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS IN 
EUROPEAN SPACE PROJECTS 

G. E. HALL, comp. and R. D. HUNT, comp. (Spur Electron Ltd., 



14 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



Havant England ) Paris. France ESA Feb. 1987 47 p 
(Contract ESA-6361 /85-NL-PP(SC)) 

(REPT-8518-1; ESA-CR(P)-251 1 ; ETN-88-91 706) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 

The technologies used in European spacecraft from 1965 to 
1986 were reviewed, and 890 ESRO/ESA contracts for the period 
were examined. A unique technology devetopment model to which 
all investigated technologies conform is identified. Of three main 
technology decision-making criteria (techNcal, cost, and industrial 
policy), much evider)ce of industrial policy shows up. Analysis of 
utilization decisions highlights a reluctance to use newly developed 
technology l)ecause of conservatism among spacecraft design 
decision makers. Technok)gies started to satisfy a project need 
show a much better utilizatx>n pk:ture than those be^ for R and 
D reasons. Technok>gies utilized performed welt in orbit Monitoring 
of funding and planning effectiveness is hampered by the lack of 
firm, documented planrwig data and its limited avaftabiRty tkne 
span. ESA 

N88-17713# Natk>nal Defense Univ.. WasNngton, DC. 
AMERICA PLANS FOR SPACE 

1986 201 p 

(AD-A1 87465) Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 CSGL 22A 

A report on America's future plans for space exploration 
contains the folk>wing: Pursuing a Balanced Sf»ce Program; The 
Space Defense Initiative; Warfare ^ Space; The Lunar Laboratory; 
The Role of Space in Preserving the Peace; Living off the Land-the 
Use of Resources in Space for Future Civilian Space OpeNratk>ns; 
The Military Uses of Space; C3KCommand Control Commurncatkxis 
and Intelligence); Aspects of Space Technok>gy; Arms Control in 
Space: Preserving Critical Strategic Space Systems Without 
Weapons in Space; Space and Arms Control: A Skeptical View; 
C)ptk>ns for Space Arms Control; Space Arms Control. GRA 

N88-18517*# National Aeronautk^ and Space Administratkxi. 
Ames Research Center. Moffett BM, CA. 
NETWORKING REQUIREMENTS AND FUTURE 
ALTERNATIVES 

ALISON BROWN. A. FREDRICK PATH, JOHN FITZGERALD. 

PHILIP GROSS, DENNIS HALL, JACK HAVERTY. CHARLES M. 

KENNEDY (Baltistk: Research Labs.. Aberdeen Proving Grotmd. 

Md.). THOMAS LASINSKI, FRED MCCLAIN. PATRKDK 

MCGREGOR et al. Jun. 1987 18 p 

(Contract DE-AC03-76SF-00098; W-7405-ENG-48; 

DE-AC02-76CH-O3000) 

(NASA-TM-89711; NAS 1.15:89711; DE88-000465; LBL-23656; 

CONF.870277-2) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 12B 

The Working Group on Networlcing Requiremerrts and Future 
Aftematives recommends creatk>n of an trrtematkmal. interagency 
networking facility for science, whose IS-y^u- missk)n is to ensure 
that US scientists f)ave available the most advanced wkle area 
networking facilities in the workj. and to ensure that US %inde 
area r>etwork technology maintains a posttkKi of worM leadership. 
A minimum of 1.5 Mbit/s access to major government and 
academk; research centers shouki be provkled. Such a network 
woukj greatly bertefit the competitive p(^3itk>n of the United States 
in scientifk; research. It woukJ also place the US in a leadership 
positk>n in utilizatx>n of high bandwkfth, wkie area r>etworks. United 
States industries supportir^g wkto area networtc technok)gtes wouM 
gain a signifk:ant conH)etrtive advantage over the other countries. 
An ongoing program of research and devek)pment into txsth wkJe 
area network technok>gy and network ntanagement is necessary 
for this endeavor to be successful. As part of the second year 
study, the Working Group recommends that an interagency 
coordinating committee be established to klentify short-term 
implementatk>n issues that can be investigated and resolved in 
parallel with long-term issues. This would provkje immediate ber>6fft 
to the natk>n's scientifk: community. DOE 

N88-19362# Council of Scientifk: and Industrial Research, New 

Delhi (India). 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA Status Report. 1986 



Nov 1986 90 D 

{PB88-1 34747) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The Government of India is the cNef patron of science and 
technotogy in the country. The central governmental structure for 
scientific research and devek>pnnent is given in a separate sectton. 
Important polk:y measures taken sir)ce the prevkxis status report 
was prepared (1982). an overview of S and T in the Si)cth Five-Year 
Plan (1960 to 1985). and the main thrust of the current (seventh) 
Five-Year Plan (1985 to 1990) and its S and T components are 
given in sectk>ns that follow, which also deal with the furKtkKis of 
the various department/ager>ctes under the Central (aovemment 
and some recent highlights of their work, agency-wise. The rest 
of the sectxxis deal with some salient aspects of the S and T 
scene in the country. ¥vith soote statistk:s wherever available. Atoo 
iru^luded is a short Hst of ir)stitutk>r^ er)gaged in S ar>d T research 
and related activities. GRA 



N8S-19483# Army Constructk>n Erigkwering Research Lab., 
Oiampai^, IL 

STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONSTRUCTION 
IN SPACE: A REVIEW Final Report 

CHARLES C- LOZAR and L. D. STEPHENSON Sep. 1987 88 p 

(Contract M1PR-W31RPD-7-D4099; DA PROJ. 4A1 -62731 -AT-41) 
(AD-A188412; CERL-TR-M-87/17) Avail: HT\S HC A05/MF A01 
CSCL22B 

Future expkMBtXHi and errterprise in k3w-Earth ort)it will most 
likely require space statk>ns for support In additxxi. promotion of 
the Strategk; Defense Initiative (SDI) is mandating research and 
devetopment (R and D) into technotogies for buHding 8tnK:tures 
to serve military objectives in space. However, an assessment of 
the state of the art for space constructk)n tBcNiok)gy has revealed 
that the fiekj is immatLve. with little conceptual and experimental 
research completed. The U.S. Army Constructk)n Engineering 
Research Laboratory (USA-CERL) has collected M>nnatkxi on 
existing technok>^es for possible appHcatx>n in designing large 
space structi^es (LSS) for military support TNs work is part of 
an effort by the U.S. ^my Corps of En^neers (USACE) to ensure 
missk)n-responsiv6ness in antk:ipatk)n of a role in space 
constnjctxm. USA-CERL is USAGE'S designated lead laboratory 
for this program. Military stmctures will reqim design criteria much 
different from those of experimental space stations. Proposed 
conceptual criteria for both types structures are compared and 
differences are noted. Much R and D is needed before any of 
these structures can t>e deployed in space. GRA 

N88-20204# Massachusetts Inst of Tech.. Cant)ridge. Lab. for 
Informatton and Decisk>n Systems. 

TASK ALLOCATION FOR EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF A 
DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATION 

CHONGHWAN LEE Sep. 1987 138 p 

(Contract N00014-85-K-0519) 

(AD-A1 88699; LIDS-TH-1706) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

CSCL05C 

A task alk>catk>n scheme in an organizatkm is (iscussed. The 
behavior of an organization is mathematically modeled by a 
decentralized gradient-like algorithm for additive cost functk)ns. 
The objectives of alk)catk>n are re(kictk>n of inc^vktal k>ad. speedy 
perfdrrnanoe, and organizatx>nal security. The aAocatton scheme 
is sought for three types of organizatk>ns classified by the flesdbity 
of their communk»tk>n structure; namely, fixed organteatkHi, flexible 
organizatk>n. and semi-flexible organizatk)n. GRA 

N88-20217# Carnegie-Mellon Univ.. Pittsburgh. PA. Dept of 

Psychotogy. 

TEXT ORGANIZATION AND COMPREHENSIBILITY IN 

TECHNICAL WRITING Intwfm Report, Aug. 1966 - Aug. 1967 

DIANA DEE-LUCAS and JILL H. LARKIN Oct 1987 17 p 
(Contract MDA903-85-K-0180; DA PROJ. 2Q1-61102-B-74-F) 
(AD-A188913; ARI-RN-87-52) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 
CSCL05G 

Technkal texts often introduce sdentiffc principles by deriving 
the principle prior to stating it This proof-first orgar«zatk>n vk)lates 



15 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



writing guidelines suggested by current text learning theories. The 
current research compares the effect on comprehension of this 
type of structure with its logical alternative a principle first structure. 
Results indicate that readers spend more time with information 
when it occurs first. Thus, the principle-first structure focuses 
attention on the principle, and the proof-first structure (not 
surprisingly) focuses attention on the proof. Additionally, readers 
find it easier to predict what is important in principle-first texts, 
and used the principle-first approach more often in summarizing. 
These findings indicate that readers find the information in a 
principle-first organization easier to process and store. Ongoing 
research is investigating differences in what readers learn using 
these two structures. GRA 

N88-20826# Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. Center for 

Man-Machine Systems Research. 

HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS. 

UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORTING OPERATORS IN 

LARGE-SCALE, COMPLEX SYSTEMS Final Report, Jun. 1982 - 

Dec. 1986 

RICHARD L HENNEMAN and WILLIAM B. ROUSE Oct. 1987 

75 p 

(Contract MDA903-82-C-0145; DA PROJ. 2Q1-61102-B-74-F) 

(AD-A189539; ARI-RN-87-51) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

CSCL 05H 

This research note seeks an empihcal understanding of the 
relationship between the physical characteristics of a large-scale 
system and human performance and a formalization of empirical 
results into several measures of large scale complexity. Behavioral 
computer models of the human operator in a large-scale 
environment were then constructed, and the models were found 
consistent with human behavior. This approach showed subtle 
performance improvement for aided subjects. GRA 

N88-21074*# Boeing Aerospace Co.. Seattle, WA. 
APPLICATION OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN PROJECT 
MANAGEMENT DECISION AIDING Final Technical Report No. 
2092 

REGINA HARRIS, STEVEN SHAFFER, JAMES STOKES, and 

DAVID GOLDSTEIN Aug. 1987 122 p 

(Contract NAS5-30040) 

(NASA-CR-1 80762; NAS 1.26:180762) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project 
management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA 
project managers was assessed. The research effort included 
extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, 
project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, 
and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were 
augmented by focused inten/iews with NASA managers. Time 
estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity 
for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an 
Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). 
The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level 
of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and 
was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and 
analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable 
in any management sphere, commercial or government, where 
time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project 
scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range 
of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds 
potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas 
such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a 
proven method. Author 

N88-21075# Allen Corp. of America, Alexandria, VA 
MANPRINT HANDBOOK FOR RFP (REQUEST FOR 
PROPOSAL) DEVELOPMENT Final Report, 30 Jun. 1986 - 15 
Sep. 1987 

JACOB L BARBER, ROBERT E. JONES, JR., HARRY L CHING, 
and JOHN L. MILES, JR. (Army Research Inst, for the Behavioral 
and Social Sciences, Alexandria, Va.) 15 Sep. 1987 156 p 



(Contract OPM-85-75) 

(AD-A1 88321) Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

This handbook is designed to assist personnel tasked with 
preparing a Request for Proposal (RFP) for any phase of a major 
system development program. It specifically focuses on how to 
include Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT) 
requirements in the RFP. The Handbook is organized into four 
chapters and an appendix section. Chapter 1, discusses the six 
domains that comprise MANPRINT and explains how the domains 
and their integrated products relate to the materiel acquisition 
process. Chapter 2, examines each of the six domains separately 
and identifies both documents and agencies that can provide 
assistance in RFP preparation. Chapter 3, identifies preceding 
events and activities that shape the structure and content of the 
MANPRINT requirements in the RFP. It describes the linkages 
that should exist and what can be done in the event critical 
MANPRINT elements are non-existent. Illustrative paragraphs as 
they should appear in the RFP are providad. Chapter 4, is a 
summation of activities described in Chapter 3. An RFP for a 
major notional Army weapon system with significant MANPRINT 
implications is presented. GRA 

N88-21078# Office of the Under Secretary of Defense 

(Acquisitions), Washington. DC. 

REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD SUMMER 
STUDY ON TECHNOLOGY BASE MANAGEMENT 

Aug. 1987 60 p 

(AD-A188560) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The 1987 Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study on 
Technology Base Management was charged with evaluating the 
management of the technology base of Department of Defense 
(DOD) and making recommendations on ways to improve the 
effectiveness and efficiency of the management process. The thrust 
of this study was to develop management principles that could 
guide the Technology Base rather than to develop a more detailed 
set of recommendations. The conclusions of the panel are derived 
from a qualitative evaluation of the present system coupled with 
an understanding of how well (or pooriy) recommendations of past 
studies have been implemented. It was evident that implementation 
of any recommendations will face substantial institutional resistance 
and political difficulties. Accordingly the Study has, in some cases, 
adopted the mechanism of proposing a series of experiments or 
demonstrations of major change which point in the right direction. 
It is important to understand that the leadership and vision of 
motivated individuals and groups are a critical part of technical 
management. The study has been as concerned with this aspect 
of Technology Base management as with more institutional or 
bureaucratic processes. GRA 

N88-23688# Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. School of Information 
and Computer Science. 

EXTRACTING INFORMATION FROM PROBLEM SOLVING 
EXPERIENCE Interim Report, JuL 1986 - Jun. 1987 

JANET L KOLODNER Dec. 1987 5 p 
(Contract MDA903-86-C-0173; DA PROJ. 2Q1-61102-B-74-F) 
(AD-A191331; ARI-RN-87-81) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 
CSCL 05H 

Much of the problem solving which is performed involves 
consideration of previous similar situations. Access to previous 
experience keeps the problem solver from avoiding past mistakes, 
and aids in the derivation of shortcuts for reasoning. This document 
outlines the research studying the processes that comprise this 
problem solving style. Topics outlined include: organization of cases 
and generalized knowledge in memory, knowledge structures, the 
evolution of knowledge structures, analogical problem solving, and 
failure-driven learning. GRA 

N88-25142# Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. Center for 
Man-Machine Systems Research. 

HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX DYNAMIC 
ENVIRONMENTS Interim Report, Jun. 1984 - May 1985 

WILLIAM B. ROUSE and RICHARD L HENNEMAN Dec. 1987 
65 p 



16 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



(Contract MDA903-82-C-0145; DA PROJ. 2Q1-61102-B-74-F) 
(AD-A1 90788; ARI.RN-87-84) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 
CSCL23B 

This research note summarizes three years of a four year 
contract to study ways of improving human perfonmance in h^ly 
integrated systems in such areas as communicatiorw, 
transportation, manufacturing, etc. Rule-based computer models 
of human performance (CAIN) are (fesissed. as are methods from 
measuring the complexity of the task of monitoring these 
large-scale systems. Finally, the development of a cofT^)uter model 
(MABEL) which requires subjects to monitor a large-scale 
communications network is descrtt)ed. GRA 

NS»>25374# Pentagon Library, WasWngton. DC. 
MANAGEMENT AND THE EXECUTIVE Final Report, 1 Jan. 
1M2 - 31 Dec. 1907 

1 Jan. 1988 44 p 

(AD-A190778) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

This bibliography lists books and periodk»l artk:les covering 
such topics as personnel management, corporate plarmirig, 
decision-making, executive training, leadership, management 
infonnation systems, and orgarwratk)nal behavkx. in additk>n. it 
highlights some special interest areas: women executives, chief 
executive officers, job stress. ar>d ethrcs. An index of management 
topics is appended to assist readers in finding related items. 

GRA 



N88-25375# Northwest Regwnal Educatk>nal Lab., Portland, 

OR. 

SELECTION AND EFFECTS OF CHANNELS tN DISTRIBUTED 

COMMUNICATION AND DECISION MAKING TASKS: A 

THEORETTCAL REVIEW AND A PROPOSED RESEAfK^i 

PARADIGM Inters Report, May 1986 - May 1987 

STEPHEN M.REDER and NANCY RCONKLIN Feb. 1988 43 p 

(Contract MDA903-86-C-0171; DA PROJ. 2Q1-61102-B-74-F) 

(AD-A191807; ARI-RN-e8-04) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL 05A 

This research note examms the relationshi)s between the 
communication patterns of decision groups and the nature and 
results of their decision processes. It looks at the selection of 
particular channels and channel effects, as well. A review of 
research indicates that no satisfactory theoretical framework has 
yet been developed which accounts for the often strategy and 
tactical nature of communicatk)n channel selectwn. An initial theory 
is outlined, establisNng quanftifiat)le relationships among causally 
linked sets of variables: 1) characteristics of the decision group 
(size, stnjcture. and spatial dispersion). 2) characteristrcs of the 
decisk)n task (nature of the deciskm, perceived organizational 
signifrcance, time available, and available commurMcatk)n channels), 
3) channel selectk)n(s) made by the group, 4) structural and content 
characteristics of the messages produced, 5) decisk>ns reached, 
and 6) perceived characteristKs of the deciskxi process. GRA 

N8e-26113# Du Pont de Nemours (E. I.) and Co., Aiken, SC. 
IDEA PROCESSING FOR CREATIVITY AND MANAGEMENT 

P. E. MILLER 1988 5 p Presented at the 36th Annual 

Intenrwitkwial Technteal Comrmink:atk>n Conference. Philadelphia, 

Pa. 10 May 1988 

(Contract DE-AC09-76SR-00001) 

(DE88-008110; DP-MS-87-163; CONF-880528-4) Avail: NTIS HC 

A02/MF A01 

Tips and case histories on con^Miter use for klea and outline 
processing are discussed. ProAjctivity software to solve problems 
of idea, hierarchy, transitk>ns. and developments is matched to 
soiutk)ns for communteators. One case is text that ranges from 
methods and procedures to histories and legal definitions of 
classifk»tk)n for the US Department of Energy. Applteatk>ns of 
value to writers, editors, and managers such as research, calendars, 
creativity. prk)ritizatk)n. idea discovery and manH>ulatk>n. file and 
time management and contents. Indexes, and glossaries are also 
discussed. DOE 



N88-26261# Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Lab. for 

Informatkm and Decision Systems. 

COORDINATION IN DECISION-MAKING ORGANIZATIONS 

JEAN-LOUIS M. GREVET and ALEXANDER H. LEVIS Jan. 

1988 28 p 

(Contract N00014-84-K-0519) 

(AD-A191952; UDS-P-1738) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL05A 

A methodology to analyze, model, and evaluate 
decision-making processes that require coordinatton is presented. 
The issues of inconsisterK^y of InformatkHi and synchronizatk>n 
are emphasized. Predrcate Transitfon Nets are used as the basic 
technkjue for representing organizational structures and for 
characterizing the coordinatton of processes. Protocols of 
interaction are modeled by transitk)ns for whteh the rule of 
enablement is that the dedskwimakers, whwi interacting, must 
refer to the same state of the environment Two measures of 
coordination are tf)en introduced: The degree of information 
consistency and the measwe of synchronizatk>n. These measures 
are defined on the basis of the attrttxites of the tokens belonging 
to the input places of transitk>ns modeling interactkws, A recently 
developed simulatton system for Predicate Transitton Nets is used 
for investigating the dynamics of decisionmaking processes 
requiring coordinatk)n. GRA 

N88-26262# Natk>nal Academy of Sciences - Natk>nal Research 

Council. Washington, DC. Cross-Disciplinary Engineering Research 

Committee. 

ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTERS AND THEIR 

EVALUATION Rnal Report 

Jan. 1988 17 p 

(Contract NSF ENG-85-05051) 

(PB88-1 80054) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

Recommendations regarding the National Science Foundation's 
(NSF) plans for evaluating existing Engineering Research Centers 
(ERCs) ara folk>wed up.The first six centers are evaluated. One 
observation is that the most prevalent types of (»oblems found in 
the centers were managerial and organizational. The NSF is urged 
to make the third-year evaluations as constructive as possi>le 
and to avoW overmanagement of the ERCs. It is recommended 
that a third, probatiortary, option be added to the yes-no refunding 
decisk>n plan, defemng the final dedskw for one year. Various 
other recommendations are made regarding the preparations for 
and the mechanrcs of the actual reviews and ^e visits. Certain 
important issues in the context of cross-disc^inary research (e.g. 
promotion and reward, distribution of funds) are poirrted out and 
discussed from the standpoint of the ERC evaluation. GRA 

N88-26264*# Management Leaming Systems, Silver Spring, 

MD. 

ANATOMY OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE EFFORT AT 

THE LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER Final Report 

JAMES R. HAWKER and RICHARD S. DALI Washington 

NASA Apr. 1988 34 p 

(Contract C21660-K) 

(NASA-CR-4146; E-4127; NAS 1.26:4146) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

By 1979. after a kw^ decline foltowing the end of the Apolto 
program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence 
endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that 
could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew 
J. Stofan applied a program of strategy planning, participative 
management and consensus decisk>n making. A corporate-cultural 
change was effected whfch enabled Lewis to commit itself to four 
fundable research and development projects. Morale-buiWing and 
training programs which were essential to this change are 
described. j.p.b. 

N88-26802# Bolt. Beranek. and Newman, Inc., Cambridge. MA. 
PLANS FOR DISCOURSE 

BARBARA J. GROSZ and CANDACE L SIDNER 1 Feb. 1988 
35 p 



17 



02 MANAGEMENT THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 



(Contract N00014-85-C-0079) 

(AD-A1 92242; BBN-6728) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 

05H 

Discourses are fundamentally instances of collaboration 
behavior. We propose a model of the collaborative plans of agents 
achieving joint goals and illustrate the role of these plans in 
discourses. Three types of collaborative plans, called Shared Plans, 
are formulated for joint goals requiring simultaneous, conjoined or 
sequential actions on the part of the agents who participate in 
the plans and the discourse; a fourth type of Shared Plan is 
presented for the circumstance where two agents communicate, 
but only one acts. GRA 

N88-27108*# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council, Washington. DC. Space Science Board. 

ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH 

DISTRIBUTED COMPUTATION AND DATA MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEMS FOR THE SPACE SCIENCES 

1986 124 p 

(Contract NASW-3482) 

(NASA-CR-1 83026; NAS 1.26:183026; PB88-1 88446) Avail: 

NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The primary purpose of the report is to explore management 
approaches and technology developments for computation and 
data management systems designed to meet future needs in the 
space 8ciences.The report builds on wori< presented in previous 
reports on solar-ten-estrial and planetary reports, broadening the 
outlook to all of the space sciences, and considering policy issues 
aspects related to coordiantion between data centers, missions, 
and ongoing research activities, because it is perceived that the 
rapid growth of data and the wide geographic distribution of relevant 
facilities will present especially troublesome problems for data 
archiving, distribution, and analysis. GRA 

N88-27726# National Inst, of Health, Bethesda, MD. National 

Eye Inst. 

VISION RESEARCH. A NATIONAL PLAN: 1983-1987, 1987 

EVALUATION AND UPDATE Final Report, Oct. 1984 - Dec. 

1986 

1987 334 p 

(PB88-1 92604; NIH/PUB-87-2755) Avail: NTIS HC A15/MF A01 

CSCL06P 

The evaluation project examined the current level and 
distribution of effort in all the scientific research areas addressed 
by Vision Research-A National Plant: 1983-1987. the National 
Advisory eye Council's most resecent planning and evaluation 
document. It recognized and encouraged activity in important new 
ares that had developed since the Plan was prepared. It identified 
recommendations that were not sufficiently specific or those that 
were prematrue or too narrow in focus and might have benefitted 
from consolidation with other recommendations. A computerized 
system was developed and used to track grant applications wherin 
every grant application, whether funded or not, was coded 
according to the relevance to one of the Plan's recommendations. 
The report produced by this effort was used by the National 
Advisory Eye Council and the staff of the NEI to determine 
long-range and day-to-day management decisions, by scientists in 
the vision research community as a guide to most important needs 
and opportunity as a guide to the most important needs and 
opportunities in the field; and by organizations, foundations, all 
those interested in recent problems and challenges in 
ophthalmology, optometry, and vision science, including current 
activites and plans for continued success in the prevention, 
treatment, and control of blinding disease. GRA 

N88-29468# Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Computer Science. 
FINDING MINIMUM-COST CIRCULATIONS BY CANCELING 
NEGATIVE CYCLES 

ANDREW V. GOLDBERG and ROBERT E, TARJAN Jul. 1987 

20 p 

(Contract N00014.80-C-0622; N00014-87-K-0467) 

(AD-A1 94027; CS-TR-1 07-87) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL12D 



A classical algorithm for finding a minimum-cost circulation 
consists of repeatedly finding a residual cycle of negative cost 
and canceling it by pushing enough flow around the cycle to 
saturate an arc. We show that a judicious choice of cycles for 
canceling leads to a polynomial bound on the number of iterations 
in this algorithm. This gives a very simple strongly polynomial 
algorithm that uses no scaling. A variant of the algorithm that 
uses dynamic trees runs in 0(nm(log n) min log (nC), m log n) 
time on a networic of n vertices, m arcs, and arc costs of maximum 
absolute value C. This bound is comparable to those of the fastest 
previously known algorithms. GRA 

N88-29469# Princeton Univ.. NJ. Dept. of Computer Science. 
FINDING MINIMUM-COST CIRCULATIONS BY SUCCESSIVE 
APPROXIMATION 

ANDREW V. GOLDBERG and ROBERT E. TARJAN Jul. 1987 

56 p 

(Contract N00014-80-C-0622; N00019-87-K-0467) 

(AD-A1 94028; CS-TR-1 06-87) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

CSCL 120 

A new approach to solving minimum-cost circulation problems 
is developed. This approach combines methods for solving the 
maximum flow problem with successive approximation techniques 
based on cost scaling. The authors measure the accuracy of a 
solution by the amount that the complementary slackness 
conditions are violated. They propose a simple minimum-cost 
circulation algorithm, one version of which runs in 0(cu n log(nC)) 
time on an n-vertex network with integer arc costs of absolute 
value at most C. By incorporating sophisticated data structures 
into the algorithm, we obtain a time bound of 0(nm log(sq n/m) 
log(nC)) on a networi^ with m arcs. A slightly different use of our 
approach shows that a minimum-cost circulation can be computed 
by solving a sequence of 0(n log(nC)) blocking slow problems. A 
corollary of this result is an 0(sq n (log n) log (nC)-time, n-processor 
parallel minimum cost circulation algorithm. This approach also 
yields strongly polynomial minimum-cost circulation algorithms. 
Results provide evidence that the minimum-cost circulation problem 
is not much harder than the maximum flow problem. It is believed 
that a suitable implementation of this method will perform extremely 
well in practice. GRA 

N88-30370# SRI International Corp., Menio Park, CA. Artificial 
Intelligence Center. 

RESEARCH ON PROBLEM-SOLVING SYSTEMS Final Report, 1 
Oct 1984 - 14 Feb. 1988 

DAVID E. WILKINS Feb. 1988 164 p 

(Contract F49620-85-K-0001) 

(AD-A195154; AFOSR-88-0563TR) Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 

CSCL 121 

This is the final report for a research project which focused on 
artificial intelligence planning systems. The research investigated 
methods for representing, generating, and executing hierarchical 
plans that contain parallel actions. Reasoning about actions is 
critical to many important areas including automatic planning 
systems, expert consultation systems, and real-time control of 
robotic systems. This report describes progress in planning, 
including efficient techniques for generating hierarchical and parallel 
plans in certain domains. This work was performed using SIPE 
(System for Interactive Planning and Execution Monitoring) which 
was developed in part under this contract, GRA 

N88-30466# Glasgow Univ. (Scotland). Business School. 
TECHNICAL CHANGE NEEDS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 

DAVID BODDY In AGARD, Baniers to Information Transfer and 
Approaches Toward Their Reduction 5 p Mar. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

It is shown that effective performance cannot be assured simply 
by installing expensive, state of the art technology. The studies of 
many applications of computing and information technology have 
included both successful and unsuccessful examples. The clear 
practical lesson from this work is that the successful cases were 
usually those where technical change was accompanied by 
appropriate organizational change. The less successful ones were 



18 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



generally those where project were dominated by technical 
considerations, with tittle of no thought given to organizational 
ones. These lessons seem as relevant to defence installations e& 
to the civilian ones in which ttie research was conducted. The 
common characteristic is that all organizations are confronted by 
technical developments, which are intended to he^p them meet 
their otsjectives. For them to succeed in that task, it appears that 
management needs to ensure fhat ttwee ^ hurdles are 
successfully cn>ssed. These are: managtnQ the project settir^g 
the right objectives; and changing the organization. Each of these 
hurdles will be outlined in turn, and some proposals on how they 
can be overcome are suggested. Author 



03 

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND 
MANUFACTURING 

Includes Industrial Management Engineering Management Design 
Engineering. Production Management Construction. 
Aerospace/Aircraft Industries. Maruifacturirtg. 



A88-14267# 

PROJECT MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND LESSONS LEARNED 

FROM COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN APPLICATIONS 

J. J. DAUES (McDonnell Douglas Corp.. Saint Louis. MO) AIAA. 
AHS. and ASEE, Aircraft Design. Systems and Operations Meeting. 
Saint Louis, MO, S^>t 14-16. 1987. 6 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 87-2912) 

An account is given of the development status and prospective 
capabilities of proprietary computer graphics programs for future 
automated factories, with attention to social/organizational, 
technology assessment and human resource issues. Critical factors 
in ttie perfomiance of these graphics programs are identified as 
the maximization of personn^ colocation. the definition of 
manufacturing approaches, and the exclusive use of three- 
dimensional coordination , with emphasis on the maximization 
of three-dimensional outputs. Computer graphics projection rooms 
for design reviews ^khjW be provided. O.C. 

A88-15307 

INDUSTRIAL MODERNIZATION INCENTIVES PROGRAM - 

USES IN SPACE SYSTEM PRODUCING INDUSTRY 

MARK W. PHILLIPS (USAF. Systems Command. Wright-Patterson 
AFB. OH) IN: Space Congress. 24th. Cocoa Beach. FL. Apr. 
21-24. 1987. Proceedings. Cape Canaveral. FL. Canaveral Council 
of Technical Societies. 1987. 8 p. 

The findings of past and present Air Force Production Base 
Analyses acknowledge the extetence of numerous production 
tx>ttienecks and constraints within the defense industrial t>ase. 
These impediments to the successful fiek^ of weapon systems 
are often cai^ed by ineffk:ient mamifacturing technk^ues and 
obsolescent plant equipment. In an effort to correct these 
defk>er)ctes. the Air Force has embarked upon a uraque program 
to induce contractors to invest in factory moderruzatkx) proiects 
utilizing the latest in productk>n techrK>k)gy. The program is known 
in the Department of Defense as the Industrial Moderrezatk>n 
Incentives Program (IMIP). This paper discusses IMIP and how 
Air Force Systems Command and Space Diviston uses this 
contractual vehkrfe to provkie incentives to contractors to 
implement modem equipment and management technk^uos in 
space system producing industry. ExafTH)les are given of 
improvements in space system productkjn by the use of IMIP. 

Author 

A88-1S312 

AIR FORCE SPACE REQUIREMENTS - CAN INDUSTRY MEET 

THE CHALLENGE FOR SPACE SYSTEMS? 

EDWARD S. HOUSTON (USAF. Los Angeles A^ Force Statwn, 
CA) and MARK W. PHILLIPS (USAF. Systems Command, 



Wright-Patterson AFB. OH) IN: Space Congress, 24th, Cocoa 
Beach. FL. Apr. 21-24. 1987, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL. 
Canaveral Council of Technfcal Societies. 1987, 16 p. 

The findings, conclusk>ns, and recommendatwns resulting from 
an analysis of the space industrial t>ase are presented. The analysis 
(titled the United States Air Force Productk>n Base Analysis) is an 
ongoing assessment of the health and surge/mobiHzatk>n 
capat>ilities of the defense industrial base. Emphasis is placed on 
the capat>ility and capacity of the space industries to produce 
space systems the Air Force needs through 1990. Space power 
technology issues discussed include preciston instruments bearings 
productkxi base, beryllium availability, optical lenses and 
assemblies, a material control system, and MANTECH/IMIP at 
subtler level. The general conclusk>n is that the health of the 
space kidustrial base is good, but the deniand being placed on 
space industries is growing qi^ckly. b J. 



A88-16241# 

THIRTY YEARS OF SPACE WITH MCDONNELL AND 

DOUGLAS 

CHARLES D. WALKER (McDonnell Douglas Astronauttes Co., Saint 
Louis. MO) lAF, lntematk)nal Astronautk:al Congress, 38th, 
Brighton, England, Oct 10-17. 1987. 5 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-665) 

The contributkms of the McDonnell Aircraft Company and the 
Douglas Aircraft Company (prior to and following their consolkJatton) 
to the NASA space program are discussed. Apects of the design 
of the Mercury capsules and the Gemini spacecraft are conskJered. 
Upgraded versions of the Thor IRBM launch system were used 
for the Ariel 1. and are currently in use as the Delta. Also discussed 
are the Saturn S-fV/IVB stage program and the Payload Assist 
Module. Current activities include Space Shuttle launch si4>port. 
space commercializatkw efforts, mission planning support, and the 
Space Statk>n. r.r. 



A88-16912 

AVIONICS IN CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM PLANNING; 
PROCEEDINGS OP THE EIGHTH ANNUAL IEEE SYMPOSIUM, 
DAYTON, OH, DEC. 3, 1986 

Symposkjm sponsored by IEEE. New Yoric, Institute of Electrical 
and Electronfcs Engineers. Inc., 1986, 92 p. For indivkkial items 
see A68-16913 to A88-16920. 

The papers presented in tWs volume deal with Manous aspects 
of the problem of integrating avk>nk» into total system design 
during the concept formulatk>n stage, with partkxitar attentkm given 
to impacts upon definitkxi of retirements; future avk>rocs concepts; 
tradeoffs between the vehkrfe. propulskHi, and avk>nk:s; integratkxi 
of supportabillty into the design; and acquisttk>n strategies. Papers 
are included on system architecture design and tools for a 
distrikxited avk)rucs system; the design agerrt process as a strategy 
for future avk>nk:s competition enhancement and quality assurance; 
the avionics acquisition process beyorKJ the year 2000; and 
electromagnetk: compatibility modeling for future avk>rncs 
systems. v.L. 



A88-17945 

PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN EXPERIMENTAL 

MECHANICS, 1940-^: A HISTORY 

GIVEN ANKENY BREWER (Brewer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.. 
Marion. MA) New Yortc. Vantage Press, 1987. 250 p. refs 

Advances in stress/strain measurement technotogy are recalled 
in a collectkKi of the author's prevknisly published papers. Topkss 
discussed tnckide photogrid determinatk>n of strain distrtt>utk>n. 
measurement of strain in the plastk; range, the use of stainless 
steel HI jet-aircraft structures, operating stresses in sh^ propellers, 
and dyrianuc-pressure measurement in a Ik:|ukj-Na P4>e using an 
electron>echank»l dilatometer. ConskJeratk)n is given to bonded 
resistance strain gages for use on offshore oil platfonns, 
power-plant vibration absorber systems, and residual-stress 
measurement ki rapkJ-transit axles. Each paper is provkled with a 
brief historical/autobk>graphk»l introductk)n. T.K. 



19 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



A88-18499# 

BLIMPS ARE BACK ON BOARD 

RICHARD DEMEIS Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X). vol. 
25, Nov. 1987, p. 34-37. 

An evaluation is made of the novel technologies and design 
features that are to be incorporated in the USN's next-generation 
radar surveillance airships, typified by the Sentinel 5000 whose 
initial flight trials are scheduled for 1 990. Sentinel will cruise at 40 
kt for 2.5 days at 5000 ft altitude, and could be replenished from 
ships for longer patrols. The radar antenna will be mounted atop 
the gondola, inside the gas envelope. Pressurization of the crew 
compartment will allow the airship to reach a maximum altitude of 
14,000 ft. At 10,000 ft, the radar horizon is 125 n.mi. Attention is 
given to envelope construction considerations. O.C. 

A88-21000# 

AEROSPACE HIGHLIGHTS 1987 

Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 25, Dec. 1987. p. 12-16. 
18-24, 26-35 (26 ff.). 

The present comprehensive evaluation of developments in the 
aerospace sciences and industries during 1987 encompasses 
aeroacoustics, aerodynamic decelerator and balloon technology, 
maintenance, electrical power sources, air-breathing propulsion, 
air transportation, aircraft design, applied aerodynamics, 
astrodynamics. the atmospheric environment, flight mechanics, C3I, 
communications, computer systems, design engineering, digital 
avionics, electric propulsion, flight simulation, flight testing, fluid 
dynamics, general aviation, and ground testing. Also discussed 
are interactive computer graphics, life support systems, LTA 
vehicles, liquid-fuel rockets, advanced materials, missiles, lasers, 
propellants, sensors, software, solid-fuel rockets, space systems 
and operations, space transportation, structural dynamics, 
advanced structures, support systems, thermophysics, and system 
effectiveness and safety. O.C. 

A88-21664 

LASERS IN MOTION FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS; 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE MEETING, LOS ANGELES, CA, JAN. 
13, 14, 1987 

DAVID A. BELFORTE, ED. Meeting sponsored by SPIE and 
Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Bellingham, WA, Society of 
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE Proceedings. 
Volume 744), 1987, 196 p. No individual items are abstracted in 
this volume. 
(SPIE-744) 

Papers are presented on multidimensional laser processing 
systems; high-production laser industrial motion systems; C02 
lasers in sheet metai cutting systems; robots and lasers; laser 
precision processing machine for industrial applications; precision 
cutting and drilling with the Nd-YAG laser; and surface-roughness 
monitoring for industrial quality control. Topics discussed included 
laser soldering of surface-mounted devices; laser welding of thin 
filaments; laser wire stripping; and precision Co2 laser cutting of 
small parts. Consideration is given to the development of a 
transmission gear laser wetd system; laser selection for drilling; 
three-dimensional laser processing; the application of laser cladding 
of multidimensional part geometries; microscopic material 
interactions by laser engraving; laser marked codes for paperless 
tracking applications; and state of the art in laser marking and 
engraving. I.F. 

A88-24807 

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT: CONCEPTS, PROCEDURES 

AND MODELS 

B. S. DHILLON (Ottawa, University, Canada) Lancaster, PA, 
Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 1987, 373 p. refs 

Engineering management (EM) techniques are examined in an 
introductory text intended for undergraduate and graduate 
engineering and EM students. Chapters are devoted to organizing, 
the human element in EM. creativity, manpower planning and 
control, selecting engineering projects, project management. EM 
of technical proposals and specifications, EM of contracts, and 
techniques for making better EM decisions. Consideration is given 



to mathematical models of EM decision making, product 
development and costing. EM of design and drawings, value 
engineering and configuration management, EM of product 
assurance sciences, EM of maintenance, marketing, product 
warranties and liabilities, and work study. Diagrams, tables, and 
exercises are provided. T.K. 

A88-24823 

FUTURE AEROSPACE-MATERIALS DIRECTIONS 

ROBERT A. SPRAGUE (GE Materials Technology Laboratory, 
Evendale. OH) Advanced Materials and Processes (ISSN 
0882-7958), vol. 133, Jan. 1988, p. 67-69. 

Barriers to higher performance posed by airframe and propulsion 
system structural alloys' melting points and phase transition 
temperatures must be overcome in order to realize the requirements 
of such next-generation aircraft as the Natior.al Aerospace Plane 
and Advanced Tactical Fighter. The R&D efforts currently undenway 
to meet these requirements are dominated by low-ductility and 
anisotropic (composite) materials such as intermetallics, 
ceramic-matrix composites, metal-matrix composites, and high 
temperature polymeric-matrix composites; affordabitity is the key 
to the success of these materials. Metal-matrix composites are 
noted to offer enormous advantages in high-temperature 
performance, with excellent strength/weight ratios. O.C. 

A88-26420 

SPACE STATION ASSEMBLY - TECHNIQUES AND 

STRUCTURES 

E. J. PELKA (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, 
CA) Lockheed Horizons (ISSN 0459-6773), Dec. 1987, p. 32-49. 
Two Lockheed independent research and development projects 
are discussed. The first. Space Station Assembly Technology, 
addresses on-orbit structural assembly from the viewpoint of the 
EVA astronaut and emphasizes human factors engineering, 
operations, and EVA optimization. The second, Aluminum-Clad 
Graphite/Epoxy Struts, stresses areas of materials, structures, and 
manufacturing in the production of full-scale prototype truss 
elements that can be fine-tuned to a zero coefficient of thermal 
expansion after the metal/composite strut has been produced. It 
is shown that as the Space Station physical characteristics will 
continue to change, the Station's subsystems, ground support 
systems, and operations methods must similarly evolve to 
accommodate technological advances. A.S. 

A88-26646# 

KEEPING A SHARP TECHNOLOGY EDGE 

JAY C. LOWNDES Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 
26. Feb. 1988, p. 24-28. 

The erosion of the U.S. share of the world aircraft maket may 
be taken as evidence of a narrowing of technical preeminence. 
Attention is presently given to NASA, Federal Government and 
industry efforts to validate advanced technologies for expeditious 
commercial application. These technologies encompass advanced 
structural materials, advanced propulsion system thermodynamic 
cycles and configurations, and efforts to reduce boundary layer 
drag in both subsonic airliners and post-Concorde SSTs. Attention 
is given to the economic support required for suitable R&D. O.C. 

A88-31339 

FUTURE AEROSPACE PROJECTS OR ENGINEERING THE 

FUTURE FOR UK LTD 

IVAN YATES (British Aerospace, PLC, London, England) 
Aerospace (UK) (ISSN 0305-0831), vol. 16, April 1988, p. 10-17. 

The importance of British aerospace to the British economy 
and the prospects for its future development are addressed. The 
case for an expanded British space effort is summarized. The 
role of British industry in the world market is discussed, and the 
importance of technological innovation in maintaining and 
developing that role is examined. CD. 

A88-34101 

CATS: COMPUTER-AIDED TRADE STUDY METHODOLOGY 

HERMANN SCHMID, STANLEY LARIMER, and TAHM SADEGHI 



20 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



(General Electric Co., Binghampton, NY) IN: NAECON 87; 
Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics 
Conference, Dayton, OH, May 18-22. 1987. Volume 2. New York. 
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Inc., 1987, p. 
560-568. refs 

A computerized methodology and Its implementation that greatly 
simplifies and speeds up the processes of performing trade studies 
are described. The main difference between the computer-aided 
trade study (CATS) methodology and the conventiwal approach 
is that most of the labor-intensive tasks have been eliminated. 
Improved productivity, accuracy and cost result from using CATS 
on trade studies. I.E. 

A88-35526 

RECENT TRENDS IN AEROELASTICITY, STRUCTURES, AND 

STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE R. L. 

BISPUNGHOFF MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM, UNIVERSITY OF 

FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL, FEB. 6, 7, 1986 

PRABHAT HAJELA. ED. (Florida, University, Gainesville) 

Symposium sponsored by NSF, USAF. and MIT;. Gainesville. FL. 

University Presses of Florida. 1987, 424 p. For individual items 

see A88-35527 to A88-35547. 

(Contract NSF ECE-86-02170) 

The papers contair>ed in this volume provide an overview of 
the state of the art in the field of aeroelasticity and aeronautical 
structures, including sun/eys of well-developed fields of study and 
new contributions in emerging areas of technology. The subject 
areas covered Include fixed and rotary wing aeroelasticity; 
aeroelastic considerations in rotating machinery; aeroelastic 
problems in bridge design; structural analysis and structural 
dynamics In aerospace applications; aeroservoelastic considera- 
tions; and the emerging discipline of optimal structural 
design. Papers are presented on the whiri flutter of swept tip 
propfans; aeroelasticity of very light aircraft; structural stability in 
turbulent flow; and stojctural tailoring of aircraft perfomnance. 

V.L 

A88-39660 

PERSPECTIVES ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

R. N. G. BURBRIDGE, ED. (Central Electricity Generating Board. 
London, England) London, Peter Peregrinus. Ltd. (lEE 

Management of Technology Series. Volume 7), 1988, 167 p. No 
individual items are absfracted in this volume. 

The fundamental principles of engineerir>g project management 
(PM) are examined, with an emphasis on UK practice, in chapters 
contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include historical 
and contemporary perspectives, a client's view of PM. the project 
and the community, high-budget projects, joint-venture projects, 
and contract strategy. Consideration is given to turnkey vs 
multicontract projects, quality assurance and PM. computer 
applications to PM, and the essential features of PM. T.K. 

A88-41288* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

NATIONAL AERO-SPACE PLANE 

WILLIAM M. PILAND (NASA. Ariington, VA) IN: Visions of 
tomorrow: A focus on national space transportation issues; 
Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Goddard Memorial Symposium. 
Greenbelt, MD, Mar. 18-20. 1987. San Diego. CA, Univelt Inc.. 
1987, p. 219-222. 
(AAS PAPER 87-127) 

An account is given of the technology development 
management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA 
National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by 
NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then 
integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 
experimental aircraft. Five airframe and tiiree powerplant 
manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort 
encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight 
of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993. O.C. 

A88-42307 

SCHEDULE MONITORING OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS 



M, J. SCHMIDT (Digital Equipment Corp., Mariborough. MA) IEEE 
Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol 
35, May 1988. p. 108-114. refs 

A tool for monitoring, reporting, and controlling the progress of 
time-critical projects called progress plotting is presented. It helps 
distinguish between minor schedule slips and problems that call 
for serious management intervention. It also serves to evaluate 
planning accuracy on previous projects. Progress is shown by 
plotting the actual tinr>e used on a project against the completed 
percentage of the critical path. Control lines in the plotting space 
indicate probabilities of completing the project on schedule. If the 
progress line crosses a low-probability conti-ol line, managers may 
want to intervene and bring the project back on schedule. Crossing 
a high-probability control line means an early finish may be 
anticipated with confidence. The progress plot is comparable to 
the process-control chart used in manufacturing settings, I.E. 

A88-42377 

DATA MANAGEMENT FOR THE FACTORY FLOOR 

THOMAS H. BLUHM (Boeing Aerospace Co., Seattfe, WA) IN: 
Materials - Pattiway to the future; Proceedings of the Thirty-third 
International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 
7-10, 1988. Covina, CA. Society for the Advancement of Material 
and Process Engineering, 1988. p. 796-B04, 

An eariy task, when setting out to automate a factory, is to 
identify the required information for controlling machinery 
operations and worker activities. This paper presents examples of 
data management issues in a computer integrated manufacturing 
environment. Data management Issues to be addressed are data 
organization, data integrity, and data handling across system 
interfaces. Design solutions that could be adapted for any 
automation project are presented. Author 

A88*43951 

SPACE MANUFACTURING 6 - NONTERRESTRIAL 

RESOURCES, BIOSCIENCES, AND SPACE ENGINEERING; 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTH PRINCETON/AIAA/SSI 

CONFERENCE, PRINCETON, NJ, MAY 6^, 1987 

BARBARA FAUGHNAN. ED. and GREGG E. MARYNIAK, ED. 

Conf^ence sponswed by AIAA and Space Studies Institute. 

Washington. DC. American Institute of Aeronautics and 

Astronautics. 1987, 412 p. For individual items see A88-43952 to 

A88-43972. A88-43974 to A88-43993. 

The present conference on the cotonization and economic 
exploitation of space considers topics in biomedics. space 
transportation, nonterrestrial resources, the use of launch vehk:le 
external tanks as stiuctural bases for space habitats, international 
law and ecor>omics considerations, the technological t>ases of 
space manufacturing plant and solar power satellites, artificial 
biospheres and closed-cycle life-support systems, and the social 
aspects of spaceflight. Attention is given to tx>r>e and muscle 
response to long-duration space missions, the energetics of closed 
biological life-support systems, a LEO space farm, crew factors in 
NASA Space Station design, the economy impact of extraterrestiial 
fnedicine, t>eafT>ed energy for spacecraft propulsk>n. the electiic 
rail rocket, and the extraction of silicon, aluminum, arnJ oxygen 
from lunar ore. o.C. 

A88-43966# 

A JOB FOR SPACE MANUFACTURING 

J. W. STRYKER IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nontenrestrial 
resources, biosciences, and space engineering; Proceedings of 
the Eighth Princeton/AlAA/SSI Conference, Princeton. NJ, May 
6-9, 1987. Washington. DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987. p. 158-163. 

Space habitation will create a need for a general purpose repair, 
rebuilding, and manufacturing facility. The self-contained 'job shop* 
concept fits this need. A single, multi-purpose machine tool 
combined with a large variety of accessories is proposed. This 
uses existing and proven technology, requiring only some minor 
adaption for work in space. Also, there is a large experience base 
of job shop techniques which can be drawn upon, A job shop 
can modify tools and equipment already in orbit. It can perform 



21 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



production manufacturing for many of the sub-components needed 
in the construction of additional habitats. This adaptability also 
provides valuable capacity when Shuttle or other transportation 
links may experience delays. It creates a 'bootstrapping* capability 
which can significantly lower manufacturing costs in space. This 
paper presents specific design aspects which can help achieve 
this goal. Author 



A88-44001 

ADVANCED TOPICS IN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY: 

PRODUCT DESIGN, BIOENGINEERING; PROCEEDINGS OF 

THE SYMPOSIUM, ASME WINTER ANNUAL MEETING, 

BOSTON, MA, DEC. 13-18, 1987 

PHILIP H. FRANCIS, ED. Symposium sponsored by ASME. New 

York, American Society of Mechnical Engineers, 1987, 106 p. For 

individual items see A88-44002 to A88-44007. 

Papers on manufacturing technology related to engineering are 
presented in the fields of product design, bioengineering, and space 
commercialization. Aspects of product design and bioengineering 
covered included design issues in mechanical tolerance analysis, 
computer-aided product design for economical manufacture, 
gestural control of industrial robots applied to surgical instrument 
positioning, voice control of manufacturing systems, eye tracking 
control of robotic systems, and man-machine interaction. Topics 
in space commercialization include an overview of space 
commercialization by an aerospace corporation, commercial 
development of space, power system technology, welding in space, 
remote sensing technology and applications, commercial materials 
processing in the space station, and microgravity science and 
applications projects and paytoads. R.B. 



A88-46296 

INTRODUCTION TO FINE CERAMICS: APPLICATIONS IN 

ENGINEERING 

NOBORU ICHINOSE (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan), KOMEYA 
KATSUTOSHI, NAOHIKO OGINO, AKIHIKO TSUGE, and YUUJI 
YOKOMIZO Chichester and New York, John Wiley and Sons. 
Ltd., 1987. 169 p. Translation. 

Recent advances in ceramics technology and applications are 
discussed in a question-and-answer format and illustrated with 
extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of 
numerical data. Chapters are devoted to the fundamental properties 
of ceramics, structural ceramics, electronic ceramics (piezoelectric 
materials, sensors, and ferrites), and glasses and optical fibers. 
Also considered are biological applications, amorphous ceramics, 
high-thermal-conductivity ceramics, and laminated and multilayer 
ceramics. T*^- 

A88-46310 

MATERIALS AND THE DESIGNER 

ERIC H, CORNISH Cambridge and New York, Cambridge 
University Press, 1987, 290 p. refs 

The principles and criteria used by design engineers to select 
materials for manufacturing applications are examined, and the 
properties of the major classes of materials are described. The 
impact of design on the manufacturing industry and the expertise 
required by the design process are discussed, and individual 
chapters are devoted to metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers, 
composites, in-service performance, finishes and protective 
coatings, reliability and service life, factors controlling the selection 
of substitute materials, forming processes, sources of detailed 
material information, and standards. Diagrams, graphs, and 
extensive tables of numerical data are provided. T.K. 



A88-44875# 

ALL ELECTRONIC PROPULSION - KEY TO FUTURE 

SPACESHIP DESIGN 

WILLIAM C. BROWN (Microwave Power Transmission Systems, 
Weston, MA) AlAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE, Joint Propulsion 
Conference, 24th, Boston, MA, July 11-13, 1988. 20 p. refs 
(AlAA PAPER 88-3170) 

The all-electronic propulsion system combines the high specific 
impulse of the ion thruster with beamed microwave power to 
produce a combined power and propulsion system with a 
self-acceleration as greater at 0.02 m/sec sq with a specific impulse 
of 4200. This is more than an order of magnitude greater than 
that provided by other approaches to electric propulsion in their 
current state of development, including nuclear and photovoltaic 
power sources. Associated with this new technology are two 
requirements for its execution: (1) the space vehicles and earth 
based transmitters must be based in the equatorial plane; and (2) 
the vehicles are large in area and have very high thrust levels 
because of efficiency and cost considerations associated with the 
microwave beam system. These vehicles, tK)th in size and physical 
configuration, are different from conventional space vehicles and 
may have an impact upon future space vehicle design including 
those using photovoltaic power. Author 



A88-45596 

AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (3RD REVISED AND 

ENLARGED EDITION) 

E. H. J. PALLETT Harlow, England/New York, Longman Scientific 
and Technical/ John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1987, 239 p. 

An introduction to aircraft electrical systems is presented in a 
textbook for maintenance engineers and pilots. Fundamental 
electhcal principles on generation and conversion of power supplies 
are reviewed and applied to aircraft systems. Topics covered 
include ac and dc power supplies, power conversion equipment, 
external and auxiliary power supplies, and power distribution. Circuit 
controlling and protection devices, measuring instruments, and 
warning indication systems are examined. Power utilization by 
motors and systems, and electrical diagrams and identification 
schemes are discussed. R.B. 



A88-46401 

LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES: DYNAMICS AND CONTROL 

SATYA N. ATLURI, ED. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta) 
and ANTHONY K. AMOS. ED. (USAF, Office of Scientific Research, 
Boiling AFB, Washington, DC) Berlin and New York. 

Springer-Verlag, 1988, 373 p. For individual items see A88-46402 
to A88-46414. 

Recent advances in the dynamical design and control theory 
of large space structures (LSSs) are examined in chapters 
contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include continuum 
modeling of large lattice structures, computational aspects of 
nonlinearities in the dynamics and control of LSSs, modal cost 
analysis for simple continua, the transient dynamics of flexible 
LSSs, control-LSS interaction analysis, the dynamical response of 
an LSS to pulse excitation, and modeling techniques for open- 
and closed-loop LSS dynamics. Consideration is given to dynamic 
friction, control of distributed structures, the acoustic limit of 
structural-dynamic control, active control for vibration damping, a 
unified theory of reduced-order robust control design, adaptive 
control of LSSs, and unified optimization of structures and 
controllers. T.K. 

A88-48454 

ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING PLASTICS - NEW MATERIALS 

FROM AEROSPACE RESEARCH 

TEH S. KUAN and RANDY CAMERON (Lockheed Aeronautical 
Systems Co.. Burbank, CA) Lockheed Horizons (ISSN 0459-6773), 
May 1988, p. 48-56. 

An account is given of the development status and range of 
currently available compositions and performance properties of 
electrically conducting plastics. The first of these, the 
serendipitously discovered polyacetylene. was useful as a battery 
electrode in rechargeable cells but was found to be dangerously 
unstable in air. Attention is given to novel proprietary conducting 
plastic compositions that are stable in air or water at all conductivity 
levels (of which the highest are fully comparable to those of metals) 
and which are stable in mutual contact; this latter property allows 
the production of circuit boards. The new plastics are noted to be 
produced in conducting or semiconducting form for less that 
$1.00/lb (by contrast to semiconducting silicon, which costs about 



22 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



$100.000.00/lb). and can be blended with stnictural plastics to 
fomi high-strength conductive materials applicable to aircraft 
construction. O.C. 

A88*4d969 

ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS PRODUCTS AND 

MANUFACTURERS 

D. J. DE RENZO. ED. Park Ridge. NJ, Noyes Data Corp., 1988, 
1119 p. No individuat items are abstracted in this volume. 

Polymer matrix composites are considered with attention given 
to high-temperature materials, flame-retardant materials, conductive 
materials, electrostatic dissipating materials, lubricated/ 
wear- resistant materials, foaming grade materials, and 
elastomeric materials. Information is also provided on graphite, 
polyimide. epoxy-glass, phenolic, and polyester prepregs. Other 
topics include GFRPs. ceramic-matrix composites, metal-matrix 
composites, and CFRPs. K.K. 

A88-5173S 

SATELUTES INTERNATIONAL 

JOSEPH N. PELTON, ED. (INTELSAT, Washington. DC) and JOHN 
HOWKINS. ED. New York, Stockton Press, 1987, 269 p. For 
inotvklual items see A88-51739 to A88-51745, 

Various topics concerning satellite systems and issues 
surrounding satellite communications are examined. Aspects 
discussed include an introduction to satellites and satellite 
technology, world telecommunications leaders, earth station 
antennas, the economk» of satellite communication, publk; polk:y 
issues and remote sensing, video and audk) conferencing networtcs, 
satellites and the press, future satellite systems, satellite 
manufacturers, main launch vehrcles. gk>bal and regional satellite 
systems, and applwatk>ns satellites. Specifte systems conskiered 
include Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik. Directories of 
intematk>nal satellite communk>atk>ns organizations and of nations, 
their governmental departments whk^ handle satellite issu^. 
satellites they have launched, and earth station facilities which 
they have constructed. R.B. 



A88-51957# 

MANAGING ENGINEERING DESIGN INFORMATION 

R. E. FULTON (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta) and 
CHAO-PIN YEH AIAA. AHS, and ASEE. Aircraft Design. Systems 
and Operations Meeting, Atlanta. GA. Sept. 7-9, 1988. 12 p. 
Research supported by the Institute for Defense Analyses and 
USAF. refs 
{AIAA PAPER 88-4452) 

An account is given of state-of-the-art aerospace vehicle design 
practk:es that are highly integrated and automated, with a view to 
the features of their associated data base management system 
models arnl their existing deficiencies. Attention is given to the 
nature arKi comparative value of process/data-modeling 
methodologies proposed, and to the illustrative test problem of an 
aircraft wing's composite panel design; this problem is used to 
evaluate seven different process/data-mocteling methodologies: 
three verswns of the USAPs IDEF methodologies, the Systematk: 
Activity Modeling Method. Nijssen's (1987) Information Analysis 
Method, the Entity-Relattonship Model, and the Object-Orierrted 
Data Model. o.C. 

A68-51966# 

THE ROLE OF REGULATIONS IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN 

EDUCATION 

JAN ROSKAM (Kansas. University. Lawrence) AIAA, AHS, and 
ASEE, Aircraft Design, Systems and Operattons Meeting. Atlanta, 
GA, Sept 7-9, 1988, 12 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4485) 

Attentton is given to several important examples of the effects 
of ain^orthiness regulations on aircraft design deciston-making. as 
they emerge in the course of educatwnal efforts. Typteal of the 
requirements discussed are maximum alk>wable noise levels, 
misston fuel reserves at end of design mission, frequency and 
damping requirenwnts in flying qualities, minimum control speed 
with one or rTH)re engines inoperative, fuel system safety, and the 
probability of foreign object damage to engines. It is recommended 
that airworthiness regulatwns be taught to aeronautical engineering 
students. O.C. 



A88-51745 

SATELLITE MANUFACTURERS AND SYSTEMS 

IN: Satellites interrwtional. New Yori^, Stockton Press, 1987, p. 
111-117. 

A list of major manufacturers of satellites and satellite 
components is presented. The spacecraft and systems produced 
by these manufacturers are briefly discussed. Tables are given, 
showing how many satellites have been constructed, launch data, 
frequency bands, functions, and number of channels. Also, the 
main components of communication satellite platforms and 
payloads are reviewed. R.B. 

AS8-S1813 

POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPUCATIONS; 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS AND 
EXPOSITION, DETROIT, Ml, FEB. 29-MAR. 4, 1988 

Congress and Expositkjn sponsored by SAE. Wan^endale. PA, 
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE Proceedings SP-748), 
1988. 131 p. For individual items see A88-51814 to A88-51818. 

The properties. pr^>aratk>n and processing, ar>d automotive 
and aerospace applfcatkms of advanced polymer-matrix 
composites are discussed in reviews and reports. Topk:s addressed 
include high-performance composites research at NASA Langley. 
the thermooxklative stability of commercial graphite fibers for 
CFRPs, a semicrystalline polyimidesulfone powder, the dynamk; 
mechanrcal properties of high-temperature PMR polyimides and 
composites, and transportation applk:atk>ns of reinforced 
techniques tor automotive plastics and composites, compression- 
molded metal-thermoplastic composite laminates, phenolic 
engine components, economic modeling of composite 
pherK)lk; engine components, economk; modeling of composite 
manufacturing, and process consideratkjns for reactk>n injectwn 
molding of composites. T.K. 



A88-53788 

USE OF A DETAIL COST MODEL TO PERFORM 

CONCEPTUAL PHASE COST ANALYSIS 

PAUL SCHWARTZ (Grumman Corp., Aircraft Systems Div.. 
Bethpage, NY) SAWE, Annual Conference, 46th. Seattle, WA. 
May 18-20, 1987. 13 p. 
(SAWE PAPER 1784) 

A detail cost model which can t>e used in cost analysis and at 
higher levels of the work breakdown structure is examined. The 
model was developed to perform cost versus system parameter 
evaluations early in the design cycle. The use of up-front parametric 
models, the costing concept of this model, and calibrating the 
model against development costs are discussed. The model is 
compared with other development cost models with good results. 
Tt>e model does not irK^lude elements such as flight test in its 
development costs. r.b. 

A88-55331# 

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR THE SPACE STATION PROGRAM 

BAL KRISHAN (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co.. Huntington 
Beach, CA) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 39th, 
Bangalore, India, Oct. 8-15, 1988. 7 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-061) 

A risk management approach for the Space Station is presented, 
based on the principle that system acquisitk>n is founded on the 
interrelation between design, testing, and production. A definitron 
of risk is presented, and risk sources and control are discussed. 
The architecture of the risk n^nagement system is given. The 
three steps of the system's methodology are risk kJentif«atk)n 
and assessment, risk prioritizatbn, and risk resolution and statusing. 
A quantitative risk assessment model has been developed, 
identifying the most sensitive risk items. A production schedule 
and control system is being established to provWe earty warning 



23 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



and control of potential problems to ensure smooth transition from 
design to production and deployment. R.B. 

N88-10608# NKF Engineering, Inc., Reston, VA. 
FIBER OPTIC ENGINEERING SENSOR SYSTEM. 
PRELIMINARY PROGRAM MANAGEMENT PLAN, PHASE 3 
REVISION 

Jul. 1987 36 p 

(Contract N00014-87-C-2032) 

(AD-A1 83663; NKF-87103-003/03-REV) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 17E 

The principal objective of this program is to develop a Fiber 
Optic Engineering Sensor System (FOESS) including sensors, 
telemetry, and displays for applications such as damage control, 
system control (i.e., propulsion or steering) and intrusion defense 
systems for ship, aircraft and shore applications. This objective is 
being achieved by research and engineering effort conducted in 
three, originally four, contractually defined phases. GRA 

N88-14062*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1978: A CHRONOLOGY 

BETTE R. JANSON (Creative Resources and Planning, Fairfax, 

Va.) 1986 394 p fts NASA History Series 

(Contract NASA ORDER W-73289) 

(NASA-SP-4023; NAS 1.21:4023) Avail: SOD HC $13.00 as 

033-000-01010-9; NTIS MF A01 CSCL 05D 

This is the 18th in a series of annual chronologies of significant 
events in the fields of astronautics and aeronautics. Events covered 
are international as well as national and political as well as scientific 
and technical This series is a reference work for historians, NASA 
personnel, government agencies, congressional staffs, and the 
media. Author 

N88-14155*# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council, Washington. DC. Committee on the Status and Viability 

of Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures. 

ADVANCED ORGANIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR 

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES: FUTURE PROGRAM 

1987 112 p 

(Contract NASW-4003) 

(NASA-CR-181467; NAS 1.26:181467) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL 1 1D 

Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been 
responsible for revolutionary changes in alt fields of engineering. 
These advances have had and are still having a significant impact 
on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered 
materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix 
or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties 
of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 
years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite 
materials were identified. During the 1 970s much lower cost carbon 
filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from 
boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, 
filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for 
increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic 
composite materials into production aircraft structures was 
disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology 
development actions that will assist in accelerating the application 
of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is 
discussed. Author 

N88-14926*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

LANGLEY SYMPOSIUM ON AERODYNAMICS, VOLUME 1 

SHARON H. STACK, comp. Dec. 1986 592 p Symposium 
held in Hampton, Va.. 23-25 Apr. 1985 
(NASA-CP-2397; L-16031; NAS 1.55:2397) Avail: NTIS HC 
A25/MF A01 CSCL GIB 

The purpose of this work was to present current work and 
results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas 
of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, 
propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed. 



and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included 
in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid 
physics, and viscous drag reduction. 

N88-14970*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

WIND SHEAR DETECTION. FORWARD-LOOKING SENSOR 

TECHNOLOGY 

E, M. BRACALENTE, comp. and V. E. DELNORE. comp. (PRC 
Kentron, Inc., Hampton, Va.) Oct. 1987 282 p Presented at 
the 1st Industry Review, Hampton, Va., 24-25 Feb. 1987 
(NASA-CP-10004; NAS 1.55:10004; DOT/FAA/PS-87/2) Avail: 
NTIS HC A13/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in 
February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of 
forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance 
of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, 
academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide 
first a review of the cun-ent FAA and NASA wind shear programs, 
then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to 
give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking 
sensors. This document is intended to informally record the 
essence of the technology updates (represented here through 
unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion 
following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining 
unresolved. Author 

N88-15096# Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Engineering 

and Geosciences Div. 

SUMMARIES OF FY 1987 ENGINEERING RESEARCH 

Nov. 1987 127 p 

(DE88-002572; DOE/ER-0352) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Engineering Research 
program for fiscal year 1 987 is presented; a summary is provided 
for each of the program projects in addition to a brief program 
overview. The report is intended to provide staff of Congressional 
committees, other executive departments, and other DOE offices 
with substantive program information so as to facilitate 
governmental overview and coordination of Federal research 
programs. Of equal importance, its availability facilitates 
communication of program information to interested research 
engineers and scientists. DOE 

N88-15803*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center. Cleveland, OH. 

THE NASA AIRCRAFT ICING RESEARCH PROGRAM 

ROBERT J. SHAW and JOHN J. REINMANN In its Aeropropulsion 

'87. Session 5: Subsonic Propulsion Technology 27 p Nov. 

1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is 
to develop and make available to industry icing technology to 
support the needs and requirements for all weather aircraft designs. 
Research is being done for both fixed and rotary wing applications. 
The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two 
key areas: advanced ice protection concepts and icing simula- 
tion (analytical and experimental). The computer code 
development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight 
testing efforts which were conducted to support the icing technology 
development are reviewed. Author 

N88-16573# European Space Agency. European Space 

Research and Technology Center, ESTEC, Noordwijk 

(Netherlands). 

THE APPROPRIATE USE OF CONTRACT TYPES IN 

DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTS (A SYSTEMS APPROACH WITH 

EMPHASIS ON THE EUROPEAN SPACE SECTOR) 

W. A. PEETERS and W. R. BURKE, ed. Oct. 1987 150 p 

(ESA-STR-222; ISSN-0379-4067; ETN-88-91410) Avail: NTIS HC 

A07/MF A01 

A general contract model and its characteristics were 
established, while specific models for the three contractual 
parameters of major influence (cost, delivery time, and 



24 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



performance) were developed. It ts possible to establish specific 
formulas for cost ar>d delivery ir^cerrtives. Qualitative guidelines 
for performance and multiple incentives are presented. A model 
is presented in the form of a decision tree. This makes it possft}le 
to select objectively the most appropriate type of contract wNle 
taking Into account the various environmental influencing factors 
together with the interests of client and contractor. The nnxlel 
and its underlying rationale help to bridge the commurucation gap 
that separates technical staff and contract administrators. ESA 

N88-16578*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville. AL 
FY87 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REPORTS, ARTICLES, 
PAPERS, AND PRESENTATIONS 

JOYCE E. TURNER, con^. Oct 1967 63 p 
{NASA-TM-100318; NAS 1.15:100318) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 
A01 CSCL <^B 

The document fvesents formal NASA technx:al reports, papers 
published in technical journals, and presentations by MSFC 
personnel In FY87. It also includes papers of MSFC contractors. 
After being announced in STAR, all of the NASA series reports 
may be obtained from the National Technk>al tnfonmatk>n Sennce, 
5285 Port Royal Road. SpringfieW. Va. 22161. The infonmation in 
this report may be of value to the scientifk: and engineering 
community in determining what information has t>een published 
and what is available. Author 

N88-16625*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Washington, DC. 

NASA/ARMY ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME 1: 
AERODYNAMICS, AND DYNAMICS AND AEROELASnCITY 

Feb. 1988 537 p Conference heW at Moffett Field. Calif.. 
17-19 Mar 1987 

(NASA-CP-2495-VOL-1: NAS 1.55:2495-VOL-1) Avail: NTIS HC 
A23/MFA01 CSCL 01 B 

The Conference Proceedings is a compilation of over 30 
technical papers presented at ths mMestone event which reported 
on the advance in rotorcraft techrwcal knowledge resulting from 
NASA. Army, and industry rotorcraft research programs over the 
last 5 to 10 years. The Conference brought together over 230 
govemment, industry, and allied nation conferees to exchange 
technkial information and hear invited techrwcal papers by 
prominent NASA, Army, ar>d industry researchers covering 
techrtology topics which included: aerodynamk». dynanracs and 
elasticity, propulsion and drive systems, flight dynamtes and control, 
acoustics, systems integration, and research aircraft 

N88-16632*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington, DC. 

NASA/ ARMY ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME 2: 

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, PROPULSION AND DRIVE 

SYSTEMS, FUGHT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL, AND 

ACOUSTICS 

Feb. 1988 587 p Conference heW at Moffett FieW, Calif.. 

17-19 Mar. 1987 

(NASA-CP-2495-VOL-2; NAS 1 .55:2495-VOL-2) Avail: NTIS HC 

A25/MFA01 CSCL 01 B 

The Conference Proceedings is a compilation of over 30 
technical papers presented whwh report on the advances in 
rotOTCTaft technical knowledge resulting from NASA, Amiy, and 
industry research programs over the last 5 to 10 years. Topics 
addressed in this volume include: materials and structures; 
propulsion and drive systems; flight dynamfes and control; and 
acoustics. 

N88-16698*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland. OH. 

IMPACT AND PROMISE OF NASA AEROPROPULSION 

TECHNOLOGY 

NEAL T. SAUNDERS and DAVID N. BOWDITCH //? its 
Aeropropulsk>n *87. Sesswn 1: Aeropropulsion Materials Research 
30 p Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 21 E 



The aeropropulsion industry in the United States has establistied 
an enviable record of leading the worid in aeropropulsion for 
commercial and military aircraft. The NASA aeropropulsion 
propulsion program (primarily conducted through the Lewis 
Researdi Center) has signifrcantly contritHited to that success 
through research and technology advances and technology 
demonstrations such as the Refan, Engine Compor^ent 
Irr^xovement. and the Energy Effkaent Engine Programs. Some 
p^ NASA contributions to engines in current aircraft are reviewed, 
and technotogies emerging from cun-ent research programs for 
the aircraft of the 1990's are described. Rnally, cun-ent program 
thrusts toward irr^xoviiig propulsk>n systems in the 2000's for 
subsonk^ commercial aircraft and higher speed aircraft such as 
the High-Speed Civil Transport and the National Aerospace Plane 
(NASP) are (fiscussed. Author 

N8S-17261*# Mk:hi9an Univ.. Ann Arbor. Robotics Research 

Lab. 

SOFTWARE FOR INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 

PARTI 

A. W. NAYLOR and R. A. VOLZ /n NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson 

Space Center. Houston. Texas. First Annual Wortcshop on Space 

Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR 87) p 397-396 Oct. 

1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

For several years, a broad, unified approach to programming 
manufacturing cells, factory floors, and other manufacturing 
systems has been developed. It is based on a blending of 
distrttxjted Ada. software components, generics and formal models. 
Among other things the mac^nes ar»d devk^es whk^h make up 
the components, and the entire manufacturing cell is viewed as 
an assernbly of software components. The purpose of this project 
is to reduce cost, increase the reltabiHty and increase the ftex^ity 
of manufacturing software. An overview is given of the approach 
and an experimental generic factory floor controller that was 
developed using the approach is descrit)ed. The controller is 
generic in the sense that it can control any one of a large class 
of factory fk>ors making an artMtrary mix of parts. Author 

N88-17262*# Mk^higan Univ., Ann Artxx. Robotics Research 

Lab. 

SOFTWARE FOR INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 

PART 2 

R. A. VOLZ and A. W. NAYLOR fn NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson 

Space Center. Houston, Texas. First Annual Workshop on Space 

Operations Automation and Rot)Otics (SOAR 87) p 399-403 Oct 

1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

Part 1 presented an overview of the unified approach to 
manufacturing software. The specific characteristics of the 
apprcoch that alk>w it to realize the goals of reduced cost increased 
reliatMlity and increased flexibility are consklered. Why the blending 
of a components view, distributed languages, generics and formal 
models is knportant wfiy each indtvkiual part of this approach is 
essential, and why each component will typk^ly have each of 
these parts are examirted. An example of a specification for a 
real material handlir^g system is presented using the approach 
and compared with the standard interface specifk»tion given by 
the manufactiffer. Use of the component in a distrttxited 
manufacturing system is then compared with use of the traditional 
specifkation with a more traditional approach to designing the 
system. An overview is also provktod of the underlying mechanisms 
used for inrYplementing distributed manufacturing systems using the 
unified software/hardware component approach. Author 

N8»-17833# Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm G.m.b.H., Ottobmnn 
(Germany. F.R.). Engineering and Manufacturing Div. 
COOPERATION KNOW-HOW IN HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS 

HORST PREM fn /ts Research and Devetopmeni 

Technk»l-Scientifk: Publk»tions (1956-1987): Retrospective View 
and Prospects. Jubilee Edition on the Occasion of the 75th 
Anniversary of D^)l.-Engr. Dr.-Engr. E.H. Ludwig Boelkow p 99-106 
1987 Presented at the Binational Conference on Asia-Padfrc 



25 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



Dimensions of International Business: A Joint French-German 
Approach, Stuttgart, Fed. Republic of Germany, 16-17 Oct. 1986 
Previously announced in lAA as A87-49966 
(MBB-Z-1 01/86) Avail: NTIS HC A14/MF A01 

The international cooperation of the German aerospace industry 
in the field of high-technology products is reviewed. The rationale 
for cooperation is explained. The technology targets for production, 
design, development, and basic research within Europe, with a 
view to the realization of competitive programs, are presented. 
Examples of international cooperation are given in order to 
demonstrate that the aerospace industry is a key factor in the 
international cooperation between industrialized nations. ESA 

N88-19377*# Priem Consultants, Inc.. Cleveland. OH. 
STUDY OF INDUSTRY REQUIREMENTS THAT CAN BE 
FULFILLED BY COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTATION ABOARD 
SPACE STATION Final Contractor Report 

RICHARD J. PRIEM Mar. 1988 62 p 

(Contract NAS3-24105) 

(NASA.CR-1 80854; E-3901; NAS 1.26:180854) Avail: NTIS HC 

A04/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

The purpose of this study is to define the requirements of 
commercially motivated microgravlty combustion experiments and 
the optimal way for space station to accommodate these 
requirements. Representatives of commercial organizations, 
universities and government agencies were contacted. Interest in 
and needs for microgravlty combustion studies are identified for 
commercial/industrial groups involved in fire safety with terrestrial 
applications, fire safety with space applications, propulsion and 
power, industrial burners, or pollution control. From these interests 
and needs experiments involving: (1) no flow with solid or liquid 
fuels; (2) homogeneous mixtures of fuel and air; (3) low flow with 
solid or liquid fuels; (4) low flow with gaseous fuel; (5) high pressure 
combustion; and (6) special burner systems are described and 
space station resource requirements for each type of experiment 
provided. Critical technologies involving the creation of a laboratory 
environment and methods for combining experimental needs into 
one experiment in order to obtain effective use of space station 
are discussed. Diagnostic techniques for monitoring combustion 
process parameters are identified. Author 

N88-20176# Ministry of Defence, London (England). 
PICKING WINNERS: PARAMETRIC COST ESTIMATING AND 
PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

P. G. PUGH In AGARD. Flight Vehicle Development Time and 
Cost Reduction 21 p Sep. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A14/MF A01 

Project managers and development engineers might well be 
excused for thinking that they have more than enough cost 
estimates already. After all, the content of any major development 
program is always broken down into numerous work packages 
and the cost of these individually estimated in fine detail. Then, 
as the work proceeds, these very detailed bottom-up estimates 
are continually refined and have a large claim on the attention of 
project managers. However, there is another form of cost estimating 
which can be used from the very inception of a project and which 
brings large returns from modest effort. Traditional methods assist 
attempts to control the costs of an on-going project towards some 
pre-set target. The methods described here are directed more at 
the initial selection of projects and the setting of feasible cost 
targets for them. In brief, their role is to pick winners from the 
range of competing alternatives which present themselves before 
a major project is begun. At the least, these methods give greater 
assurance that the chosen solution will be viable in terms of its 
being attempted within realistic cost restraints. Author 

N88-20189# Boeing Military Airplane Development, Wichita. KS. 
Manufacturing Technology. 

PROTOTYPE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR 
REDUCING COST, SCHEDULE, AND TECHNICAL RISK 

M. SCOTT SCHUESSLER and JOSEPH C. WILLIAMS In AGARD. 
Flight Vehicle Development Time and Cost Reduction 1 4 p Sep. 



1987 

Avail: NTISHCA14/MFA01 

Programs involving the manufacture of prototype hardware offer 
rewards to those companies willing to accept the challenge. Boeing 
Military Aircraft Company (BMAC) has excelled at meeting these 
challenges with a proven record of successful development 
pregrams, In addition, future programs will use neoteric 
technologies and disciplines such as Computer-Integrated 
Manufacturing (CIM) to direct and integrate all required fabrication 
and assembly processes. Logic, innovation blended with tradition, 
and careful planning are the keys to BMAC's success. Author 

N88-20195# Aeronautica Macchi S.p.A.. Varese (Italy). 
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT FOR VALIDATION PROTOTYPE 
PHASE 

ALESSANDRO NEVIANI In AGARD. Flight Vehicle Development 
Time and Cost Reduction 11 p Sep. 1987 
Avail: NTISHCA14/MF A01 

The success and effectiveness of a concept of 
demonstration-validation through the use of prototypes depend 
essentially on the contractor's engineering management activities, 
which must be carefully tailored to the goals of the program. 
Special importance goes to the activities for the definition of the 
most cost-effective prototype configuration, of planning, 
coordination and integration of the different specialty areas, of 
reduction and simplification of the formal qualification 
documentation and decision processes. This requires that the 
customer include flexibility In his contract, and that the contractor 
adapt his organization by establishing an efficient task force led 
by a dedicated system engineering structure. Essential factors for 
success are also a correct choice of key people for the 
organizational structure, and the completeness of the conceptual 
studies representing a basis for realistic planning of the prototype 
definition, development and evaluation activities. The evaluation 
of the benefits obtainable in terms of complete development costs 
and time by using the suggested policies and techniques can be 
qualitative only, significant and homogeneous comparison data 
being scarce. Author 

N88-20224*# Kansas Univ. Center for Research. Inc.. Lawrence. 

Industrial Innovation Lab. 

A PROJECT TO TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY FROM NASA 

CENTERS IN SUPPORT OF INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION IN THE 

MIDWEST Final Report 

B. G. BARR Apr. 1986 21 p 

(Contract NASW-3438) 

(NASA-CR-1 80360; NAS 1.26:180360; FR-5040) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

A technology transfer program utilizing graduate students in 
mechanical engineering at the University of Kansas was initiated 
in eariy 1981. The objective of the program was to encourage 
industrial innovation in the Midwest through improved 
industry/university cooperation and the utilization of NASA 
technology. A related and important aspect of the program was 
the improvement of graduate engineering education through the 
involvement of students in the identification and accomplishment 
of technological objectives in cooperation with scientists at NASA 
centers and engineers in industry. The pilot NASA/University 
Industrial Innovation Program was an outstanding success based 
on its ability to: attract top graduate students; secure industry 
support; and stimulate industry/university cooperation leading to 
enhanced university capability and utilization of advanced 
technology by industry. B.G. 

N88-22902*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

NASA ADVANCED TURBOPROP RESEARCH AND CONCEPT 
VALIDATION PROGRAM 

JOHN B. WHITLOW. JR. and G. KEITH SIEVERS 1988 23 p 
Proposed for presentation at the 1 988 Conference and Exposition 
on Future Transportation Technology, San Francisco, Calif.. 8-1 1 
Aug. 1 988; sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers 



26 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURIIM3 



(NASA-TM-1 00891; E-4129; NAS 1,15:100891) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MFA01 CSCL21E 

NASA has determined by experiinental and analytical effort 
that use of advanced turtx>prop propulsion instead of the 
conventional turt)ofans in tt>e older nantnv-txx^ airline fleet could 
reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent 
In cooperation with industry. NASA has defined and implemented 
an Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program to develop and validate 
the technology required for Vttese new high-speed. multtt>laded. 
thin, swept propeller concepts. Tt>is paper presents an overview 
of the analysis, model-scale test, and large-scale flight test 
elements of the program together with preliminary test results, as 
available. Author 



N8a-2290S# Air Force vy^ht Aeronautical Labs.. 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. 

STABILITY AND CONTROL METHODOLOGY FOR 

CONCEPTUAL AIRCRAFT DESIGN. VOLUME 1: 

METHODOLOGY MANUAL Final Report. Jun. 1985 - Jun. 1987 

TERRY S. SMITH Dec. 1987 179 p 

(AD-A1 91 31 4; AFWAL-TR-87-31 1 5-VOL-1 ) Avail: NTIS HC 

A09/MF A01 CSCL 01A 

This report contains methodology for predicting stability and 
control characteristics of conceptual flight vehicles. The 
n>ethodology presented is a comt>tr)ation of existing methodology, 
modified existing methodology, and newly developed methodology. 
The methodology is divided into three main sections: (1) 
Aerodynamics of Longitudinal stability coefficients, (2) Lateral 
Stability coefficients, and (3) Static and Dynamic Stability 
Analysis. GRA 



N88-23684# National Aerospace Lab., An^terdam (Netherlands). 

Informatics Div. 

DATA MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE INDUSTRIAL 

ENVIRONMENT 

R. P. DEMOEL and F. J. HEEREMA 8 Jan. 1987 24 p In 
DUTCH; ENGLISH summary Presented at CAPE Nederland '87, 
Amsterdam. The Netherlands, 17-19 Mar. 1987 
{NLR.MP-87002-U; B8731727; ETN-88-92227) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 

Use of data management techrK>k>gy t>y industry is discussed. 
Working methods, responsibilities and habits, confidence in 
automation, and panic r^ated to own status are considered. 

ESA 



N88-23726*# Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept of Mechanical and 

Aerospace Engineering. 

ITS TIME TO REINVENT THE GENERAL AVIATION 

AIRPLANE 

ROBERT F. STENGEL fn NASA. Langley Research Center, 
Joint University Program for An- Transportation Research, 1986 p 
81-105 Apr. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

Current designs for general aviation airplanes have become 
obsolete, and avenues for major redesign must be considered. 
New designs should ir^corporate recent advar>ces in electronics* 
aerodynamics, structures, materials, and propulsion. Future 
airplanes should be optimized to operate satisfactorily in a positive 
air traffic control environment to afford safety and comfort for 
point-to-point transportation, and to take advantage of automated 
manufacturing techniques and high production rates. These 
requirements have broad implications for airplane design and flying 
qualities, leading to a concept for the Modem Equipment General 
Aviation (MEGA) airplane. Synergistic improvements in design, 
production, and operation can provide a much needed fresh start 
for the general aviation industry and the traveling public. In this 
investigation a smalt four place airplane is taken as the reference, 
although the proposed philosophy applies ao-oss the entire 
spectrum of general aviation. Author 



N88-23764# General Accounting Office, Washington. DC. 
NATIONAL AERO-SPACE PLANE: A TECHNOLOGY 
DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM TO BUILD 
THEX-30 

Apr. 1988 80 p 

{GAO/NSIAD-88-122; AD-A1 92698) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 

A01 

The National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program is a joint 
DOD/NASA technology development and den>onstration program 
to t>uild and test the X-30 experimental flight vehrcle. The X-30 is 
designed to take off horizontally from a conventional runway, reach 
hypersonic speeds up to Mach 25, attain low Earth ort>it, and 
return to land on a conventional runway. The X-30 would fly 10 
times faster and higher than existirig air-breathing aircraft The 
NASP Program is described and a status report of X-30 
development provided, including the following: (1) goals and 
objectives; (2) program costs and schedule estimates; (3) key 
technobgical developmenfts, integratk>n. aruj risks; (4) potential 
military, space, and commercial missk}n applicatk>ns; (5) program 
management ar>d acquisition; and (6) alternatives and intematk)r)al 
aerospace development efforts. Author 



N88-23823# Science Applk:atx>ns International Corp., McLean. 

VA. 

SOVIET SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING RESEARCH 

J. F. GARIBOTTI, M. ASWANI, E. F. CRAWLEY. W. C. KESSLER. 
K. SOOSAAR, J. D. TURNER, and W. P. WITT Oct. 1987 164 p 
{FASAC-TAR-3090) Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 

The Soviet published literature in spacecraft engir>eering 
pertaining to future space systems, including those utilizirfg large 
structures is assessed. Topk:al areas emphasized indude advanced 
structural concepts and associated construction approaches, 
spacecraft materials, precision pointing and rapid retargeting, 
geometrically precise structures in the presence of static and 
dynamic disturt>ances. and spacecraft vulnerability as it relates to 
these aspects of spacecraft engineering. The assessment irKlicates 
that the Soviets have significant strengths and specialties in 
spacecraft engineering. The Soviet space station appears to be 
the principal Soviet large system of the near future, and this will 
expand and evolve in size and capability. Radio astronomy missions 
are also genuine drivers for large space structure technology, 
including space construction capability. In the structural materials 
area, the Soviets can be expected to develop high quality, 
structurally efficient fit}er-reinforced metal-matrix cornposites. which 
will be used to improve the performance and possibly the 
survivability of future Soviet spacecraft. The technology of 
control-structure interaction, important in the design of large 
space-t>ased lasers, is receiving considerably more support. t>ased 
on the published literature, in the United States than in the Soviet 
Union. Author 



N88-24002*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 
ENGINE STRUCTURES: A BIBUOGRAPHY OF LEWIS 
RESEARCH CENTER'S RESEARCH FOR 1980-1987 

Apr. 1988 212 p Com^led by the Committee for LST 88. the 
Lewis Structures TechrK>logy Symposium and Exposition, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 24-25 May 1988 

(NASA-TM-1 00842; E-4033; NAS 1.15:100842) Avail: NTIS HC 
A01/MFA01 CSCL20K 

This compilation of abstracts describes and ir)dexes the 
technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering 
work performed and managed by the Structures Division of the 
NASA Lewis Research Center from 1980 through 1987. All the 
publications were announced in the 1980 to 1987 issues of STAR 
(Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and or lAA 
(International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, 
journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent 
applications, and theses. Author 



27 



03 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING 



N88-2464r# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

NASA/INDUSTRY ADVANCED TURBOPROP TECHNOLOGY 

PROGRAM 

JOSEPH A. ZIEMIANSKI and JOHN B. WHITLOW, JR. 1988 
26 p Prepared for presentation at the 16th Congress of the 
International Council of Aeronautical Sciences, Jerusalem, Israel, 
28 Aug. - 2 Sep. 1988 

(NASA-TM-1 00929; E-4198; NAS 1,15:100929) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 CSCL21E 

Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced 
turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans 
in the older narrow-body airiine fleet could reduce fuel consumption 
for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced 
Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key 
technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller 
concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled 
to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by 
ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. 
Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of 
the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make 
advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed 
application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the 
prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement 
in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987. Author 

N88-26572# National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD. 
Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering. 
CENTER FOR ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENTS 
COVERING CENTER PROGRAMS, JULY TO SEPTEMBER 1987 
E. J. WALTERS Apr. 1988 27 p 

(PB88-1 96530; NBSIR-88/3748) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 
CSCL 09C 

This is the fourteenth issue of a quarterly publication providing 
information on the technical work of the National Bureau of 
Standards Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering. The 
issue of the Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering 
Technical Publication Announcements covers the third quarter of 
calendar year 1987. Abstracts are provided by technical area for 
papers published this quarter. Author 

N88-27756# Office of Science and Technology, Washington, 

DC. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND 

TECHNOLOGY: COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER RESEARCH AND 

APPLICATIONS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND 

ENGINEERING COMPUTING: THE US SUPERCOMPUTER 

INDUSTRY 

Dec. 1987 180 p 

(DE88-011262; DOE/ER-0362) Avail: NTIS HC A09 

The Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engineering, and 
Technology (FCCSET) Committee on Supercomputing was 
chartered by the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy in 1982 to examine the status of supercomputing in the 
United States and to recommend a role for the Federal Government 
in the development of this technology. In this study, the FCCSET 
Committee (now called the Subcommittee on Science and 
Engineering Computing of the FCCSET Committee on Computer 
Research and Applications) reports on the status of the 
supercomputer industry and addresses changes that have occurred 
since issuance of the 1983 and 1985 reports. The review based 
on periodic meetings with and site visits to supercomputer 
manufacturers and consultation with experts in high performance 
scientific computing. White papers have been contributed to this 
report by industry leaders and supercomputer experts. DOE 

N88-27813# Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Optimal Design Lab. 
DATABASE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING 
OPTIMIZATION Final Technical Report, Oct. 1982 - Feb. 1988 

JASBIR S. ARORA Feb, 1988 151 p 
(Contract AF AFOSR-0322-82) 



(AD-A1 93325; ODL-88.2; AFOSR-88-0366TR) Avail: NTIS HC 
A08/MFA01 CSCL12G 

In this report, the research completed under the project In 
the area of database management in engineering design and 
optimization is described. Database management concepts used 
in business applications were studied and concepts suitable for 
engineering applications were developed. Data structures that need 
to be managed were identified. Database design methodologies 
were studied and a suitable methodology for engineering designs 
and optimization applications was developed. Several prototype 
database management systems (DBMS) were designed, developed 
and evaluated. Several prototype application programs utilizing a 
database management were developed to evaluate performance 
of DBMS. Based on these implementations and studies, the usual 
relational data model was generalized to handle engineering data 
types. Specifications for an integrated DBMS capable of handling 
relations, vectors and matrices (of different types) were developed. 
A system based on the specifications, called MIDAS/GR was 
implemented and evaluated. MIDAS/GR stands for Management 
of Information for Design and Analysis of Systems/Generalized 
Relational Model. GRA 

N88-28802# Rolls-Royce Ltd., Derby (England). 
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT CURRENT 
AND FORTHCOMING TECHNOLOGIES 

DEREK HATHAWAY 3 Dec. 1987 21 p Presented at a 
conference, Derby, United Kingdom, 3 Dec. 1987 
(PNR90445: ETN-88-92679) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

Computer aided engineering; manufacturing control; computer 
aided logistics; semiconductors; data storage; vector and parallel 
processing; fourth generation languages; industry standards for 
computer systems; and computer aided design and manufacturing 
are reviewed. ESA 

N88-28915*# Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Long Beach, CA. 
CRITICAL JOINTS IN LARGE COMPOSITE PRIMARY 
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES. VOLUME 2: TECHNOLOGY 
DEMONSTRATION TEST REPORT 

BRUCE L BUNIN Jun. 1985 209 p 

(Contract NASI -16857) 

(NASA-CR-1 72587; NAS 1.26:172587; ACEE-26-TR-3478-VOL.2) 

Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical 
structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the 
design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The 
results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are 
presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the 
technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure 
and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout 
the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition 
specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the 
wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All 
tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray 
T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The 
splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum 
and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, 
instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for 
each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions 
are also included. Author 

N88-28916*# Douglas Aircraft Co.. Inc.. Long Beach, CA. 
CRITICAL JOINTS IN LARGE COMPOSITE PRIMARY 
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES. VOLUME 3: ANCILLARY TEST 
RESULTS 

BRUCE L BUNIN and R. L SAGU! Washington, D.C. Jun. 

1985 338 p 

(Contract NASI -16857) 

(NASA-CR-1 72588; NAS 1.26:172588; 

ACEE-26-TR-3958A-VOL-3) Avail: NTIS HC A15/MF A01 

CSCL 01 C 

A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical 
structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the 
design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The 



28 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, 
consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a 
variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to 
characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are 
required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was 
Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 
and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in 
single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole 
configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two 
different layup patterns were examined. Alt tests were conducted 
at room temperature. In addition, ttie results of NASA Standard 
Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were 
conducted for several material systems. Author 

N8a-28983*# Douglas Aircraft Co.. Inc., Long Beach, CA. 
CRITICAL JOINTS IN LARGE COMPOSITE PRIMARY 
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES. VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL SUMMARY 
Rnal Report 

BRUCE L BUNIN Sep. 1985 64 p 

(Contract NASI -16857) 

(NASA-CR-3914; NAS 1.26:3914; ACEE-26-FR-3504) Avail: 

NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 11D 

A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to 
develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure 
that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial 
transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures 
for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of 
the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply 
the empirical data required for methods development Large 
composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design 
concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 
2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and 
analysis data, and culminated with several technology 
demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a 
commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program 
of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development 
structural test program, and correlation between test results and 
analytical strength predictions are reviewed. Author 



04 
ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 

Includes Artificial Intelligence, Robots and Robotics, Automatic 
Control and Cybernetics, Expert Systems, Automation Applications, 
Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Computer-Aided Manufacturing. 



A88-10437 

ROBOTIC AIR VEHICLE - A PILOTS PERSPECTIVE 

JESSE BLAIR (USAF, Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, 
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH) and KARL E. SCHRICKER (Texas 
Instruments, Inc., Dallas) IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems 
Magazine (ISSN 0885-8985), vol. 2, Slept. 1987, p. 8-11. 

The algorithms and technologicat features needed to develop 
robotic air vehicles (RAVs) are examined. The proposed RAV is 
an unmanned air vehicle capable of passive terrain following, terrain 
avoidance, obstacle avoidance, arwj autonomous navigation. The 
need to combine the remotely piloted vehicle airframe and 
propulsion concept with Al is discussed- RAV simulations and 
demonstrations have been designed. The simulations will evaluate 
the functioning of the RAV software algorithms during various 
mission scenarios, and the demonstrations wilt test the ability of 
RAVs to fly a jet aircraft, execute an instalment/qualification check, 
a mission ready check, and a tactical qualification check. l.F. 

A88-15285 

CAMERA EXPERT SYSTEM FOR SPACE STATION 

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRACKING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT 

MICHAEL CRONE and PAUL JULICH (Harris Corp., Melbourne, 



FL) IN: Space Congress, 24th, Cocoa Beach. FL, Apr. 21-24, 
1987, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral. FL, Canaveral Council of 
Technical Societies, 1987, 14 p. refs 

This paper describes research into the use of expert system 
technology for the management of the communications and 
tracking system for the Space Station. The CAMERA (Control and 
Monitor Equipment Resource Allocation) Expert System was 
developed to minimize crew workload in managing the 
communications of the Space Station. The system has been 
tmplen^ented (under NASA contract) for use on a testbed at JSC. 
The system utilizes a state-of-the-art man-machine interface to 
allow high-level end-to-end service requests. Author 

A88-15300* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. 
BUILDING INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS - ARTIFICIAL 
INTELUGENCE RESEARCH AT NASA AMES RESEARCH 
CENTER 

PETER FRIEDLAND and HENRY LUM (NASA. Anf>es Research 
Center. Moffett Field. CA) IN: Space Congress. 24th, Cocoa 
Beach. FL, Apr. 21-24, 1987, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FU 
Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1 987, 7 p. 

The basic components that make up the goal of buitdir^ 
autonomous intelligent systems are discussed, and ongoing work 
at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. It is noted that 
a clear progression of systems can be seen through research 
settings (txjth within and external to NASA) to Space Station 
testt>eds to systems which actually fly on the Space Station. The 
startir^g point for the discussion is a 'truly* autonomous Space 
Station intelligent system, responsible for a major portion of Space 
Station control. Attention is given to research in fiscal 1987, 
including reasoning under uncertainty, machine learning, causa) 
modeling and simulation, knowledge from design through 
operations, advanced planning work, validation methodologies, and 
hierarchical control of and distributed cooperation among multiple 
knowledge-based systems. B.J. 

A88-15816*# Jet Propulsion Lab,, California Inst, of Tech.. 

Pasadena. 

NASAS TELEROBOTICS R&D PROGRAM - STATUS AND 

FUTURE DIRECTIONS 

DONNA SHIRLEY PIVIROTTO (California Institute of Technology, 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Pasadena) and GIULIO VARSI (NASA, 
Washington, DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress. 38th. 
Brighton. England, Oct 10-17, 1987. 8 p. refs 
(Contract NAS7-918) 
(lAF PAPER 87-24) 

NASA's telerobotics technology program is described as well 
as the process for the transfer of this technotogy to the Space 
Station, and some of the implications of the techrK>logy for station 
design and operations, including those for international cooperation. 
A diagram is presented of the NASREM control heirarchy with 
the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology telerobot testbed 
architecture superimposed. In telerobotics, the following areas were 
identified as possible subjects for developing data to support 
international standards: (1) task boards, (2) system performartce 
measures on task t>oards, (3) human performance measures on 
task boards with teleoperation, and (4) autonomus-telerobotic- 
teteoperated performance comparisons. K.K. 



AB8-15822# 

APPLICABILITY OF AJ. TECHNIQUES TO THE SPACE 
STATION, A STUDY CASE - DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT 
SYSTEM FOR ON BOARD FAULT MANAGEMENT 

R. PERSICO. P. DONZELLI. F. LONGONl (Laben - Industrie per 
lo Spazio e le Comunicazioni S.p.A.. Vimodrone. Italy), and G. 
ROCCA (Quinary, Milan, Italy) lAF, International Astronautical 
Congress, 38th, Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 7 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-30) 

Results are presented from a feasibility study of Al fault 
diagnosis aboard the Space Station. The evolution of Al capabilities 
in recent years is reviewed; the main goals of Al development for 



29 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



the Space Station are outlined; and specific tasks for expert 
systems in the crew work station are discussed, including system 
and subsystem operation and management, payload operation ^nd 
management, support for telescience and active research, and 
mission planning and timelining. An expert-system architecture is 
then worked out for the case of the Processor Interface Adaptor: 
the methodological approach, knowledge base, inference engine, 
user interface, and development environment definition are 
characterized in detail and illustrated with diagrams. The 
architecture developed is found to be a first step in (1) reducing 
crew workload while maintaining crew authority and visibility and 
(2) meeting hardware documentation needs. T.K. 

A88-16999* Stanford Univ., CA. 

EXPERIMENTS IN ADVANCED CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR 
SPACE ROBOTICS - AN OVERVIEW OF THE STANFORD 
AEROSPACE ROBOTICS LABORATORY 

M. G. HOLLARS, R. H. CANNON. JR., H. L ALEXANDER, and 
D. F. MORSE (Stanford, University, CA) IN: Guidance and control 
1987; Proceedings of the Annual Rocky Mountain Guidance and 
Control Conference, Keystone, CO, Jan. 31-Feb. 4, 1987. San 
Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc., 1987, p. 417-434, NASA-supported 
research, rets 

(Contract F49620-82-C-00092; F33615-85-C-5106; 
F33615-82-K-5108; MDA903-86-K-0037) 
(AAS PAPER 87-044) 

The Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is 
actively developing and experimentally testing advanced robot 
control strategies for space robotic applications. Early experiments 
focused on control of very lightweight one-link manipulators and 
other flexible structures. The results are being extended to position 
and force control of mini-manipulators attached to flexible 
manipulators and multilink manipulators with flexible drive trains. 
Experimental results show that end-point sensing and careful 
dynamic modeling or adaptive control are key to the success of 
these control strategies. Free-flying space robot simulators that 
operate on an air cushion table have been built to test control 
strategies in which the dynamics of the base of the robot and the 
payload are important. Author 

A88-19885 

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT INVESTMENT STRATEGY 
SYSTEM FOR AEROSPACE RD&E AND PRODUCTION 
CONTRACT BIDDING 

G. R. MADEY, J. POTTER (Kent State University. OH), and M. H. 
WOLFE (Goodyear Aerospace Corp., Akron, OH) IEEE 

Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 
EM-34. Nov. 1987, p. 252-258. refs 

A small expert system developed in an aerospace firm is 
described. The expert system, called INSTRAT, assists managers 
with investment decisions associated with R&D, engineering, and 
production contract bidding. These decisions are a frequent and 
bothersome problem within the firm. INSTRAT is also used for 
training new staff and as a computerized 'road map' or checklist 
for the more experienced managers. The expert system was written 
using the OPS5 development language and consists of almost 
two hundred rules. A survey of artificial intelligence (Al), expert 
systems (ES), expert support systems (ESS), and the OPS5 
language is provided with emphasis on engineering management 
applications. The artificial intelligence/expert systems model 
building approach was found to produce a satisfactory decision 
aid for the firm's managers. This approach was evaluated to be 
as good as or better than the more traditional operations research, 
management science, or decision support system approaches for 
the investment decision problem described in the paper. Author 

A86-21620 

INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND COMPUTER VISION; 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH MEETING, CAMBRIDGE, MA, 
OCT. 28-31, 1986 

DAVID P. CASASENT, ED. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 
PA) Meeting sponsored by SPIE. Bellingham, WA, Society of 
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE Proceedings. 



Volume 726), 1987, 598 p. For individual items see A88-21621 to 

A88-21629. 

(SPIE-726) 

Major topics and new areas of work in intelligent robots and 
computer vision research are examined. The general topics 
addressed include: pattern recognition for computer vision, image 
processing for intelligent robotics, depth and motion in 
three-dimensional vision, modeling and shape estimation in 
three-dimensional vision, symbolic processing of visual information, 
robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures 
for robot systems, robot languages and programing, 
human-machine interfaces, systems and architectures for 
robotics. C.D. 



A88-21631 

SPACE STATION AUTOMATION II; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

MEETING, CAMBRIDGE, MA, OCT. 28-30, 1986 

WUN C. CHIOU, SR., ED. (Lockheed Research Laboratories, Palo 
Alto, CA) Meeting sponsored by SPIE. Bellingham, WA, Society 
of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE Proceedings. 
Volume 729), 1987, 275 p. For individual items see A88-21632 to 
A88-21660. 
(SPIE-729) 

Various papers on Space Station (SS) automation are 
presented. Individual topics addressed include: automation and 
robotics for the SS; controlling real-time processes on the SS 
with expert sytems; communicating expert systems tn fault 
diagnosis for SS applications; automatic planning research applied 
to orbital construction; NASA systems autonomy demonstration 
program; autonomy, automation, and systems; autonomous 
management of the SS electric energy system; design knowledge 
capture for the SS; translation and execution of distributed Ada 
programs; knowledge-based mission sequencing; passive optically 
encoded transponder; orbiting control station for free-flying 
teleoperators; system architecture for telerobotic servicing and 
assembly tasks. Also discussed are: computing architecture for 
telerobots in earth orbit; NASA telerobot technology demonstrator; 
launching a commercial space industry; Solar Maximum Mission 
repair; implementation of expert system technology on the SS; 
video-based satellite attitude determination; cooperative human- 
machine fault diagnosis. C.D. 



A88-21632* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 

USE OF AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS FOR THE SPACE 

STATION 

AARON COHEN (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX) 
IN: Space Station automation tl; Proceedings of the Meeting, 
Cambridge, MA, Oct. 28-30, 1986. Bellingham, WA, Society of 
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1987, p. 2-6. 

An overview is presented of the various possible applications 
of automation and robotics technology to the Space Station system. 
The benefits of such technology to the private sector and the 
national economy are addressed. NASA's overall approach to 
incorporating advanced technology into the Space Station is 
examined. C.D. 



A88-21633 

COOPERATING EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR SPACE STATION 

POWER DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT 

T. A. NGUYEN and W. C. CHIOU. SR. (Lockheed Artificial 
Intelligence Center, Palo Alto, CA) IN: Space Station automation 
II: Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Oct. 28-30, 1986. 
Bellingham, WA. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation 
Engineers, 1987, p. 7-10. refs 

A software program called CARTS (cooperating ART-based 
systems) is described which addresses the problem of 
communications between expert systems aboard the International 
Space Station. The CARTS architecture and implementation are 
described. An Automated Power Management System for the 
Space Station is also discussed. CD. 



30 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



A8&-21639* Texas Christian Univ.. Fort Worth. 

NASA SYSTEMS AUTONOMY DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - 

A STEP TOWARD SPACE STATION AUTOMATION 

S. A. STARKS (Texas Christian University, Fort Worth). D. RUNDUS 
(South Florida. University, Tampa, FL). W. K. ERICKSON (NASA. 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field. CA), and K. J. HEALEY 
(NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX) IN: Space Station 
automation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge. MA, Oct. 
28-30. 1 986. Bellingham. WA. Society of Photo-Optical 
Instrumentation Engineers. 1987, p. 80-85. 

This paper addresses a multiyear NASA program, the Systems 
Autonomy Demonstration Program (SADP). whose main otsjectives 
include the development, integration, and demonstration of 
automation technology in Space Station flight and ground si4>port 
systems. The rote of automation in the Space Station is reviewed, 
and the main playws in SADP and their roles are descnt)ed. The 
core research and technology b&rtg prorTK)ted by SADP are 
discussed, and a planned 1968 milestone demonstration of the 
automated monitoring, operation, and control of a complete mission 
operations $ut)system is addressed. CD. 

A86-21651* Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

THE NASA TELEROBOT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATOR 

P. S. SCHENKER. R. L FRENCH, A. R. SIROTA. and J. R. 
MATIJEVIC (California Institute of Technology. Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory. Pasadena) IN: Space Station automation It; 
Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge. MA. Oct 28-30. 1986. 
Betlingham. WA, Society of Photo-Optical Instmmentatton 
Engineers, 1987, p. 178-188. refs 

The ongoing development of a telerobot techrwlogy 
demonstrator is reported. The defTKmstrator is implemented as a 
laboratwy-based research testbed. and will show proof-of-concept 
for supennsed automation of space assembly, servicing, and repair 
operations. The demonstrator system features a hierarchicatty 
layered intelligent control architecture which enables automated 
planning and mn-tlme sequer^ctng of complex tasks by a 
supervisory human operator. The demonstrator also provides a 
full t>ilaterai force-reflecting hand control teleoperations capability. 
The operator may switch smoothly between the automated and 
teleoperated tasking rtKxles in rurvtime, either on a preplanr>ed or 
operator-designated basis. Author 

A88-22696* Apogee Research Corp., San Diego, CA. 
EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR SPACE POWER SUPPLY - DESIGN, 
ANALYSIS, AND EVALUATION 

RALPH S. COOPER (Apogee Research Corp. San Diego. CA). M. 
KEMER THOMSON, and ALAN HOSHOR (Q-Systems, San C^ego. 
CA) IN: Space nuclear power systems 1986; Proceedings of the 
Third Symposium. AltHjquerque. NM. Jan. 13-16. 1986. Malabar, 
FL. Ori^it Book Co., Inc.. 1987, p. 259-266. refs 
(Contract NAS3-23900) 

The feas^lfty of applying expert systems to ttie conceptual 
design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in 
partk^uiar, and complex systems in general is evaluated. To do 
this, the space power supply design process ai\6 its associated 
knowledge t>ase were arudyzed and characterized in a form suftat>ie 
for computer emutatk>n of a hunr^n expert. Ttie existing expert 
system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated 
to assess their apptk^atMlrty to power system design. Some new 
concepts for comk>ining program architectures (modular expert 
systems and algorithms) with informatk>n atx>ut the domain were 
applied to create a 'deep' system for handling the corr^tex design 
problem. NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping 
study of a wkle variety of power supply types for a broad rar>ge 
of missk>ns, has t>een developed, programmed, and tested as a 
concrete feasibility demonstration. Author 

A68-24230* Natbnal Aeronautk^s and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Houston. TX. 
PROCESSES IN CONSTRUCTION OF FAILURE MANAGEMENT 
EXPERT SYSTEMS FROM DEVICE DESIGN INFORMATION 

JANE T. MALIN and NICK LANCE (NASA. Johnson Space Center. 



Houston, TX) IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and 
Cybenrretics (ISSN 0018-9472). vol. SMC-17, Nov.-Dec. 1987, p. 
956-967. refs 

This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solvir^g methods 
used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert 
system from design information about the device to te diagrrosed. 
An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system 
based on devk:e design information and experience with similar 
devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gcuned from 
operating the devk:e or troubleshooting its failures. The constructk>n 
of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This 
paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design 
decisk>ns involved in constructing this type of expert system, and 
makes recommendations concerning tools for akling and 
automating constructk>n of such systems. Author 

A88-31644 

ADVANCES IN DESIGN AUTOMATION - 1987. VOLUME 1 - 

DESIGN METHODS, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, AND EXPERT 

SYSTEMS; PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL 

DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, 80ST0N, MA, SEPT. 

27-30, 1987 

S. S. RAO, ED. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN) Conference 

sponsored by ASME. New York. American Society of Mechank^ 

Engineers, 1987, 439 p. For individual items see A88-31645 to 

A88-31647. 

Topics discussed include optimal des^n theory artd applk^ttons, 
mechanism optimization, design methods, and design and 
assembly. Attention is also given to intelligent design and 
manufacturability, computer graphk:s and design, and expert 
systems and artificial intelligence. B.J. 

A6a-31648 

ADVANCES IN DESIGN AUTOMATION - 1987. VOLUME 2 - 

ROBOTICS, MECHANISMS, AND MACHINE SYSTEMS; 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL DESIGN 

AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, BOSTON, MA, SEPT. 27-30, 

1987 

S. S. RAO, ED. (Purdue University, West l_afayette, IN) Conferer>ce 

sponsored by ASME. New York, American Society of Mechank»l 

Engineers. 1987, 467 p. For indivkiual items see A88-31649 to 

A88-31653. 

Papers are presented on such topics as efectro-reheological- 
fluid-based articulating robotic systems, the shape optimum 
design of robotic manipulators with static performance 
criteria, the automated modeling and rapid solution 
of rotx)t dynamics using the symbolic polynomial technk^ue, and 
the dynamic and kinematk; analyses of a multilegged robotic 
vehicle. Consideration is also given to the synthesis of harmonic 
motion generating linkages, the dynamic modeling aruj analysis of 
general linked mechanisms with compliar>ce, the simulation of 
plar^ar dynamic mechanical systems with changing topologies, and 
a substructure technk^ue for the dynamics of flexit>ie mecharncal 
systems with contact-impacL B.J. 

A88-32522 

APPUCATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN JAPAN 

NAKAJI HONDA (University of Electro-Communk»tk)ns, Tokyo, 
Japan) and ARIO OHSATO (Yokohama National University. 
Japan) Telematk:s and Informatics (ISSN 0736-5853). vol. 5. no. 
1, 1988. p. 39-52. refs 

This article presents a comprehensive report on the recent 
research and development of artificial intelligence (Al) in Japan, 
focusing especially on industrial applications. First, historical 
background of Al research and the future trends of Al Marketing 
in Japan are reported. Then, industrial applications of Al are 
introduced with respect to three fields: expert systems, machine 
translatk>n. and applications of fuzzy set theory. Finally, problems 
for future research projects are outlined. Author 

A88-34205 

A KNOWLEDGE BASED APPROACH TO STRATEGIC 

ON-BOARD MISSION MANAGEMENT 



31 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



GEORGE F. WILBER (Boeing Military Airplane Co., Seattle, WA) 
IN: NAECON 87; Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace 
and Electronics Conference, Dayton, OH, May 18-22, 1987. Volume 
4. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 
1987. p. 1377-1381. 

The author outlines some strategic inflight mission management 
issues, then sketches an onboard mission manager that uses 
artificial intelligence techniques. Tasks handled by the mission 
manager include mission planner, global flight path generator, local 
flight path generator, crew interface, database manager, and 
navigation and guidance. I.E. 



A88-34213 

DISTRIBUTED EXPERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEMANS) 

VINCE WALDRON, HAROLD W. SHARP (Systran Corp., Dayton, 
OH), and SCOTT A. STEFANOV (USAF, Wright Aeronautical 
Laboratories. Wright-Patterson AFB. OH) IN: NAECON 87; 
Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics 
Conference, Dayton, OH, May 18-22, 1987. Volume 4. New York, 
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1987, p. 
1442-1447. 

The distributed expert management system concept has been 
developed as a means of coordinating the operations of multiple 
pilot aiding expert systems. The concept currently includes an 
executive expert system called the Expert Manager and three 
subordinate systems. The Expert Manager reduces subordinate 
system autonomy when conflicts between systems arise, when 
higher level decision making is required, or when multiple system 
outputs must be combined for display to the pilot. I.E. 

A88-35110 

CAD/CAM MACHINE - INCLUDING PLANNING FOR CAD/CAE 

USAGE IN YOUR COMPANY OR MAJOR PROGRAM 

GERALD P. KLEIN (Martin Marietta Corp., Denver, CO) IN: 
Aerospace century XXI: Space flight technologies; Proceedings of 
the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, 
Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univett, Inc., 1987, p. 947-960. 
(AAS PAPER 86-281) 

CAD/CAE/Computer-Aided Engineering (CAM) is a relatively 
new technology in the computer world. Early attempts at graphics 
representation were cumbersome and primitive, causing many 
engineering groups to remain in the manual mode of design. Today, 
there is a proliferation of new software and several technological 
advances that made the use of CAD/CAM/CAE not only attractive, 
but essential to the success of many larger companies. The early 
problems encountered in developing graphics computers, 
differences between graphics data files, and ADP files are 
discussed. The labyrinth of new technology is explored and the 
many areas of possible application of CAD/CAM/CAE are 
considered. Author 



A88-38705# 

RADARBET - A MULTIPLE TRAJECTORY ESTIMATOR USING 

AN EXPERT SYSTEM 

L. A. SLEDJESKI and L. S. STONE (Grumman Data Systems 

Corp., Bethpage, NY) IN: AIAA Flight Test Conference, 4th, San 

Diego, CA, May 18-20, 1988, Technical Papers. Washington, DC. 

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988, p. 

28-35. 

(AIAA PAPER 88-2082) 

'Radarbef, a nine-state Kalman filter-based trajectory estimator 
operating in real time for flight test applications, furnishes accurate 
trajectory data representing mission spatial positions, velocities, 
and accelerations for up to eight different aircraft simultaneously. 
These trajectory estimates can not only drive geographical displays, 
but will also provide real-time checkout of onboard navigation, 
radar, and weapons systems. Radarbet incorporates highly flexible 
mission reconfiguration capabilities. Operator interaction is kept to 
a minimum through the use of a high-level color graphics display 
and a rule-based expert system for real-time maintenance and 
filter stabilization. O.C. 



A88-42306 

REVIEW OF EXPERT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY 

E. TURBAN (Southern California. University, Los Angeles) IEEE 
Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 
35, May 1988, p. 71-81. refs 

An overview of expert systems technology is provided from a 
development point of view. The intent is to provide assistance in 
the practical aspects of constructing expert systems. Emphasis is 
placed on the benefits and limitations of expert systems, the various 
phases of the development processes, and the software tools 
used to expedite the development Special attention is given to 
the interface with engineering management. I.E. 

A88-42873 

GNAT ROBOTS (AND HOW THEY WILL CHANGE ROBOTICS) 

ANITA M. FLYNN (MIT, Cambridge, MA) IN: IEEE Micro Robots 
and Teleoperators Woriohop: An investigation of micromechanical 
structures, actuators and sensors, Hyannis, MA, Nov. 9-11, 1987. 
Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, Inc., 1987. 5 p. DARPA-supported research, refs 
(Contract N00014-86-K-0685; N00014-85-K-0124) 

The use of micromechanical motors to achieve miniature 
(gnat-sized) mobile robots is considered. The potential applications 
of such robots are discussed, and the necessary technology, which 
already exists, is identified. Design strategies and details of a 
proposed implementation are given. Problems in tne 
micromachining area are briefly examined. I.E. 

A8S-52226 

AAAIC '87 - AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL 
INTELLIGENCE; PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ANNUAL 
CONFERENCE, DAYTON, OH, OCT. 5-9, 1987 

JAMES R. JOHNSON, ED. Conference sponsored by Northrop 
Corp.. Texas Instruments, Inc., and Lockheed Corp. Dayton, OH, 
AAAIC Conference Secretariat, 1988, 330 p. For individual items 
see A88-52227 to A88-52238. 

Topics discussed include avionics expert systems develop- 
ment environments, neural networks, and optical computing. 
Consideration is also given to artificial intelligence in manufacturing. 
advanced problem-solving techniques, and the performance 
evaluation of knowledge-based systems. B.J. 

A88-52329* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS FOR THE SPACE STATION - 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

ROBERT R. NUNAMAKER and KELLI F. WILLSHIRE (NASA, 

Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA) IN: Space Congress, 

25th. Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 26-29. 1988. Proceedings. Cape 

Canaveral, FL, Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1 988, p. 

3-76 to 3-79. 

The reports of a committee established by Congress to identify 
specific systems of the Space Station which would advance 
automation and robotics technologies are reviewed. The history 
of the committee, its relation to NASA, and the reports which it 
has released are discussed. The committee's reports recommend 
the widespread use of automation and robotics for the Space 
Station, a program for technology development and transfer 
between industries and research and development communities, 
and the planned use of robots to service and repair satellites and 
their payloads which are accessible from the Space Station. 

R.B. 

A88-52340* University of Central Florida, Oriando. 
EXPERT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS FOR 
NASA-KSC BUSINESS AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 

JAMES M. RAGUSA and AVELINO J. GONZALEZ (Central Florida, 
University, Oriando, FL) IN: Space Congress, 25th, Cocoa Beach, 
^L, Apr. 26-29, 1988. Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL, Canaveral 
Council of Technical Societies, 1988, p. 6-11 to 6-20. 
(Contract NAG 10-0043) 

Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA 



32 



CM ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



projects in the business/management and engffieenng domains 
are (iscussed. Bt^mss-retated probtems addressed ^idude an 
assistant for siimrtating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor 
for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment and 
an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. 
Engineering problems treated include an expert system for 
detecting potential i^Htion sources in LOX and gaseou&oxygen 
transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas 
detection. R.R. 



A88-52350 

CONCEPTUAL MODEL-BASED REASOMNG f=OR 

KNOWLEDGE-aASED SOFTWAim PROJECT MANAGEirarr 

KEf^ D. BIMSON and UNDA BOEHM BURRIS (Lockheed l^^ssUes 
and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX) IN: Space Congress, 25th. 
Cocoa Beac^. FL. Apr. 26-29, 1988. Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, 
FL, Canaveral Council of Tecfmical Sociefes. 1986, p. 9-1 to 
9-11. refs 

TNs paper presents a conceptual ntodel for aoftwmre project 
management and the power derived from using a conceptual 
model-based reasoning approach in buHdirtg tntelHgent 
decision-si4)port systems. The Software Project Manager (SPM) 
has t>een prototyped in Inference Corporation's Automated 
Reasoning Tool (ART) on Syntolics artificial intsHigenoe (Ai) 
workstations. An overview of the management model undertytrtg 
SPM is presented, and the esserttial concepts and relationships 
needed to model the project maruigement domain are defined. 
The knowledge representation strategy used to implement ttiis 
conceptual model is then described. Fmaily, the power of uskig 
concei>tual model-based reasoning in biikJ^ inteHigem 
decisk>r)-stwort systems for the project management dorraun is 
illustrated. Author 



A88-^3828# 

ARTIFiCIAL INTELUGStlCE FOR PROVIDHiQ EXPERTISE ON 

INSTRUMENTATION 

MARK F. BRAMLETTE and PETER D. DEAN (Lockheed 
Aeronautwal Systems Co., Valencia. CA) AIAA, NASA, and 
AFWAL. Conference on Sensors and Measurement Techrik|ues 
for Aeronautttal Appficatk)ns. Atlanta. (aA. Sept 7-9. 1^8. 8 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 86-4666) 

The feasit>ility of devek)pff)g an advisory or expert system (ES) 
applicable to instrument selectkxi and for use in complex laboratory 
experiments is addressed. The results of the first phase of an 
applk:atk>n of a prototype ES m tfte setectxxi of strain gages are 
reported. The various menus used in tfie selectkxi of the strain 
gage are presented, and the operatx>nal capabilities of the ES 
are assessed t>ased on the experimental results. Sarr^ 
interactk>ns with the ES are given. CD. 

N88-10687# Karisnihe Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Falkutaet fuer 

Informatye 

OBJECT-ORIENTED DATA BASE MANAGEMENT FOR ROBOT 

PROGRAMMING [OBJEiCTORraiT^RTE DATEWIALTUNG 

F UER D IE ROBOT ERP WOQ R A MMICR iWG] 

PETER DADAM. RUEDIGB) DILLMANN, ALFONS KEMPER, and 

PETER C. LOCKEMANN Nov. 1986 50 p In GERMAN; 

ENGUSH summary 

(ETN-87-90367) AvaH: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

The data base system Retatk>nal Robotk:s Database system 
with extensit>le data types is presented. A comprehensive robot 
programming system is discussed and analyzed with respect to 
the data modeling requirements, emphasizing the modeling of 
robots. The proposed technk^al data base management system, 
that can be used as a central data repository for a robot 
programming system, is based on the non-rK)rmatized relatk>nal 
data model NFz. This model alk>ws the definitkxi of arbitrary deep 
nested structures, providing a simple modeling concept for 
hierarchk^ relatk>nsNps amortg data objects. Based on this data 
model an object-oriented user interface provkles the facility to 
define new applk:atk>n-spectfk: data types. ESA 



N68-14669# Joint Pid3lk»tk>ns Research Servrce, Artington, VA. 
USSR REPORT: CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND 
AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY 

9 Dec. 1986 86 p TransI, into ENGLISH from various Russian 

articles 

(JPRS-UCC-86^14) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

Translated artk^les from USSR techncal journals and other 
perxxlicals are presented. Computer programs, computer 
applk:atx>ns, computer networks, and educatbn are general areas 
of (£scu$sk)n. 



N88-15004# LABEN Space Instrumentation and Systems. Milan 

(tely). 

EXPERT SYSTEM STUDY FOR SPACECRAFT MANAGEMENT 

Final Report 

P. DONZEUI. B. ANKERMOELLER. B. SOERENSEN. and R. 

KATZENBEISSER (Don^er-Weri^e G.m.b.H.. Friedrichshafen, West 

(aennany) Feb. 1987 110 p 

(Contract ESA-6029/84) 

(TL-2699-ISS-1; ESA-CR(P)-2445; ETN-e8-91142) Avail: NTIS 

HC A06/MF A01 

The feasit)illty with state of the art technok)gy of an or>-board 
expert system for marmgement of an autonomous spacecraft was 
assessed. Requirements for the design, development and test of 
the expert system were specified. Fault management functk>ns 
were selected and knowledge atxHJt them was detailed for power 
and on-board data handling. The definition of such domain 
knowledge was supported by a knowledge spedfk^atkHi formalism 
proposed t}y the knowledge engineers to the domain experts for 
the preliminary acGfuisitk>n of all the tnformatk>n cort»dered useful 
and necessary for the creatk>n of the knowledge base. The 
development environment, and approaches for the testing, 
evaluation and valkiatk)n of the prototype fault management system 
were studied. The impact of the use of on-board expert systems 
on ground/spacecraft communk^atbn protocols and on board 
complexity was assessed. ESA 



N88-16360*# Natk>nat Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Right Center, Huntsville. AL 
THIRD CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELUGENCE FOR 
SPACE APPLICATIONS, PART 1 

JUDITH S. DENTON, comp.. MICHAEL S. FREEMAN, comp.. and 

MARY VEREEN. comp. Nov. 1987 421 p Conference held in 

Huntsville, Ala.. 2-3 Nov. 1987; sponsored by NASA. Marshall 

Space Flight Center. Huntsville, Ala. ar>d Alfid>ama Univ., 

Huntsville 

(NASA-CP-2492-R-1; M-575-PT.1; MAS 1.55:2492-R-1) Avail: 

NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and 
aerospace systerr^ is discussed. Expert systems, robotk^. space 
statk>n automatk>n, fault diagnostrcs, parallel processing, knowledge 
representatk>n, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural r>ets 
are among the topk^ discussed. 



N88-17239*# Natk>nal Aeronautk:s and Space Admintstratbn. 

LyrKkm B. Johnson Space Center. Houston. TX. 

DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE FOR THE SPACE STATION 

K. R. GROUSE and D. B. WECHSLER (Mitre Corp., Houston, 
Tex.) in its First Annual Workshop on Space Operations 
Automatk>n and Robotrcs (SOAR 87) p 239-245 Oct. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

The t>er)efits of design krK>wfedge availability are identifiable 
and pervasive. The implementation of design knowledge capture 
and storage using cunent technology increases the probability for 
success, while provkiing for a degree of access compatibility with 
future applk^ations. The space station design definition should be 
expanded to include design knowledge. Design knowledge should 
be captured. A critk^ timing relationship exists k>etween the space 
station development program, and the implementation of this 
project Author 



33 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



N88-17245*# Air Force Inst, of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB. 

OH. Dept. of Operational Sciences. 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (Al), OPERATIONS RESEARCH 

(OR), AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS): A 

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 

GREGORY S. PARNELL, WILLIAM F. ROWELL, and JOHN R. 

VALUSEK In NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, 

Texas, First Annual Workshop on Space Operations Automation 

and Robotics (SOAR 87) p 287-292 Oct. 1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 098 

In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying 
the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial 
Intelligence (Al), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support 
Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A 
conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating 
these three techniques. First, the fields of Al, OR, and DSS are 
defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. 
Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for Al and 
OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These 
observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex 
knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can 
benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) 
the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process 
essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) 
the characteristics of Al, OR, and DSS tools appears to be 
converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an 
interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education. Author 

N88-17337# Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. 

MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX INFORMATION IN SUPPORT OF 

EVOLVING AUTONOMOUS EXPERT SYSTEMS Final Report, 

Jan. 1983 - Mar. 1987 

EUGENIO MARTINEZ Sep. 1987 75 p 

(AD-A186680; AFWAL-TR-87-11 23) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 

A01 CSCL 098 

Automata whose performance is dependent on specific 
information are referred to as expert systems. These effect and/or 
induce situations in the mission environment purposedly and as 
supported by their respective subdomains should be able and 
capable of evolving concurrently with and relative to an ever 
evolving mission environment. Information perceived from the latter 
may be complex, i.e., with multivariate, interrelated and dynamic 
patterns. The following addresses the problem of complex 
information management in support of autonomous expert systems 
within evolving environments. Emphasis is placed on the systems 
ability to infer generalizations, appraise the circumstantial states 
of the mission environment, and perform appropriate decision 
making. GRA 

N88-20049# Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Lexington. 
KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND CONTROL 
Annual Report, 1 Oct. 1985 - 30 Sep. 1986 

HAROLD M. HEGGESTAD 30 Sep. 1988 80 p 

(Contract F19628-85-C-0002) 

(AD-A188163; ESD-TR-87-041) AVAIL: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

The focus of Knowledge-Based Systems Analysis and Control 
was development of an Expert System to aid in the operation of 
the hundreds of military Technical Control Facilities having 
responsibility for the worldwide network of DoD dedicated circuits. 
An initial prototype of the Expert System was created, embodying 
a substantial proportion of the knowledge involved, and has resulted 
in improved understanding of Expert Systems techniques and 
pittalls for such problems as well as a clear set of goals for 
completion of the work. GRA 

N88-20054# Bolt, Beranek, and Newman. Inc., Cambridge, MA. 
PHYSICS FOR ROBOTS 

JAMES G. SCHMOLZE Sep. 1987 212 p 
(Contract N00014-85-C-0079; N00014-77-C-0378) 
(AD-A189056; BBN-6222) Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 CSCL 
23C 

Robots that plan to perform everyday tasks need knowledge 



of everyday physics. Physics For Robots (PFR) is representation 
of part of everyday physics directed towards this need. It includes 
general concepts and theories along with an application specific 
portion for tasks in cooking. PFR goes beyond the representation 
schemes of most Al planners by including natural processes that 
the robot can control. It also includes a theory of material 
composition so robots can identify and reason about physical 
objects that break apart, come together, mix, or go out of existence. 
This focus is made on the characterization of knowledge with: (1) 
PFR characterizes the robot's capabilities to act and perceive, 
and (2) PFR replaces the NP goal of developing models of actual 
common sense knowledge. The goal of PFR is to represent the 
knowledge about everyday physics that is needed to prove the 
effectiveness of certain robot Input/Output programs in 
accomplishing given tasks. It is expected that this knowledge will 
be needed by a robot that can plan to perform such everyday 
tasks. GRA 

N88-20896*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA. 

THE USE OF AN AUTOMATED FLIGHT TEST MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID-PROTOTYPING 

FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY 

EUGENE L. DUKE, MARLE D. HEWETT, RANDAL W. 

BRUMBAUGH, DAVID M. TARTT. ROBERT F. ANTONIEWICZ, 

and ARVIND K. AGARWAL May 1988 21 p Presented at the 

4th Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, Long Beach, 

Calif., 4-6 May 1988 

(NASA-TM-1 00435; H-1477; NAS 1.15:100435) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

An automated flight test management system (ATMS) and its 
use to develop a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for artificial 
intelligence (Al) based flight systems concepts are described. The 
ATMS provides a flight test engineer with a set of tools that 
assist in flight planning and simulation. This system will be capable 
of controlling an aircraft during the flight test by performing 
closed-loop guidance functions, range management, and 
maneuver-quality monitoring. The rapid-prototyping flight research 
facility is being developed at the Dryden Flight Research Facility 
of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) to provide 
early flight assessment of emerging Al technology. The facility is 
being developed as one element of the aircratt automation program 
which focuses on the qualification and validation of embedded 
real-time Al-based systems. Author 

N88-21643# Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM. 
HUMAN INTERFACES IN REMOTE DRIVING 

D. E. MCGOVERN 1988 33 p Presented at the I GC Conference, 

Bedford. Mass.. 20 Mar. 1988 

(Contract DE-AC04-76DP-00789) 

(DE88-006843; SAND-88-0562C; CONF-880359-1) Avail: NTIS 

HC A03/MF A01 

Driving vehicles through remote control (teleoperation) can allow 
the human operator to take actions at a distance. Human 
effectiveness can be projected into locations which may be 
hazardous. In order for the operator to control the motion of these 
vehicles, knowledge of the vehicle environment and status need 
to be available. This requires a system consisting of vehicle, 
communication link and human operator. Much work has been 
done in vehicle and communication system design but 
comparatively little effort has been devoted to the human interface. 
In this paper, experimental studies of remote driving are reviewed 
to approach an understanding of what is known. Summary data 
are presented for experimental work performed at Sandia National 
Laboratories in vehicle vision systems. This information is combined 
with the experience base developed through several years of work 
with teleoperated vehicles to identify the major areas requiring 
additional development effort. DOE 

N88-22313# Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Artificial 
Intelligence Lab. 
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 

DANIEL S. WELD Nov. 1987 49 p 



34 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



(Contract N00014-85-K-0124) 

(AD-A1 90556; AI-M-951) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 

121 

Connparative analysis involves the problem of predicting how a 
system will react to perturt>ations in its paramet«s, and why. For 
example, comparative analysis could t>e asked to explain why the 
period of an osdiiating spring/l>lock system wouW increase if the 
mass of the bkxM were larger. This paper formalizes the problem 
of comparative ainatysis and presents a techraque, differential 
qualitative (DQ) analysts, whrch solves the task, provkltng 
explanatk)n based generalizatk>n. DQ analysis uses inference rules 
to deduce qualitative informatwn about the relative change of 
system parameters. Multiple perspectives are used to represent 
relative change values over intervals of time. Differential analysts 
has t)een implemented, tested on a dozen examples, and proven 
sound. Unfortunately, the technique is irKorrqjIete; it always 
terminates, but does r>ot always re&im an answer. GRA 

N88-23219*# Natk>nal Aeronautics and Sf»ice AdmtnistratkKi. 
Lewis Research Center. Cleveland, OH. 
MICROGRAVITY ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM 

DOUGLAS A. ROHN. CHARLES LAWRENCE, and ANDREW S. 
BRUSH (Sverdmp Technotogy. Inc., Cleveland, Ohk).) 1988 14 
p Proposed for presentation at the iSA/88 International 
Conference and Exhft)it, Houston, Tex., 16-21 Oct 1988; sponsored 
by the Instrument Society of America 

(NASA-TM-1 00898; E-4148; NAS 1.15:100898) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MFA01 CSCL 131 

A research program to develop techrxxtogy for robots operatir>g 
in the microgravity environment of the space station laboratory is 
descril>ed. These robots must be capable of manipulating payloads 
wittKHJt causing them to experience harmful levels of acceleratkjn, 
and the motion of these robots must not disturb adjacent 
experiments and operations by transmitting reacttons that trar>slate 
into damaging effects throughout the laboratory. Solutions to these 
problems, based on both mechanism technology and control 
strategies, are discussed. Methods are presented for reduction of 
robot base reactkKis through the use of redundant degrees of 
freedom. ar>d the development of smoothly operating roller-driven 
robot joints for nDx^ogravity manipulators is discussed. Author 

N88-23237*# Amny Aviation Systems Command, Cleveland. OH. 

Structural Dynamrcs Branch. 

MICROGRAVITY MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS PROGRAM 

DOUGLAS A. ROHN /n NASA. Lewis Research Center. Lewis 
Structures Technotogy, 1988. Volume 1: Structural Dynamk^ p 
143-155 May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A20/MF A01 CSCL 131 

The primary goal of this program is to produce the nrwtion 
control tools necessary to enhance and enable a particular NASA 
mission - space lat>oratory-based microgravity experiments. To that 
end, a spectrum of technology is b&ng developed in tf>e disciplines 
of precision mechanisms and rot>otics. Author 

N88-24188*# National Aeronautrcs and Space Administratwn. 
Marshal! Space Flight Center. Huntsville, AL 
THIRD CONFERENCE ON ARTtRCIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR 
SPACE APPLICATIONS, PART 2 

JUDITH S. DENTON, comp., MICHAEL S. FREEMAN, comp.. and 
MARY VEREEN, comp. Jun. 1988 66 p Conference held in 
Huntsville, Ala., 2-3 Nov. 1987; sponsored by NASA, Marshall 
Space Flight Center. Huntsville, Ala. and Alabama Univ.. 
Huntsville Sponsored by NASA, Washington 
{NASA-CP-2492-PT.2; M-576-PT-2: NAS 1 .55:2492-PT-2) Avail: 
NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space 
operations are discussed. New technologies for space station 
automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, 
automatic programming, and real time applications are 
discussed. 

NS8-25626# Joint Publications Research Service. Ariington, VA. 
APPUCATION OF Al TO SPACE SYSTEMS 



fn its JPRS Report Science and Technology. Japan p 55-58 4 
May 1988 Transl. into ENGLISH from Kogiken Nyusu (Tokyo, 
Japan), Jan. 1988 p 8-10 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

The space statwn and other projects being developed through 
intemational cooperation with Japanese participation involve the 
construction of laboratories as a platform for various kinds of 
space experiments, such as experiments to create new materials 
using the space environn^ent of weightlessness and vacuum, life 
science arKJ observatk>n experiments. The diverse, complex, arxl 
long term experiments done in space latx>ratory will t>e actually 
carried out by a small crew of passenger scientists. In carrying 
out space experiments it is necessary to make the crew*s work in 
the space lab and the control and support from the ground more 
autonomous and intelligent, and to establish technok>gy for running 
these experiments smoothly and efficiently. With this in rmrtd. 
research has been conducted into space experiment support expert 
systems using artifk:tal intelligence technology. Such s^ems can 
complement and take over part of the intellectual work of the 
crew. Author 

N88-26851# Center for Mathematk:s and Computer Science. 

Amsterdam (Netheriands). Dept of Computer Science/Dept of 

Interactive Systems. 

INTERACTION MANAGEMENT IN CAD SYSTEMS WITH A 

HISTORY MECHANISM 

YASUSHl YAMAGUCHI, FUMIHIKO KIMURA (Tokyo Univ.. Japan), 

and PAUL J. W. TENHAGEN Nov. 1987 15 p Submitted 

for publrcation Sponsored by the Japan Society of Precision 

Engineering and the Ricoh Co. Ltd. 

(CWI-CS-R8756; B8805679; ETN-88-92589) AvaH: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 

User friendliness in computer akled design systems is 
conskiered. A concept called model derivatkm, whk^ descrit>es 
how the user treats the model in terms of its evoKitnn is introduced. 
To construct ar>d use model derivatkMi a history mechanism wtik^h 
keeps and manipulates the history of the modeling process is 
proposed. The history mechanism manages high level interactkjns 
by introducing powerful syrr^xHk; computatbn to manipulate the 
history. Since the history representatkjn is based on the operatfon's 
syntax and separated from the internal model representatk>n, it is 
easy to apply the history mechanism to any nnxieling system 
which uses established technk:|ues. Thus the system designer can 
easily introduce model derivation without reducing effkaency of 
the implementatk)n. ESA 

N88-26866# Los Alamos National Lab., NM. 

BUILDING AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CAPABILITY AT 

LOS ALAMOS 

J. G. MARINUZZI 1988 5 p Presented at the Artiffcial 

Intelligence Applicatk>ns for Military Logistk^s Conference, 

Williamsburg. Va.. 29 Mar. 1988 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-36) 

(DE88-009155; LA-UR-88-1166; CONF-880393-1) Avail: NTIS 

HC A02/MF A01 

In 1985. after three years of preliminary work. Management 
of the Los Alamos National Laboratory started an ambitkHis 
program to develop a strong technk:al capability in ttie rapkJIy 
emerging fiekd of Artifrcial Intelligence/Knowiedge Based Systems 
(Al/KBS). When this Al devek)pment pro-am t>egan. except for a 
few staff members doing basic Al research, Al was essentially 
nonexistent at the laboratory. The basics, including such things 
as Al computer hardware and software, literature, books, 
knowledgeable personnel, or even a general knowledge of what 
Al was. were most difficult if not impossible to fir)d. For this reason, 
we had to approach the problem with a very broad perspective. 
whk:h strongly addressed the basics while aiming toward more 
advanced Al program elements. Broad, intensive educatkjn was 
the t)ootstrappir>g tool used in this five year. mutti-millk)n dollar Al 
capability development program. Halfway through the program, our 
accomplishnr>ents indicate that the program is extremely successful. 
In terms of trained staff, active programs and state-of-the-art 
equipment, we have developed one of the strongest Al technical 



35 



04 



Dr\O^Ti, 



;CS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



capabilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the 
Department of Defense(DOD). However, a great deal more must 
be done before the full potential of the program can be realized. 

DOE 

N88-26867*# University of Central Florida, Orlando. Dept. of 
Computer Engineering. 

EXPERT SYSTEM APPLICATION EDUCATION PROJECT Final 
Report, 10 Aug. 1987 - 10 Aug. 1988 

AVELINO J. GONZELEZ and JAMES M. RAGUSA 8 Aug. 1988 

5p 

(Contract NAG 10-0043) 

(NASA-CR-1 83089; NAS 1.26:183089) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF 

A01 CSCL 09B 

Artificial intelligence (A!) technology, and in particular expert 
systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of 
operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited 
resources, the early identification of good expert system 
applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can 
result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On 
the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical 
area such as Al requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature 
of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the 
educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between 
NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was 
designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions 
at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems 
Prototype Training Project (ESPTP). provided NASA with relatively 
inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain 
applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise 
on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such 
expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to 
developing expert systems. Author 

N88-29351*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
SECOND CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR 
SPACE APPLICATIONS 

THOMAS DOLLMAN, comp. Aug. 1988 709 p Conference 
held in Huntsville, Ala., 13-14 Nov. 1986; sponsored by NASA, 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. and Alabama Univ.i 
Huntsville Sponsored by NASA, Washington, D.C. 
(NASA-CP-3007; M-577; NAS 1.55:3007) Avail: NTIS HC 
A99/MF E03 CSCL 09B 

The proceedings of the conference are presented. This second 
conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings 
together a diversity of scientific and engineering work and is 
intended to provide an opportunity for those who employ Al 
methods in space applications to identify common goals and to 
discuss issues of general interest in the Al community. 

N88-29352*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

SPACE STATION AS A VITAL FOCUS FOR ADVANCING THE 
TECHNOLOGIES OF AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS 

GIULIO VARSI (Jet Propulsion Lab.. California Inst, of Tech 
Pasadena.) and DANIEL H. HERMAN In NASA, Marshall Space 
Flight Center, Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence for 
Space Applications p 1-6 Aug. 1988 
(IAF-86-62) Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 22B 

A major guideline for the design of the U.S. Space Station is 
that the Space Station address a wide variety of functions. These 
functions include the servicing of unmanned assets in space, the 
support of commercial labs in space and the efficient management 
of the Space Station itself; the largest space asset. The 
technologies of Automation and Robotics have the promise to 
help in reducing Space Station operating costs and to achieve a 
highly efficient use of the human in space. The use of advanced 
automation and artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert 
systems, in Space Station subsystems for activity planning and 
failure mode management will enable us to reduce dependency 
on a mission control center and could ultimately result in breaking 
the umbilical link from Earth to the Space Station. The application 



of robotic technologies with advanced perception capability and 
hierarchical intelligent control to sen/icing system will enable the 
servicing of assets either in space or in situ with a high degree of 
human efficiency. The results of studies leading toward the 
formulation of an automation and robotics plan for Space Station 
development are presented. Author 

N88-29356*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
A SOFTWARE ENGINEERING APPROACH TO EXPERT 
SYSTEM DESIGN AND VERIFICATION 

DANIEL C. BOCHSLER (LinCom Corp., Houston, Tex.) and MARY 
ANN GOODWIN In NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Second 
Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 47-60 
Aug. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 09B 

Software engineering design and verification methods for 
developing expert systems are not yet well defined. Integration of 
expert system technology into software production environments 
will require effective software engineering methodologies to support 
the entire life cycle of expert systems. The software engineering 
methods used to design and verify an expert system, RENEX, is 
discussed. RENEX demonstrates autonomous rendezvous and 
proximity operations, including replanning trajectory events and 
subsystem fault detection, onboard a space vehicle during flight. 
The RENEX designers utilized a number of software engineering 
methodologies to deal with the complex problems inherent in this 
system. An overview is presented of the methods utilized. Details 
of the verification process receive special emphasis. The benefits 
and weaknesses of the methods for supporting the development 
life cycle of expert systems are evaluated, and recommendations 
are made based on the overall experiences with the methods. 

Author 

N88-29404*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
EXPERIMENT SCHEDULING FOR SPACELAB MISSIONS 

JOHN JAAP and ELIZABETH DAVIS In Its Second Conference 

on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 475-488 Aug. 

1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 05A 

The Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP) is the heart of a 
group of programs developed at NASA-Marshall to schedule the 
experiment activities of Spacelab and other Shuttle missions. Other 
programs in the group either prepare input data for ESP or produce 
derivative information based on the schedule produced by ESP. 
The task of experiment scheduling can be simply stated as 
positioning the experiment activities in a mission to that they collect 
their desired data without interfering with other activities. The 
program's capabilities as seen by the user are described along 
with mission constraints the program handles, and how the expert 
system in the program handles these constraints. Author 

N88-29408*# Alabama Univ., Huntsville. 
PERSONNEL OCCUPIED WOVEN ENVELOPE ROBOT 

FRANCIS WESSLING, WILLIAM TECH, and M. CARL ZIEMKE 

In NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Second Conference on 

Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 513-521 Aug. 

1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 05H 

The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) 
provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space 
suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms 
such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. 
POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to 
perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at 
both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The 
exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom 
(Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully 
extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to 
almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to 
the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow 
Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps 



36 



04 ROBOTICS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 



the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a t>ellow-type 
access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked 
hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator 
arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the 
pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system 
is given. Author 

N8&-29409*# Boeing Aerospace Co.. Huntsville. AL. Space 

Station Program, 

REMOTE SERVICING OF SPACE SYSTEMS 

S. L. CX)LLINS and R. B. PURVES In NASA. Marshall Space 
Flight Center, Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence for 
Space Applications p 523-535 Aug. 1 988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 05H 

Space systems are difficult to maintain on ortTft The difficutty 
arises from the limited ability and availability of the astronaut work 
force in the hazardous space environment. Remote robotic 
manipulation can free the astronaut from the hazardous working 
environment white also increasing the work force. However, remote 
robotic servicing is not without its own set of problems arKi 
limitations, such as communication time delay ar)d unstructured 
worksites. Tests and test equipment are described which are 
designed to increase tf>e understanding of the remote servicir^g 
problems and to allow development of potential solutions. A half 
scale satellite mockup was developed for evaluatirtg arKJ improving 
upon the design of replaceable subsystems, such as t>attehes 
and electronic boxes. A servrcer system, that includes a six degree 
of freedom PUMA 560 robot and interchangeable end effectors 
(tools), was developed to aid in driving out servrcer design 
requirements. The results include the time delay impact on servicing 
timelines and requirements for the servicer system. Author 

N88-30330*# National Aeronautics aruj Space Administration. 
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. 
THE 1988 GODDARD CONFERENCE ON SPACE 
APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELUGENCE 

JAMES RASH. ed. and PETER HUGHES, ed. Aug. 1988 437 
p Conference held in Greenbelt Md., 24 May 1988 Sponsored 
by NASA. Washington. D.C. 

(NASA-CP-3009; REPT-88B0212: NAS 1.55:3009) Avail: NTIS 
HC A19/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

This publication comprises the papers presented at the 1988 
Goddard Conference on Space Applk:ations of Artifrcial lntelliger)ce 
held at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Maryland on May 24. 1 988. The purpose of this annual conference 
is to provide a forum in which current research and developnr^ent 
directed at space applicatk>ns of artifk:ial intelligence can be 
presented and discussed. The papers in these proceedings fall 
into the following areas: mission operatk>ns support, planning 
arKi scheduling: fault isolatk}n/diagrH)sis; image processing and 
machine vision; data management; modeling and simulation; arKJ 
development tools/methodologies. 

N88-30332*# National Aeronautk^s and Space Administratk>n. 

Goddard Space Flight Center. Greenbelt MD. 

ARTIFICIAL INTELUGENCE COSTS, BENEFITS, RISKS FOR 

SELECTED SPACECRAFT GROUND SYSTEM AUTOMATION 

SCENARIOS 

WALTER F. TRUSZKOWSKI. BARRY G. SILVERMAN, MARTHA 

KAHN. and HENRY HEXMOOR (Intellrtek. Inc.. Rockvilte. Md.) 

in its The 1986 Goddard ConfererKe on Space Applications of 

Artificial Intelligence p 17-31 Aug. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A19/MF A01 CSCL 098 

In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the 
early 1 980s. expert systems and artificial intelltger>ce (AI/ES) efforts 
for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several 
years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It 
is useful to stop and assess tt>e impact of this technology in view 
of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the 
overall strategies of some of the eariier studies both are being 
followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized 
ground system automation scenarios and their attendant Al 
architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned 



are examir>ed and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) 
no Al (baseline). (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, 
reusable knowledge base managen>ent systems (KBMS). and (4) 
a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial 
intelligence lessons teamed, t>er>efits, and risks for spacecraft 
ground system automation scenarios are described. Author 



N88-30371# Massachusetts Inst of Tech., Cambridge. Artificial 

Intelligence Lab. 

A STANDARD ARCHITECTURE FOR CONTROLLING ROBOTS 

SUNDAR NARASIMHAN, DAVID M. SIEGEL, and JOHN M. 

HOLLERBACH Jul. 1988 25 p 

(Contract N00014-86-K-0685; N00014-85-K-0124) 

(AD-AI 95929; Al-M-977) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 

12F 

This paper describes a fully implemented computational 
architecture that controls tt>e Utah-MIT dextrous hand and other 
complex robots. Robots like the Utah-MIT hand are characterized 
by large numt)ers of actuators and sensors, and require high servo 
rates. Consequently, F}owerful and flexible computer architectures 
are needed to control them. The rot>otic architecture described in 
this paper derives its power from the highly efficient real-time 
environment provided for its control processors, coupled with a 
development host that enables flexible program devek>pment By 
mapping the menrK>ry of a dedicated group of processors into the 
address space of a host computer, efficient sharing of system 
resources between them is possible. The software is characterized 
by a few simple design concepts but provides the facilities out of 
whrch more powerful utilities like a multi-processor pseudo-terminal 
emulator, a transparent and fast file server, and a flexible symt>olic 
debugger couW t>e constructed. GRA 



N88-30372# Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Robotics 

Inst. 

KNOWLEDGE BASED SIMULATION: AN ARTIFICIAL 

INTELUGENCE APPROACH TO SYSTEM MODELING AND 

AUTOMATING THE SIMULATION LIFE CYCLE Interim 

Technical Report 

MARK S. FOX, NIZWER HUSAIN, MALCOLM MCROBERTS, and 

Y. V. REDDY 13 Apr. 1988 46 p Sponsored in part by Digital 

Equipment Corp. and Eestinghouse Electric Corp. 

(AD-AI 95838; CMI-Rl-TR-88-5) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL 121 

This paper summarizes the past eight years of research in the 
application of Artificial Intelligence (Al) to Simulatk>n. Our focus 
has t}een in two areas: the use of Al knowledge representatk>n 
technk^ues for the modeling of complex systems, arnj the 
codificatk>n of simulatk)n expertise so that it can be used to manage 
the simulatk)n life cycle. The Knowledge Based Simulatk>n system 
is an emt>odiment of this research. It provides a complete simulation 
decisron support environment for the modeling, validatk>n, 
simulation and analysis of complex systems. KBS has been applied 
to a variety of problems including factory and distributk>n system 
analysis. By using a frame language to represent domain concepts, 
such as object structure, and goals, there is a one to one 
correspondence between the domain and the simulation model 2. 
Secondly, by using rules to represent object behavior, the 
specification and modification of the behavwrs t)ecome easier. 
Lastly, explanation techniques developed around rule based 
systems provide the basis for explaining event behaviors. GRA 



37 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATiON MANAGEMENT 



05 



COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 

Includes Information Systems and Theory, Information 
Dissemination and Retrieval, Management Information Systems, 
Database Management Systems and Databases, Data Processing, 
Data Management, Communications and Communication Theory, 
Documentation and Information Presentation, Software, Software 
Acquisition, Software Engineering and Management. Computer 
Systems Design and Performance, Configuration Management 
(Computers), Networking, Office Automation, Information Security. 



A88-10175 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON JAPANESE 

INFORMATION IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND COMMERCE. 

UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. COVENTRY. ENGLAND, SEPT. 

1-4, 1987, PREPRINTS 

Conference sponsored by the British Library Japanese Information 

Service, University of Wanwick, NTIS, et al. London, British Library 

Japanese Information Service. 1987, 350 p. No individual items 

are abstracted in this volume. 

The current status of technical and scientific information 
services in Japan is discussed in reviews and reports, with an 
emphasis on the availability of Japanese information to the U.S. 
and Europe. Topics addressed include Japanese attitudes toward 
information and barriers faced by Westerners in acquiring Japanese 
information, the use of technical literature for competitive 
assessments, Japanese scientific and technological information on 
the U.S., and recent U.S. efforts to monitor Japanese technology. 
Consideration is given to techniques for minimizing obstacles to 
using Kanji data, the services provided by specific technical 
information organizations, the English-language physics literature 
from Japan, and approaches to data-base production in Japan. 

T.K. 



offices, and contractor project managers. The use of ADA as an 
implementation language notably affects configuration manage- 
ment, since ADA precisely defines the way in which the 
separate modules of a program depend upon one another. ADA 
also has a distinct impact on the integration-and-test phase of 
software development, with intermodule consistency being 
automatically verified by the ADA compilers. O.C. 

A88-13101 

THE NEXT COMPUTER REVOLUTION 

ABRAHAM PELED (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 
Yorktown Heights, NY) Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), 
vol. 257, Oct 1987, p. 57-64. 

Developments expected in computing during the next decade 
are discussed. Improvements that will occur in miniaturization, 
software development, and reductions in the cost of computing 
are examined, and the impact of these improvements on the 
production and distribution of information are considered. The 
impact of optoelectronic circuits on computer hardware and new 
high-level languages on software is addressed. The expanding 
applications of Al and of personal computers are discussed. 

CD. 

A88-13106 

INTERFACES FOR ADVANCED COMPUTING 

JAMES D. FOLEY (George Washington University, Washington, 
DC) Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), vol. 257, Oct. 1987, 
p. 127-130, 132, 134, 135. 

Supercomputer-created 'artificial realities* that facilitate 
user-computer communication are discussed. Improved display 
monitors and head-mounted displays and their accessories are 
addressed. The DataGlove, which translates hand and finger 
movements into electrical signals, and may provide major advances 
in user-computer interaction, is described. Other tactile-feedback 
technologies are examined, and voice- and gesture-recognition 
systems are discussed. CD. 



A88-10965* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 
TRADITIONAL VERSUS RULE-BASED PROGRAMMING 
TECHNIQUES - APPLICATION TO THE CONTROL OF 
OPTIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION 

WENDELL R. RICKS and KATHY H. ABBOTT (NASA, Langley 
Research Center, Hampton, VA) SPIE, Technical Symposium 
Southeast on Optics, Electro-optics, and Sensors. Orlando, FL. 
May 17-22, 1987, Paper. 8 p. refs 

A traditional programming technique for controlling the display 
of optional flight information in a civil transport cockpit is compared 
to a rule-based technique for the same function. This application 
required complex decision logic and a frequently modified rule 
base. The techniques are evaluated for execution efficiency and 
implementation ease; the criterion used to calculate the execution 
efficiency is the total number of steps required to isolate hypotheses 
that were true and the criteria used to evaluate the implementability 
are ease of modification and verification and explanation capability. 
It is observed that the traditional program is more efficient than 
the rule-based program; however, the rule-based programming 
technique is more applicable for improving programmer 
productivity. IF. 

A88-12577# 

ADA - WHAT EVERY GOOD MANAGER NEEDS TO KNOW 

JUDY BAMBERBERGER (TRW, Inc., TRW Defense Systems 
Group, Redondo Beach, CA) IN: AIAA Computers in Aerospace 
Conference, 6th, Wakefield, MA, Oct. 7-9, 1987, Technical Papers. 
Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987, p. 368-374. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 87-2857) 

The success of software development programs employing ADA 
is noted to primarily depend on project management practices. 
Attention is given to the experiences that have prompted this 
view among design and implementation teams, DoD program 



A88-13107 

NETWORKS FOR ADVANCED COMPUTING 

ROBERT E. KAHN Scientific American (tSSN 0036-8733), vol. 
257, Oct. 1987, p. 136-143. 

The history and present status of computer networking are 
reviewed, and continuing developments in this area are discussed. 
Aspects of communication network design are examined, including 
packet-switching and local area networks, and communication 
between heterogeneous computer systems is addressed. Internet 
architecture as a solution to the problems of network computing 
is described, and potential areas for future networking are 
considered. CD. 

A88-13111 

ENGINEER'S GUIDE TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS 

JOHN W. WEETON, DEAN M. PETERS, and KARYN L THOMAS 
Metals Park, OH, American Society for Metals, 1987, 390 p. 
refs 

The mechanical properties of composites, the fundamental 
principles of structural design using composites, and examples of 
typical applications are presented in a comprehensive handbook. 
Chapters are devoted to the basic characteristics of composites; 
the economic outlook for composites and reinforcing materials; 
the design equations; case histories of design and recreational, 
automotive, aerospace, marine, medical, electrical, and structural 
applications; and property data on reinforcements, polymer 
matrices, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix and 
glass-matrix composites. Extensive diagrams and tables, directories 
of laboratories and manufacturers, lists of trade associations and 
societies, and a glossary of terms are provided. T.K. 

A88-13623* Hunter Coll.. New York. 

RECENT TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM 

RESEARCH 

K. C. CLARKE (Hunter College, New York) Geo-Processing (ISSN 



38 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



0165-2273). vol. 3. May 1986, p. 1-15. refs 
(Contract NCA2-OR.305-201) 

This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published 
research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased 
usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic 
and research community and despite some lack of formalized 
definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data 
structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations 
of pi^ished GtS research, in particular on GIS data structures, 
reveal a healthy, active research community which Is using a truly 
interdisciptinary approach. Future work will undoubtat>ly lead to a 
clearer understanding of the problems of handlirvg spatial data, 
while producing a new generatk>n of highly sophisticated GISs. 

Auth(K 



A88-14584 

A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL FOR THE DESIGN OF 

DISTRIBUTED COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

HEMANT K. JAIN (Wisconsin. University. Milwaukee) IEEE 
Transactions on Software Engineering (ISSN 0098-5589). vol. 
SE-13. Oct 1987, p. 1092-1104. refs 

To address the problem of designir^ a distritxited con^xjter 
system, a model is proposed for selecting a proper class of 
processor for each location and allocating data ftles/databases. 
The initial design takes into account the type and volume of 
transactions, in addition to the number of files expected in the 
system. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear goal programming 
problem, and an appropriate solution is obtained using a heuristic 
which is based on a modified pattern search approach. R.R. 



A8a-15282* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. John 

F, Kennedy Space Center. Cocoa Beach. FL, 

SPACE STATION GROUND DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

JAN HEUSER and WILUAM SLOAN (NASA, Kennedy Space 
Center, Cocoa Beach. FL) IN: Space Congress. 24th, Cocoa 
Beach. FL, Apr. 21-24. 1987, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL. 
Canaveral Council of Technk^ Societies. 1987. 8 p. 

KSC is planning a Space Station Ground Data Management 
System (GDMS) for support of functional interface verification, 
integration and test of Space Station modules and elements. This 
computer system, planned for initial operational support in 1992, 
cunently is entering a definition and prototyping stage. This paper 
provides an overview of the GDMS system concept It synopsizes 
system functional capabilities, and discusses software and 
hardware architectural approaches currently under evaluation. It 
klentifies programmatic constraints arnj their influence upon the 
cor>cept as well as specific technk^at issues planned for study or 
evaluation via prototyping. Author 



A68-15M3*# Jet Propulston Lab.. California Inst of Tech.. 

Pasadena. 

SCIENCE ON THE SPACE STATION: THE OPPORTUNITY AND 

THE CHALLENGE - A NASA VIEW 

MICHAEL DEVIRIAN, JAMES R. WEISS (California Institute of 
Technotogy, Jet Propulswn Laboratory. Pasadena; NASA, Office 
of Space Science and Applicatwns, Washington, DC), and ERWIN 
SCHMERLING (NASA, Office of Space Science and Applications, 
Washington. DC) lAF. International Astronautical Congress, 38th, 
Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 8 p, 
(lAF PAPER 87-92) 

The Science and Applications Information System (SAIS) which 
will provide users with remote, interactive, and iterative access 
from their home locations to the many information system services 
is introduced. Such aspects as transaction management, standard 
format data units, arxj the use of intelligent data management 
systems are discussed. It is concluded that new and innovative 
approaches to information management must t>e developed so 
that the full potential of the Space Station can be realized with 
respect to the demands of the entire science community. K.K. 

A88-1$906*# National Aeronautics and Space Administi-ation, 
Washington, DC. 

A PROPOSED APPLICATIONS INFORMATION SYSTEM - 
CONCEPT, IMPLEMENTATION, AND GROWTH 

DUDLEY G. MCCONNELL (NASA, Office of Space Science and 
Applications, Washington. DC), CARROLL A. HOOD, and M. 
KRISTINE BUTERA (Science Applications International Corp.. 
Washington. DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress. 38th. 
Brighton, England. Oct. 10-17, 1987. 10 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-156) 

This paper describes a newly developed concept within NASA 
for an Applications Information System (AIS). The AIS would provide 
the opportunity to the public and private sectors of shared 
participation in a remote sensing research program directed to a 
particular set of land-use or environmental problems. Towards tNs 
end. the AIS would offer the technological framework and 
information system resources to overcome many of the defrciencies 
that end-users have faced over the years such as limited access 
to data, delay in data delivery, and a limited access to data 
reduction algorithms and models to convert data to geophysical 
measurements- In addition, the AIS will take advantage of NASA 
developments in networking among information systems and use 
of state of the art technok>gy, such as CD Roms and optical 
disks for the purpose of increasing the scientific benefits of applied 
environmental research. The rationale for the establishment of an 
AIS, a methodology for a step-wise, modular implementation, and 
the relationship of the AIS to other NASA information systems 
are discussed. Author 



A88-15851*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington. DC. 

SPACE STATION INFORMATION SYSTEM - CONCEPTS AND 
INTERNATIONAL ISSUES 

R. B. WILLIAMS. DAVID PRUETT. and DANA L HALL (NASA, 
Spaoe Station Program Office. Washington. DC) iAF, International 
Astronautical Congress. 38th, Brighton. England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 
10 p. refs 
(IAF PAPER 87-76) 

The Space Station Infonnation System (SSIS) is outiined in 
terms of its functions and probable physical facilities. The SSIS 
includes flight element systems as well as existing and planned 
institutional systems such as the NASA Communications System, 
the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, and the data and 
communk^ations networi^s of the international partners. The SSIS 
strives to provkle both a *user friendly* environment and a software 
environment which will altow for software transportability and 
interoperability across the SSIS. International conskterations are 
discussed as well as project management software commonality, 
data communksations standards, data security, documentation 
commonality, transaction management, data flow cross support, 
and key technotogies. 



K.K. 



A88-16144# 

ASTRONAUTICS IN THE BASIC ABSTRACT JOURNALS OF 

THE WORLD 

N. L KRASHENINNIKOVA and N. N. MAMAI (Vsesoiuznyi Institut 
Nauchnoi i Tekhnteheskoi Informatsii. Moscow, USSR) IAF, 
International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton, England. Oct 
10-17. 1987. 8 p. 
(IAF PAPER 87-512) 

Results are presented from a statistk:al analysis of the coverage 
of astronautics toptes (as defined by the IAF) in lAA, STAR. 
Astronomy and Asti-ophysics Abstracts, and 12 other Western 
abstract journals. For each abstract journal, a table is provkjed 
listing the astronautics subject categories covered, the numt)er of 
absti-acts published per year in each category, and the IAF 
Congress sessbn conesponding approximately to the category. 
The Westem coverage is then compared with that of the Soviet 
abstract Joumal VINITI, as analyzed by Krasheninnikova (1981 and 
1982); it is found that VlNlTl abstracts more papers than any 
other journal in some IAF fields, but that STAR and lAA contain 
more abstracts than VINITI on space propulsion (lAA), space 
biology and medicine (lAA), and space transportation systems 
(STAR), It is also pointed out that lAA and STAR cover many 



39 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



scientific and technological fields not included in the lAF definition 
of astronautics. j^ 

A88-16167# 

NASA-STD-3000, MAN-SYSTEM INTEGRATION STANDARDS - 

THE NEW SPACE HUMAN ENGINEERING STANDARDS 

KEITH H. MILLER and CHARLES W. GEER (Boeing Aerospace 
Co., Seattle, WA) lAF, International Astronauticat Congress, 38th, 
Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 8 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-550) 

Various aspects of the process used to develop 
NASA-STD-3000, Man-System Integration Standards (MSIS) are 
reviewed, as are the documents, the database, and a videotape 
that are currently available from NASA. The MSIS provides the 
specific information needed to ensure proper integration of the 
man-system interface requirements with those of other aerospace 
disciplines. In addition to the requirements, the MSIS provides 
design considerations and examples which help the user 
understand the rationale behind the requirements. The 
implementation and maintenance of MSIS are also discussed. 

V.L 

A88-18290 

MOSAICS - A SYSTEM TO PRODUCE STATE-OF-THE-ART 

SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR RESOURCE MANAGERS 

J. P. FRIEDEL (MacDonald. Dettwiler and Associates. Richmond, 
Canada) and T. A. FISHER (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, 
Ottawa) Geocarto International (ISSN 1010-6049), vol. 2, Sept 
1987, p. 5-12. 

This paper describes the Multi-Observation Satellite Image 
Correction System (MOSAICS), a precision correction faacility for 
processing data from the Landsat MSS and TM sensors and from 
the SPOT Multi-Spectral Linear Array and Panchromatic Linear 
Array sensors at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. MOSAICS 
produces a wide range of product types, from completely raw to 
fully corrected with subpixel accuracy. Products are offered as full 
scenes in the spacecraft projection and as geocoded subscenes 
rotated to the UTM map projection. All products are offered as 
both Computer Compatible Tapes (CCTs) and films. CCTs are 
produced in the standard Landsat Ground Station Operator's 
Working Group format with the full range of options allowed by 
this family of formats. Film products are exposed directly on a 
color film recorder with a wide choice of radiometric enhancements 
including scene histogram enhancements, reflectance based 
enhancements and custom (user specified) enhancements. 

Author 

A88-19666# 

ROLE OF DATA BASE MANAGEMENT IN DESIGN 

OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS 

G. J. PARK and J. S. ARORA (Iowa, University, Iowa City) 
(Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 27th, 
San Antonio, TX, May 19-21, 1986, Technical Papers. Part 1, p. 
620-629) Journal of Aircraft (ISSN 0021-8669), vol. 24, Nov. 1987, 
p. 745-750. Previously cited in issue 18, p. 2675, Accession no* 
A86-38866. refs 
(Contract AF-AFOSR-82-0322) 

A88-20252* Jet Propulsion Lab,, California Inst of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

DATA ACCESS FOR SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING 

JAMES W. BROWN (California Institute of Technology, Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena) IN: Problem solving 

environments for scientific computing. Amsterdam, North-Holland 
1987, p. 33-46. refs 

An essential ingredient in scientific work is data. In disciplines 
such as Oceanography, data sources are many and volumes are 
formidable. The full value of large stores of data cannot be realized 
unless careful thought is given to data access. JPL has developed 
the Pilot Ocean Data System to investigate techniques for archiving 
and accessing ocean data obtained from space. These include 
efficient storage and rapid retrieval of satellite data, an easy-to-use 



user interface, and a variety of output products which, taken 
together, permit researchers to extract and use data rapidly and 
conveniently. Author 

A88-20486* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA. 

AUTOPLAN - A PC-BASED AUTOMATED MISSION PLANNING 

TOOL 

FRANK C. PATERRA, MARC S. ALLEN (Computer Technology 

Associates, Inc., Newport News. VA), and GEORGE F. LAWRENCE 

(NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA) Telematics 

and Informatics (ISSN 0736-5853), vol. 4, no. 4, 1987, p. 

263-273. 

(Contract NAS1-18247) 

A PC-based automated mission and resource planning tool, 
AUTOPLAN, is described, with application to small-scale planning 
and scheduling systems in the Space Station program. The input 
is a proposed mission profile, including mission duration, number 
of allowable slip periods, and requirement profiles for one or more 
resources as a function of time. A corresponding availability profile 
is also entered for each resource over the whole time interval 
under study. AUTOPLAN determines all integrated schedules which 
do not require more than the available resources. R.R. 

A88-21205* Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

A VIBROACOUSTIC DATABASE MANAGEMENT CENTER FOR 

SHUTTLE AND EXPENDABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE PAYLOADS 

VALERIE C. THOMAS (California Institute of Technology, Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena) (Institute of Environmental 
Sciences and Aerospace Corp., Aerospace Testing Seminar, 10th, 
Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 1987) Journal of Environmental Sciences 
(ISSN 0022-0906). vol. 30, Nov.-Dec. 1987, p. 24-26. 
USAF-sponsored research, refs 

A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center has recently 
been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The center 
uses the Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System 
(VAPEPS) computer program to maintain a database of flight and 
ground-test data and structural parameters for both Shuttle and 
expendable launch-vehicle payloads. Given the launch-vehicle 
environment, the VAPEPS prediction software, which employs 
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) methods, can be used with or 
without the database to establish the vibroacoustic environment 
for new payload components. This paper summarizes the VAPEPS 
program and describes the functions of the Database Management 
Center at JPL. Author 

A88-21642* Mitre Corp., Houston, TX. 

AN APPROACH TO DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE FOR 

THE SPACE STATION 

D. B. WECHSLER (Mitre Corp., Houston, TX) and K. R. CROUSE 
(NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX) IN: Space Station 
automation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Oct. 
28-30, 1986. Bellingham, WA, Society of Photo-Optical 
Instrumentation Engineers, 1987, p. 106-113. Previously announced 
in STAR as N87-12597. refs 

The design of NASA's space station has begun. During the 
design cycle, and after activation of the space station, the 
reoccurring need will exist to access not only designs, but also 
deeper knowledge about the designs, which is only hinted in the 
design definition. Areas benefiting from this knowledge include 
training, fault management, and onboard automation. NASA's 
Artificial Intelligence Office at Johnson Space Center and The 
MITRE Corporation have conceptualized an approach for capture 
and storage of design knowledge. Author 

A88-22082# 

NETWORK MANAGEMENT FOR THE SPACE STATION 

INFORMATION SYSTEM 

JOHN V. PIETRAS and MICHAEL A. ALLEN (Mitre Corp.. 
Greenbelt, MD) AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 26th, Reno, 
NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 8 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0118) 



40 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



NASA's Space Station tntomnation System (SSIS) communica- 
tions networks will furnisti computer-to-computer data, 
audio, and video traffic services, as well as traditional spacecraft 
command and telemetry data flows. The SSIS wHI accorfH>fish this 
by means of a combination of NASA institutional, public, and 
international networlcs, usir^g several protocol suites. The 'network 
management* task of integrating, controlling, and monitoring this 
coricentration of networks is presently <tiscussed with a view to 
tt>e formulation of a cancfidate network martagement architecture. 

O.C. 

A86-22410*# Jet Propulsion Lab.. California Inst of Tech.. 

Pasadena. 

MiSSK>N OPERATIONS SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY 

EXPLORATION 

WILLIAM I MCLAUGHUN and DONNA M. WOLFF (CaSfornia 
Institute of Technok)gy. Jet Propulskm Laboratory. Pasaderm) 
AlAA. Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2eth, Reno. NV. Jan. 11-14, 
1988. 12 p. rBfs 
(AlAA PAPER 88-0547) 

The purpose of the paper is twofokl: (1) to present an overview 
of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as 
conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a 
project-specific and tiistohcal context witNn which this evolving 
process furKtions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the 
generic upHnk and downlink functk)ns are described ak>ng with 
their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multi- 
mission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of 
advanced-capability software for sut>sequent incorporation into 
more automated future operatk>ns. Finally, a specific historical 
ground is provided tiy Ksting some major operatk>ns software frius 
a genealogy of planetary missk)ns t>eginning with Mariner 2 in 
1962. Author 

A88*225G6# 

EDUCATIONAL USES OF THE AEROSPACE DATABASE 

BARBARA LAWRENCE (AlAA, New York) AlAA. Aerospace 
Sciences Meeting, 26th, Reno, NV, Jan. 11-14, 1986. 12 p. refs 
(AlAA PAPER 88-0749) 

The underutitizatkKi of the aerospace literatre arid its 
importarx;e in maintaining the competitiveness of the aerospace 
engineer and the industry is discussed. Use of the computerized 
Aerospace Database to support the engir>eering educator, the 
educational process, and the student is described. This pe^ 
discusses use of the Aerospace Datat>ase, a comprehensive 
information resource, to brain students in literature value and 
computerized information retrieval. TT>e AIAA/TIS program to help 
educators irKX>rporate these cor>cepts into their courses and varkxjs 
computerized akis for datat>ase searctiir>g are described. Author 

A88-23253 

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR RESOURCE 

MANAGEMENT: A COMPENDIUM 

WILLIAM J. RIPPLE, ED. (Oregon State Urwersity, Corvallis) FaHs 
Church, VA. Amerk:an Society for Photogrammetry and Remote 
Sensing and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 1987. 
293 p. No indivklual items are abstracted in this volume. 

An Introduction is given to the techrvques arxJ furKtXHia) 
capatMlities of geographk; information systems. Recent infontiatkm 
on the use of geogrBphk: informatx>n systmns for a variety of 
resource mcmagement applk»tk>ns is compHed. An overview is 
provkled on ttie nature of geographic information systems. A 
detailed description of the techniques required to create a 
computerized spatial database is presented. The capat)tlities of 
computer-based geographk: information systems are reviewed on 
a functior>-by-function basis. The applicatk>ns of geographic 
information systems in the management of water, soil, arid 
vegetation resources and in land suitability studies, urban studies, 
and gk>bal studies are conskiered. CD. 

A88-23260 

THE TEACHING OF AIRCRAFT DESIGN COMPUTER 

APPUCATIONS 



J. P. FIELDING (Cranfield Institute of Technology, England) IN: 
Computer applications in aircraft design and operation; Proceedings 
of tf>e Rrst International Corrference on Computer Aided Design, 
Manufacture ar>d Operation in the Aerortautics and Space 
Industries, Paris. France, June 16-18, 1 987. Billerica, MA, 
Computational Mecharwcs Publications, 1987, p. 1-13. 

Current work in aircraft conceptual design analysis, aircraft 
visualization, and detail design being done at the College of 
Aeronautics at Cranfield institute of TechrK)logy is descritied. A 
multirmtional project to develop an expert system for civil aircraft 
design is descrft)ed, and analytical methods t>eing used in design 
are t>reffly considered. Design visualization and detail design woric 
at OanfiM are summarized, ar>d the use of computers in a group 
design project is discussed. CD. 

A88-23981# 

EVOUmON OF DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FROM 

SPACELAB TO COLUMSUS 

GUENTHER BRANDT and HANS-J. POSPIESZCZYK (MBB-ERNO 
Raumfafvttechnik Grr^H, Bremen. Federal Republic of Germany) 
AlAA and NASA, Symposium on Space Information Systems in 
the Space Station Era. Washington, DC, June 22-24, 1987, Paper. 
8 p. 
(MBB-UR-E-968-87) 

The evolution of data processir^g concepts is reviewed with 
reference to the experience gained from the development of 
Spacelab ar)d its utilization, the ortgoing development of the Eureca 
system, and the present design and specification phase of 
Columbus. It is noted that the development of special architectures, 
interfaces, and protocols should t>e avoided and performed only if 
existing commercialty availat>le solutions cannot be used. The 
architecture design should provide for efficient accommodation of 
techrK)logy progress. The need for powerful simulations not only 
for early testing tHJt also for in-depth and efficient assessment 
and monitoring of the data processing system performance is 
emphasized. V.L 

A88-24981 

A DISTRIBUTED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MECHANISM 

FOR A PARTmONABLE MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEM 

WOEI LIN (Pennsylvania State University, University Park) and 
CHUAN-LIN WU (Texas. University. Austin) IEEE Transactions 
on Computers (ISSN 0018-9340), vol. 37. Feb. 1988, p. 201-210. 
Research supported by the University of Texas and IBM. refs 

This paper presents a resource management mechanism for a 
multiprocessor system, which contains a pool of homoger>eous 
processing elements interconnected by multistage networtts. The 
mechanism aims at msJdng effective use of hardware resources 
of tfie multiprocessor system in support of high-performance parallel 
computations. The mechanism can create many physically 
indeperxjent sut>systems simultaneously without incurrir^g intemal 
fragmentation. Each subsystem can then configure itself to form 
a desired topology for matching the structure of the parallel 
corrputation. Tt)e proposed mechanism is distritxited in nature. It 
is divided into ttvee furtctionally disjoint procedures wt^ich may 
reside in different loci for harKfling various resource management 
tasks concurrently. Furthermore, the simulation results show that 
with the elimination of internal fragmentation, tf>e proposed 
mechanism achieves t)etter resource utilization in comparison to 
a reference machine. Author 

A88-27490 

THE NEXT WAVE OF JAPANESE SUPERCOMPUTERS 

RICHARD A. JENKINS Computers in Physics (ISSN 0894-1866). 
vol. 2. Mar.-Apr. 1988, p. 34-39. 

Although the Super-Speed Project (SSP) funded by Japan's 
Ministry of International Trade and Industry does not intend to 
directly produce a commerciai supercomputer, Japanese firms have 
proven capat>le of tuiilding and marketing state-of-the-art 
supercomputers. lronk:ally, the most advanced Japanese wori( in 
si^>ercomputer design appears to be taking place in corporate 
research labs rather than as part of the SSP. In 1988, the separate 
paths of research in IC development, parallel architectures, and 



41 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



parallelizing compiler software will begin to converge into a 
'scientific demonstration system' rather than a commercial project. 
Comparisons are made with the status of DARPA's Strategic 
Computing Initiative. O.C. 

A88-27780# 

SAMPLING CRITERIA IN MULTICOLLECTION SEARCHING 

A. GILIO, R. SCOZZAFAVA (Roma I. Universita, Rome, Italy), and 
P. G. MARCHETTI (ESA, Information Retrieval Service, Frascati, 
Italy) ESA Journal (ISSN 0379-2285). vol. 11, no. 3, 1987. p. 
343-352. refs 

In the first stage of the document retrieval process, no 
information concerning relevance of a particular document is 
available. On the other hand, computer implementation requires 
that the analysis be made only for a sample of retrieved documents. 
This paper addresses the significance and suitability of two different 
sampling criteria for a multicollection online search facility. The 
inevitability of resorting to a logarithmic criterion in order to achieve 
a 'spread of representativeness' from the multicollection is 
demonstrated. Author 

A88-29771# 

THE EUROPEAN SPACE PHYSICS ANALYSIS NETWORK 

T. R. SANDERSON (ESA, Space Science Dept., Noordwijk, 
Netherlands), M. ALBRECHT (ESA. European Space Research 
Institute. Frascati, Italy), W. BAUMJOHANN (Max-Planck-lnstitut 
fuer extraterrestrische Physil<, Garching. Federal Republic of 
Germany). P. BENVENUTI (European Southern Observatory, 
Garching, Federal Republic of Germany), J. FRANKS (ESA, 
European Space Operations Centre, Darmstadt, Federal Republic 
of Germany) et al. ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), no. 53, Feb. 
1988, p. 45-47. 

A Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) information link was 
established in 1985 between NASA and ESA; It cun-ently 
encompasses about 1000 VAX computers on both sides of the 
Atlantic, as well as the additional 1000 nodes of the High Energy 
Physics Network in the USA (but not in Europe). The backbone 
of the European element of SPAN is ESANET. In Europe, the 
Space Telescope Data Base has also been connected to SPAN. 

O.C. 

A88-29773# 

PRINCIPLES FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN FOR 

SPACE PROJECTS 

R. J. STEVENS. G. ALVISI (ESA, Documentation Service. Frascati, 
Italy). R. T. GREENWOOD (ESA. Manned and Retrievable Systems 
Dept,. Noordwijk, Netherlands), and M. DESCHAMPS (ONES, 
Toulouse, France) ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), no. 53. Feb. 
1988, p. 69-75. 

The criticat factors for successful implementation of an 
information system for the space industry encompass thorough 
analyses of user needs and constraints upon solutions, with an 
emphasis on the use of off-the-shelf products* rather specialized 
development. It is also useful to use a commercial and international 
exchange of information with contractors, and to realize that 
hardware acquisition policies are often driven by software 
requirements. The system architecture should be sufficiently flexible 
to cope with technological changes and changes in users' 
requirements. O.C. 

A88-30999*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 
LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES - STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS 
AND MATERIALS 

CHARLES P. BLANKENSHIP and ROBERT J. HAYDUK (NASA, 
Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA) SAE. International Pacific 
Air and Space Technology Conference, Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 
13-17. 1987. 30 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 872429) 

Large space structures will be a key element of the future 
space activities. They will include spacecraft such as the planned 
Space Station and large antenna/reflector structures for 
communications and observations. These targe structures will 



exceed 100 m In length or 30 m in diameter. Concepts for 
construction of these spacecraft on orbit and their materials of 
construction provide some unique research challenges. This paper 
will provide an overview of the research in space construction of 
large structures including erectable and deployable concepts. Also, 
an approach to automated, on-orbit construction will be presented. 
Materials research for space applications focuses on high stiffness, 
low expansion composite materials that provide adequate durability 
in the space environment. The status of these materials research 
activities will be discussed. Author 

A88-31276 

1987 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CHINESE AND 

ORIENTAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING, ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF 

TECHNOLOGY, CHICAGO, IL, JUNE 15-17, 1987, 

PROCEEDINGS 

Conference organized by the Chinese Language Computer Society 

and National University of Singapore; Supported by Wang 

Laboratories, Inc., Intech Systems, International Geosystems Corp., 

et al. Singapore, Chinese Language Computer Society, 1987, 285 

p. For individual items see A88-31277 to A88-31292. 

Various papers on Chinese and Oriental language computing 
are presented. Some of the individual topics considered include: 
design of a dynamically reconfigurable keyboard, recognition of 
lexical tones for isolated syllables and disyllables in Mandarin 
speech, fast Chinese characters accessing technique using 
Mandarin phonetic transcriptions, a knowledge-acquisitive system 
on Chinese texts in decision support systems, an expert 
system-developing environment with Chinese texts and images in 
parallel, a generic Chinese input system, and sequence prediction 
for Chinese language input. Also addressed are: computer 
processing of Japanese ideographs, a Chinese reading system, 
the Chinese computer input language PINXXIEE. the phonetic 
Chinese language computer system, a new input system for 
Chinese language processing, modular dictionary design for 
Chinese-to-English machine translation, a new design techique for 
a Chinese and English database management system, and a 
powerful language-processing system for English-Chinese machine 
translation. CD. 

A88-33629*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
TELEMETRY HANDLING ON THE SPACE STATION DATA 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

VIRGINIA A. WHITELAW (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, 
TX) IN: ITC/USA/'87; Proceedings of the International 

Telemetering Conference. San Diego. CA. Oct. 26-29, 1987. 
Research Triangle Park, NC, Instrument Society of America, 1987, 
p. 17-26. 

This paper examines the impact of telemetry handling on the 
design of the onboard networks that are part of the Space Station 
Data Management System (DMS). An architectural approach to 
satisfying the DMS requirement for support of the high throughput 
needed for telemetry transport and for servicing distributed 
computer systems is discussed. Several of the functionality vs. 
performance tradeoffs that must be made in developing an 
optimized mechanism for handling telemetry data in the DMS are 
considered. CD. 

A88-33665* Bendix Field Engineering Corp., Columbia, MD. 
DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM FOR NASA GROUND 
STATIONS 

JOHN F. DOYLE (Bendix Field Engineering Corp.. Columbia, MD) 
IN: ITC/USA/'87; Proceedings of the International Telemetering 
Conference. San Diego, CA, Oct. 26-29, 1987. Research Triangle 
Park. NC, Instrument Society of America, 1987, p. 423-431. 
(Contract NAS5-27600) 

NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing 
support requirements, so application software is developed and 
modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system 
was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those 
applications. Unusual features include automatic program 



42 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software 
modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a 
relational database within a real-time, distributed system. Author 

A8a-33671*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 
AN OVERVIEW OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TEUESCOPE 
COMMAND AND DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

JERRY CLUBB (NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center. Huntsville, 
AL) and FRANK INGELS (Mississippi State University, Mississippi 
State) IN: ITC/USA/*87; Proceedings of the International 
Telemetering Conference, San Diego, CA. Oct. 26-29. 1987. 
Research Triangle Parte, NC. Instrument Society of America, 1987. 
p. 479-486. 

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will be an orbiting 
observatory which will extend the capabttity of large earth-based 
observatories to view the univ^se by approximately 350 times in 
volume and approximately seven times in distar»ce. The HST 
program, which includes the Ort>iting Observatory, the Space 
Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope (Operations 
Control Center, is supported by the Space Shuttle, the Tracking 
and Data Relay Satellite System, arxj the NASA Communications 
Network. This paper describes the Command and Data 
Management System for the HST spacecraft, including flexibility, 
operatbn modes, and end-to-end data flow paths used to noeet 
stringent synchronization and data quality requirements. The results 
of system tests ifKlicate that the use of corrcatenated coding 
techiques consisting of both block and convolutk>nal codes as a 
protection against random and t)urst errors has been successful. 
Diagrams of the HST data system are included. I-S. 

A88-35376 

ADVANCED HEUCOPTER COCKPIT INFORMATION 

MANAGEMENT 

STEVE MARTZ (Boeing Military Airplane Co., Wtehita, KS), CATHY 
LEININGER, and JIM DACUS (Boeing Computer Services Co., 
Wrchita, KS) IN: Rotorcraft flight controls and avionics; 

Proceedings of the National Specialists' Meeting, Cherry Hill, NJ, 
Oct. 13-15, 1987. Alexandria, VA, American Helicopter Society, 
1 987, 8 p. refs 

The growir>g complexity of advanced helicopter systems has 
increased pilot workload. Human-machine interface characteristk^s 
and thus mission performance are adversely affected by less than 
optimal integration of infomiation from complex helicopter systems. 
Expert system technology offers great FX)tential for alleviating the 
pilot workload associatd with making routir^e as well as exceptkxial 
decisions as to informatk>n to be displayed. The numerous poss&>le 
combinations of display informatk>n can be intelligently filtered by 
an expert system dedicated to cockpit information manag^nent 
An additional benefit is the flexibility obtained through an expert 
system tmpiementatk>n of a cockpit information manager. This 
paper describes a prototype expert system developed to 
demonstrate these ber>eftts. Author 

A88-35463 

THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DATA BASE FORMATS ON 

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 

DEBORAH BOEHM-DAVIS, ROBERT HOLT, MATTHEW KOLL, 

GLORIA YASTROP. and ROBERT PETERS (George Mason 

University, Fairfax, VA) IN: Human Factors Society, Annual 

Meeting, 31st, New Yorit, NY, Oct 19-23. 1987, Proceedings. 

Volume 2. Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors Society, 1987, p. 

983-986 

(Contract N00014-85-K-0243) 

This research examir^ed the effects of three different data-base 
formats on the informatk>n retrieval performance of users. Spatial, 
tabular, artd verbal forms of two data-base domains (airiir>e and 
thesaurus) were constructed along with questions that required 
users to search through the data base to determine the connect 
response. Three types of questwns were designed: spatial, tabular, 
and vert>al. The data indk:ate that users are faster and more 
accurate in responding to the questions wt>en the format of the 
information in the data base matches the type of information 



needed to answer the questk>n. While the importance of matching 
data t>ase format to query type may seem to be ofc)vk>us, it would 
appear that the designers of most cun-ent data base systems 
have not taken tNs into account Author 

A88-36546 

Al AND ATLAS - THE PROSPECTS FOR A MARRIAGE 

ROY T. OISHI (ManTech Support Technology, Inc., Alexandria, 
VA) IN: AUTOTESTCON *87; Proceedings of the International 
Automatk; Testir>g Conference, San Francisco. CA, Nov. 3-5, 1987. 
New York, Institute of Electrical arKJ Electronics Engineers, Inc., 
1987, p. 161-166. 

The possit)ility of combiriirig the ATLAS language, used for 
sequential diagnostk: test programs, with expert system techriology 
is expkxed. Extensions to ATE (automatic test equipment) software 
architectures needed to combine these two techrxytogies are 
proposed. The advantages of such an approach are discussed. 

I.E. 

A86-38690* Jet Propulskin Lab.. California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

SATELLITE DATA MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE DATA 

ACCESS 

PATRICK D. HOGAN and THOMAS L. KOTLAREK (California 
Institute of TechrK>logy, Jet Propulsion l.atx>ratory, Pasadena) IN: 
lntematk>ned Conference on Data Er^gineering, 3rd, Los Ar^geles. 
CA, Feb. 3-5, 1987. Proceedings. Washington, DC, IEEE Cornputer 
Society Press, 1987, p. 494-500. 

The management of data generated from satellite missk>ns 
has not always led to effective access of that data tiy the scientifk: 
community. NASA has tried to alleviate this problem for ocean 
scientists, by initiating a program, the NASA Ocean Data System 
(NODS). The menu-based user interface that NODS employs alk)ws 
a user to make request and receive answers within a short time 
of accessing the system. A catalog system. whk:h hokis informatk>n 
about oceanographic data sets may be queried to determine the 
suitat^lfty of a particular data set. Once a candklate data set Is 
found, the user is directed to the person or place whk^h actually 
holds the data. NODS also has an archive system that holds data 
from ocean-observif>g satellites. The archive may be queried to 
obtain a manageable data sut>set that can be delivered in a useful 
form. Author 

A88-39049 

MAINTAINING LARGE PLANNING SYSTEMS DURING RAPID 

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 

JOHN M. MULVEY (Princeton University. NJ) and STAVROS A, 
ZENIOS (Pennsylvania, University, Philadelphia) IEEE 

Transactk>ns on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 
35. Feb. 1988, p. 31-36. Research supported by the Sloan 
Foundation, refs 
(Contract NSF DCR-84-01098) 

Today in the United States, large computerized planning 
systems have become accepted managerial tools. Four prominent 
examples taken from ongoing pMtc sector projects are described. 
The prot(feratk>n of computerized databases, greatly reduced costs 
for computer hardware, new effk:ient algorithms, sjn6 arudytk>ally 
trained mar^gers have all contrit>uted to this acceptance. ExparKled 
use of large-scale planning systems depends upon project 
mar^gers takir>g advantage of future t>reakthroughs in computer 
hardware ar)d software. Of partrcular concern are the design of 
forthcomir)g supercomputers and the Impact of these designs on 
software planning systems. Three recommendatk>ns are 
presented. Author 

A88-42201 

WHAT EVERY GOOD MANAGER SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 

ADA 

JUDY BAMBERGER (TRW, Inc., TRW Defense Systems Group, 
Redondo Beach, CA) IEEE Aerospace and Electronk: Systems 
Magazine (ISSN 0885-8985), vol. 3, May 1988, p. 2-8. refs 

The author discusses fears and fantasies about Ada that she 
has heard, directly or indirectly, each of them a numt)er of times. 



43 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



from people holding a variety of management and nonmanagement 
positions, working for the government and for government 
contractors, and with a wide range of technical backgrounds. She 
examines them from three points of view: the US Department of 
Defense program office view; the contractor project management 
view; and the design and implementation team view. Her goal is 
to help project managers discriminate facts about Ada from fears 
and fantasies and thus ensure its successful use. I.E. 

A88-44893*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

FLUID DYNAMICS PARALLEL COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT AT 
NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER 

JAMES C. TOWNSEND. THOMAS A. ZANG, and DOUGLAS L 
DWOYER {NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA) IN: 
Parallel computations and their impact on mechanics; Proceedings 
of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA. 
Dec. 13-18. 1987. New York, American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, 1987, p. 333-343. refs 

To accomplish more detailed simulations of highly complex 
flows, such as the transition to turbulence, fluid dynamics research 
requires computers much more powerful than any available today. 
Only parallel processing on multiple-processor computers offers 
hope for achieving the required effective speeds. Looking ahead 
to the use of these machines, the fluid dynamicist faces three 
issues: algorithm development for near-term parallel computers, 
architecture development for future computer power increases, and 
assessment of possible advantages of special purpose designs. 
Two projects at NASA Langley address these issues. Software 
development and algorithm exploration is being done on the 
FLEX/32 Parallel Processing Research Computer. New architecture 
features are being explored in the special purpose hardware design 
of the Navier-Stokes Computer. These projects are complementary 
and are producing promising results. Author 

A88-45032 

THE STANDARDISATION OF ON-BOARD DATA 

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND ITS IMPACT ON GROUND 

SYSTEMS 

MICHAEL JONES and NIGEL HEAD (ESA. Data Processing Div., 
Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) British Interplanetary 
Society, Journal (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 41, July 1988. p. 
295-300. 

In order to assess the possible impacts of present and future 
standardization efforts, a classification of the areas on on-board 
hardware and software that are amenable to standardization is 
made. Emphasis is given to the standardization of software, 
including that for both space and ground segments. The approach 
adopted is to match the data flow in the ground-space system to 
the standard OSI seven-layer model of communications. A number 
of inconsistencies or difficulties in performing this match are 
identified, using, as a basis, an assumed ground-space system 
architecture similar to that adopted for previous ESA missions. A 
number of areas are identified in which it appears that the definition 
and adoption of standards would be of most benefit with regard 
to either decreasing costs or increasing the quality and reliability 
of the final product. Author 

A88-45034 

DATA MANAGEMENT FOR LARGE SPACE SYSTEMS 

C. J. SHELFORD (British Aerospace, PLC, Space and 
Communications Div., Stevenage, England) British Interplanetary 
Society, Journal (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 41, July 1988 p 
307-309. 

This paper examines the major tasks and features of an 
on-board data management system (DMS) being currently designed 
for large space systems. The special features of this DMS will 
include high damage tolerance, ability to provide communications 
between a large number of dissimilar data sources and to transfer 
data at high speed, high flexibility in terms of system operation 
and growth, and easy maintenance and servicing. A major element 
of the DMS is the data network which will be implemented as a 
'local area network' and which will transport data between users 



at rates compatible with users' requirements. The network 
Interfaces will be made simple, reliable, and effective and of a 
complexity consistent with the mission objectives. I.S. 



A88-46023* Maryland Univ., College Park. 

MODERN METEOROLOGICAL COMPUTING RESOURCES - 

THE MARYLAND EXPERIENCE 

GEORGE J. HUFFMAN (Maryland, University. College Park) 
American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007), vol. 
69, July 1988, p. 736-742. Research supported by the University 
of Maryland, refs 

(Contract NAGW.557; NAGW-558: NAG5-215; NSF 
ATM-84-09457; NSF ATM-84- 14660; NSF ATM-85-06446; NSF 
ATM-86-19491; NSF MDR-85-11424) 

The Department of Meteorology at the University of Maryland 
is developing one of the first computer systems in meteorology to 
take advantage of the new networked computer architecture that 
has been made possible by recent advances in computer and 
communication technology. Elements of the department's system 
include scientific workstations, local mainframe computers, re- 
mote mainframe computers, local-area networks, 'long-haul' 
computer-to-computer communications, and 'receive-only' 
communications. Some background is provided, together with 
highlights of some lessons that were learned in carrying out the 
design. In agreement with work in the Unidata Project, this work 
shows that the networked computer architecture discussed here 
presents a new style of resources for solving problems that arise 
in meteorological research and education. Author 



A88-46506 

INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FAILURE ANALYSIS; 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH 

WORKSHOP, BAD WINDSHEIM, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF 

GERMANY, AUG. 18-22, 1986 

JOHN A. WISE, ED. (Westinghouse Research and Development 

Center, Pittsburgh, PA) and ANTHONY DEBONS, ED. (Pittsburgh, 

University, PA) Workshop sponsored by NATO, Aluminum 

Company of America, and U.S. Army. Berlin and New York, 

Springer- Verlag (NATO ASI Series. Volume F32), 1987, 352 p. 

For individual items see A88-46507 to A88-46514. 

Topics discussed include the systemic aspects of information 
system failure, investigative methods for the analysis of information 
system failure, and human and technological issues in failure 
analysis. Particular papers are presented on system failure as a 
result of design inadequacy, the investigative techniques used by 
the Presidential Commission on the Spacce Shuttle Challenger 
Accident, the use of expert systems in information systems, aviation 
accidents as due to failures of information management, and Al 
techniques for the distribution of critical information. B.J. 



A88-46951 

1987 ANNUAL SUMMER COMPUTER SIMULATION 
CONFERENCE, 19TH, MONTREAL, CANADA, JULY 27-30, 
1987, PROCEEDINGS 

JORDAN Q. B. CHOU, ED. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Canada) 
Conference sponsored by the Society for Computer Simulation. 
San Diego, CA. Society for Computer Simulation, 1987, 1065 p. 
For individual items see A88-46952 to A88-46987. 

Various papers on computer simulation are presented. The 
general topics addressed include: simulation methods, computer 
systems, simulation credibility and validation, physical and 
engineering sciences, radar and communication systems simulation, 
chemical sciences, energy, biomedical simulation, environmental 
sciences, management and the social sciences. Also consid- 
ered are: training and research simulators, government 
simulation/computation activities, CAD/CAM and manufacturing 
systems, artificial intelligence, simulation of discrete systems, flight 
simulation systems, military and defense systems, simulation of 
control and automation systems. Strategic Defense Initiative, and 
transportation systems. CD. 



44 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



A88-47005* Nationai Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston. TX. 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NASA/FLAGRO COMPUTER 
PROGRAM 

ROYCE G. FORMAN (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston. 
TX), VANKATARAMAN SHIVAKUMAR, SUSAN M. PIOTROWSKI. 
LEONARD C. WILLIAMS (Lockheed Engineering and Management 
Services Co.. Inc.. Houston, TX). and JAMES C. NEWMAN. JR. 
(NASA. Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA) IN: Fracture 
mechanics. Philadelphia. PA. American Sodety for Testing and 
Materials. 1988. p. 781-803. refs 

A preliminary version of a new computer program has been 
developed for calculating crack propagation in cyclically k>aded 
structures. The new program, titled NASA/FLAGRO. has rtum^oiis 
enhanced features over prevbus programs used for safe life 
analysis on space systems. The essential features of the new 
program consist of modular design, promptfve input usmg a cathode 
ray tube terminal, improved crack growth rate analytica} methods. 
many new crack case solutk>ns, and incorporation of user-defined 
files for material properties and fatigue spectrums. Also, five options 
made available in the program are to compute: (1) safe life of a 
part with a preexisting crack; (2) critk^t crack size for a specified 
stress level; (3) stress-intensity factor numerical values for making 
comparisons or checks of solutrans; (4) least-squares fit of growth 
rate equations to crack growth rate data; and (5) the conversion 
of a versus N data to Delta K versus da/dN. Author 

A88-50319 

ADVANCES IN IMAGE PROCESSING; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

MEETING, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS, MAR. 31-APR. 3, 

1987 

ANDRE OOSTERLINCK, ED. (Leuven. Katholieke Universiteit, 
Heveriee, Belgium) and ANDREW G. TESCHER, ED. (Technok>gy 
Concepts Associates. Claremont. CA) Meeting organized by the 
Association Nationale de ta Recherche Technk^ue and SPtE. 
Bellingham, WA. Society of Photo-Optical InstmmentatkMi 
Engineers (SPIE Proceedings. Volume 804). 1987, 409 p. For 
indivkiual items see A88-50320 to A88-50322. 
(SPIE-804) 

Advances in image-processing methods and applk:atk)ns are 
examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include optical 
technology in the Netheriands, algorithms and theory, 
image-processing architectures, medical applk:atk>ns, industrial 
applicatk>ns. and image coding. Partrcular attentkjn is given to 
IRAS image reconstructk>n arKi restoration, a hierarchrcal mettK>d 
for classfficatk>n of high-resolution remotely sensed multispectral 
images, distance measurements in X-ray images, a compor>ent 
lat>eling algorithm for vkieo rate processing, moment invariance 
for perspective transformatk>n. and hierarchical picture coding usir^g 
quad-tree decomposttbn. T.K. 

A88-50874 

THE MISSING UNKS - ADVANCES IN GRAPHIC PROCESSING 

OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEUNG INFORMATION 

GERARD A. BRENNAN (Rockwell lntematk>nal Corp., Rocketdyne 
Div., Canoga Pari^. CA) IN: Intematronal Modal Analysis 
Conference. 5th. London, England, Apr. 6-9. 1987, Proceedings. 
Volume 2. Bethel. CT. Society for Experimental Mechanrcs, Inc., 
1987, p. 1263-1268. 

Graphk; processing of finite element modeling (FEM) data has 
provided analysts with a quick and effective way to compreherxj 
the large volumes of analysis information. The complexity and 
completeness of the pre- and postprocessing capabilities provkted 
by FEM graphics systems generally depends on both cost and 
computing resources. These graphk:s systems are availat>le on 
mainframes, turnkey systems, mini-, mka^o-, and personal 
computers. The wkJespread availability and acceptance of these 
systems has increased the awareness of FEM efforts both within 
and outskte of the engir>eering community. However, the element 
topology representatk>ns used in most graphrcs systems are often 
simplistk: and misleading. This paper presents an innovative method 
for a more complete representatwn of finite element topok>gies 
and properties. Author 



A88-50987 

SOFTWARE BLUEPRINTING FOR LOGISTICS SOFTWARE 

ENGINEERING 

DEBORAH A- JANSAK-NOBLE (BDM Corp., Dayton, CM^) IN: 
NAECON 88; Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and 
Electronk^s Conference, Dayton. OH, May 23-27, 1988. Volunie 2. 
New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 1988. 
p. 636-640, refs 

The effectiveness of the Logisttes Management System Center 
(LMSC) modemizatk>n program relies on the development of large, 
high quality, integrated information systems. Since software 
productx>n is compHcated by errors at every stage of development, 
it is critk^al to implement wf^tever cost effective processes are 
necessary to create the best systems possible. The author presents 
an overview of the ttvee laws of informatk>n er)gir>eering. how 
they effect k>gistk:s software development, and the devek>pfn^it 
and application of the copyrighted BDM software blueprinting 
methodology as a partial sotutkm. I.E. 

A88-51006 

HUMANE: A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SIMULATION 

ENVIRONMENT FOR HUMAN-MACHINE FUNCTION 

ALLOCATION 

AZAD M. MADNl (Perceptronics, Inc.. Woodland Hills. CA) IN: 
NAECON 88; Proceedings of the IEEE NatkHiai Aerospace and 
Electrontes Conference, Dayton, OH. May 23-27. 1988. Volume 3. 
New York. Institute of Electrical and Electronrcs En^neers. 1988. 
p. 860-866. Research supported by Perceptrontes. Inc. refs 
(Contract F33615-86-C-0536) 

The human-machine allocatkjn network-based environment 
(HUMANE), a designer-oriented knowledge-based simutatkKi 
environment for analyzing functk>n-alkx»tk)n optk>n8. is presented. 
The requirements for a designer-oriented functton alk>catk>n tool 
are presented, folk>wed by the design rrtethodotogy. overall concept 
of operatk>n. hardware-software implementatk>n. potential 
enhancements and transfer strategy. HUMANE both systemati^s 
and formalizes the function allocation process. Its Awhat*if' 
simulatk>n-based analysis capability produces dramatk: savfr)gs in 
designers' time-on-task while comprehensively covering 
performance and workload envelopes. The knowledge-based 
implementation makes the software inspectabie. maintainable and 
modular. Its graphical intertaces are t>oth easy-to-use. HUMANE 
allows the designer to save both selected and rejected 
Functk>n-altocation options (ak>ng with a brief reason) in the 
lessons-learned data bases. This feature offers great utility in 
subsequent analysis of other platforms and systems. I.E. 

A88-51934# 

THE SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF A SYSTEM USING 
COMPUTER-AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND 
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS TOOLS 

B. E. CLARK, JANET R. DUNHAM, and DEBORAH L FRANKE 
(Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) AIAA. 
AHS, and ASEE. Aircraft D^gn. Systems ar>d Operatk>ns Meetir>g. 
Atlanta. GA, Sept 7-9. 1988. 8 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4410) 

The comt>ined use of computer-akled software ertgineering 
(CASE) and architecture design and assessment system (ADAS) 
methods for designing complex digital systems such as a gukiar>ce 
and control system is consk^ed. Both CASE and performance 
analysis tools provkJe the consistency checking whk^ is necessary 
to ensure a correct specifk:atk>n, and CASE tools provide extensive 
documentatk>n features such as data dk:tk)naries and the automatk; 
generation of MIL STD 2167 specifkations. ADAS tools provkle 
an event list for ensuring correct pertormance in a real-time system, 
along with mapping capabilities whk^h allow hardware constraints 
to t>e included in the artatysis. R.R. 

A88-51956# 

1993 - A VISION OF THE DESIGN CENTER 

CARL W. DAWSON (Apollo Computer, Inc., Atlanta. GA) AIAA. 
AHS, and ASEE, Aircraft Design. Systems and Operations Meeting, 



45 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



Atlanta. GA, Sept. 7-9. 1988. 10 p. rets 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4451) 

The ability to interconnect different computer systems and to 
share data and processing power has been made possible by the 
implementation of various standards. The power of new and 
emerging hardware and software technologies will have a profound 
impact on the way new applications are developed and how an 
organization will use computer resources within the next five 
years. Author 

A88-52132 

VSAT NETWORKS: ARCHITECTURES, PROTOCOLS, AND 

MANAGEMENT 

DATTAKUMAR M. CHITRE (COMSAT Laboratories, Clarksburg, 
MD) and JOHN 8. MCCOSKEY (GTE Spacenet Corp., McLean. 
VA) IEEE Communications Magazine (ISSN 0163-6804). vol. 26, 
July 1988, p. 28-38. 

VSAT (very-small-aperture terminal) satellite networks, are 
discussed, focusing on a particular network called STARCOM. The 
STARCOM system architecture is presented. A multiple-access 
protocol developed specifically for the STARCOM system is 
described and its performance is examined. The management 
capabilities of the STARCOM system are considered in detail. 

I.E. 

A88-52229# 

ADVANCED BLACKBOARD APPROACHES FOR COCKPIT 

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 

L. BAUM. R. DODHIAWALA. V. JAGANNATHAN (Boeing Computer 
Sen/ices Co., Seattle, WA), D. BLEVINS, and R. STENERSON 
(Boeing Military Airplane Co., Seattle, WA) IN: AAAIC '87 - 
Aerospace Applications of Artificial Intelligence; Proceedings of 
the Third Annual Conference, Dayton, OH. Oct. 5-9, 1987. Dayton, 
OH. AAAIC Conference Secretariat, 1988, p. 15-30. rets 

Effective management of the cockpit environment requires a 
sophisticated control technology which embodies the 'contract' 
between the pilot and his intelligent cockpit information 
management system, which responds asynchronously to the event 
driven flight environment, and which manages visual displays and 
synthesized voice channels to aid the pilot in maintaining his flight 
context. The Avionics Technology Group of the Boeing Military 
Airplane Company has employed the 'blackboard' programming 
paradigm to develop a sequence of prototype cockpit information 
management systems of increasing complexity and capability. The 
work reported here is an extension of earlier work which replaces 
the simple domain blackboard software with blackboard software 
having both a control and a domain component developed by 
Boeing Computer Sen/ices. The new cockpit information 
management systems implemented in this technology provide the 
capability to dynamically allocate priorities of pending tasks. 

Author 

A88-52343 

ADA AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS - A PROTOTYPE 

COMBINING THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS 

DAVID C. BRAUER, PATRICK P. ROACH. MICHAEL S. FRANK, 
and RICHARD P. KNACKSTEDT (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics 
Co., Huntington Beach, CA) IN: Space Congress, 25th, Cocoa 
Beach, FL, Apr. 26-29, 1988, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL. 
Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1988, p. 6-36 to 6-40. 
refs 

A software architecture based on Ada tasking and packaging 
which facilitates the constructio of distributed knowledge-based 
systems is described. This architecture was used to build the 
Knowledge-Based Maintenance Expert System prototype for the 
Remote Manipulator System of the NASA Space Station Mobile 
Service Center. Each module of the system contains Ada packages 
of standard systems services, which interface with an artificial 
intelligence/knowledge-based system (AI/KBS) language com- 
ponent that performs knowledge-based reasoning. By using 
Ada as the fundamental structure, a well-structured, maintainable 
program was achieved. By retaining the AI/KBS language 



component, the knowledge needed to solve ill-structured, dynamic, 
and/or nonalgorithmic problems was captured. Author 

A88-52357 

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT 

FOR THE LAUNCH PROCESSING SYSTEM 

MARCIA W. BURCH and DEBRA K. MOVER IN: Space Congress, 
25th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 26-29, 1988, Proceedings. Cape 
Canaveral, FL, Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1 988, p. 
9-77 to 9-85. 

A networked computing system which generates a 
state-of-the-art environment for software engineering was 
developed to support a progressive Shuttle launch rate. The launch 
processing system software development network is a 12 
megabit/sec token passing ring architecture connecting individual 
nodes in a series. The network topology is described as well as 
system implementation, the goat compiler. CCMS development 
support. Shuttle connector analysis, computer aided graphics, 
configuration management, the switch controller prototype, and 
documentation support. K.K. 

A88-53669# 

SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR BUILDING DEDICATED, REALTIME 

APPLICATIONS 

B. COTHRAN and D. COMSTOCK (Digital Equipment Corp., 
Maynard, MA) IN: AIAA, Flight Simulation Technologies 

Conference, Atlanta. GA, Sept. 7-9, 1988. Technical Papers. 
Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics. 1988, p. 343-346. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4650) 

A set of software tools used for building dedicated real-time 
applications is described qualitatively and quantitatively. It is shown 
how a single computer architecture, with the use of a sophisticated 
set of software tools, can be used to build real-time applications 
requiring single and/or multiprocessing systems. Standard product 
features such as ADA TM support, remote debugger, and 
performance analysis utilities are discussed. K.K. 

A88-54484 

A DATA-BASE MANAGEMENT SCHEME FOR 

COMPUTER-AIDED CONTROL ENGINEERING 

JAMES H. TAYLOR. KO-HAW NIEH (General Electric Co.. 
Schenectady, NY), and PETER A. MROZ (DuPont Chambers 
Works, Deepwater, NJ) IN: 1988 American Control Conference. 
7th, Atlanta, GA, June 15-17, 1988, Proceedings. Volume 1. New 
York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1988, p. 
719-724. USAF-sponsored research, refs 

As CACE (computer-aided control engineering) environments 
become more comprehensive and more powerful, the need for 
keeping track of the models, simulations, analysis results, control 
system designs, and validation study results over the control system 
design cycle becomes more pressing and the lack of 
engineering-database-management support becomes more of an 
impediment to effective controls engineering. In view of this, the 
authors demonstrate that rigorous engineering-database 
management for computer-aided control engineering is both 
important and achievable. A hierarchical organization of CACE 
database elements is presented, and additional mechanisms for 
maintaining database integrity are described. I.E. 

A88-54485 

AN INTERFACE FOR COMPUTER-AIDED CONTROL 

ENGINEERING BASED ON AN ENGINEERING DATA-BASE 

MANAGER 

PETER A. MROZ (DuPont Chambers Works. Deepwater. NJ). PHIL 
MCKEEHEN (USAF, Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson 
AFB, OH), and JAMES H. TAYLOR (GE Control Systems 
Laboratory. Schenectady, NY) IN: 1988 American Control 
Conference, 7th, Atlanta, GA, June 15-17. 1988, Proceedings. 
Volume 1. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, 1 988, p. 725-730. USAF-sponsored research, refs 

The features of an engineering-database-management 
(EDBM)-based user interface to a CACE software environment 



46 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



are described. This includes demonstrating the execution of all 
database operations, including tKowse. display, edit, purge, delete, 
and replicate, as well as executing certain CACE activity directly 
from the ED6M displays. Some of these featires have t>een 
implemented in a rapid prototype software errvironment; more of 
them are cun-entiy being irKorporated in version 1 .0 of the authors* 
CACE environment The primary goal of this user-interface design 
is to make EDBM an integral part of the environment I.E. 



A88-55015 

SATELLITE INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

EDWARD S. BINKOWSKI (Strate^ Comaps. Inc.; Hunter College; 
Fordham University, New York) Boston, MA, G.K. Hall Publishers. 
1988, 223 p. refs 

Commercial applicatk>ns of satettite technology are (fiscussed 
in a general oven/iew for potential users. Chapters are devoted to 
satellite information systems Onduding one-to-one, one-to-many, 
and many-to-one information trar^sfer), regidation and competition 
in satellite communications, and a survey of currently open 
questior^ for users and operators. Directories of relevant 
publications and associations are provkled. T.K. 



N88-11377# Rockwell International Corp.. Goklen. CO. 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS: A POWERFUL TOOL FOR 
PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

T. A. HUGHES 1987 11 p Presented at the Instrument 

Society of America International Conferer>ce and Exhibit. Anaheim. 

Calif., 5 Oct 1987 

(Contract DE-AC04-76DP-03533) 

(DE87-013381; RFP-4104; CONF-871 028-4) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 

Availat>ility of low cost hardware an6 software within the past 
few years has made the Personal Computer a powerful tool for 
Project Management Project managers very effectively apply word 
processing, cost accounting spreadsheets, arxj data management 
software to make their jobs easier. An important aspect of personal 
computers lies in ft\ek ability to irr^xove productivity of tfie project 
design team. Project information can now be gathered, stored, 
and presented in a more useful form. Direct benefits are the 
detecting of cost overruns and scheduling problems through 
improved data armlysis. This paper will discuss the use of Personal 
Computers in cost analysis, plannir>g, tracking, and controllirtg 
instrumentation projects. Practical applk^ations will t>e discussed 
and the advantages and disadvantages of available software wHI 
be reviewed. DOE 



A88-55330*# 

SPACE STATION INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

CLARENCE W. PITTMAN (NASA. Space Station Program Offk:e. 
Reston, VA) lAF. International AstiY>nautical Congress. 39th. 
Bangalore, India, Oct. 8-15, 1988. 10 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-059) 

The utility of the Space Station is improved, the at)ility to manage 
and integrate its development and operation entiarx^ed, and the 
cost and risk of devek>ping the software for it is mirwnized by 
three major information systems. The Space Station Information 
System (SSIS) provkles for the transparent coHecton and 
dissemination of operatiorwt ^formation to aH users and operators. 
The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) 
provides ail the devek)pers vvith timely and cortsislent program 
information and a project management *wffKk>w* to assess the 
project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provktes 
automated tools and standards to be used by alt software 
developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the 
successful execution of tiie program. Author 



N88-10686*# Denver Univ., CO. Program for tt\e Management 
and Application of Science and Technology. 
NASA'S NEW TECHNOLOGY REPORTING SYSTEM: A 
REVIEW AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 

RICHARD L CHAPMAN Jun. 1985 205 p 

(Conti-act NASW-3466) 

(NASA-CR-1 80954; NAS 1.26:180954) Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF 

A01 CSCL 05B 

A systematic effort is made to describe how NASA's new 
technc^ogy reportir>g system operates today, and how that system 
might be enhanced. The system is documented in terms of 
organization, operational practices, and other program benefits. 
Identified and assessed are ir>oentives or dsincentives to reportHig, 
program management, program fottow throu^, and the feasibility 
of various means for improving the ger>eral process. NASA has 
tfie only system in the Federal (Bovemment for capti^ng arxJ 
disseminating new technology devek)ped under its sponsorsh^ of 
research ar>d development This system can be improved in many 
ways, some of whk:h require additional resources and/or more 
senk>r management attention, but many of whk:h can be instituted 
witiiin the authority of the leadership of the Technology Utilization 
program. The suggested options and actions presented are mutually 
compatit)le. Any single action will contiibute to improving the 
process. However, the first and most important step is undoubtedly 
to gain senk>r management's attention to the central role played 
by a vigorous new technology reporting system in the success 
and value of NASA's broader technotogy utilization and technology 
transfer activities. Author 



N88-11378# Edgerton, Germeshausen and Qrier, lr)c., Idaho 

Falls, ID. 

THE MICROCOMPUTER AS AN ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 

TOOL 

J. A. GOLDSBERRY and T. R. HOERTKORN 1987 9 p 

Presented at the Society of Women Engineers National Convention. 

Kansas City. Mo., 24 Jun. 1987 Prepared in cooperation with 

DOE. Idaho Falls. Idaho 

(Contract DE-AC07-76ID-01 570) 

(DE87-014882; EGG-M-37586; CONF-870669-2) Avail: NTIS HC 

A02/MF A01 

Project maruigement is a concern for en^neers who need to 
track critical techrocal and financial data to accompltsh tasks. 
Conservation personr>el are currentiy using physk^al files to store 
project data. When data are needed, it is not always easily 
accessible. The manual approach is becoming increasingly diffk:ult 
as the number of active projects increase. The mini-computer 
approach is functional txit requires a large investment for hardware 
ar>d software. Therefore, a mk:rocofTputer-t}ased relational 
datat>ase management system (DBMS) is being implemented to 
improve operating effk^ency and deciskm support for the 
Conservation Programs at INEL and the Consen^ation Technotogies 
Divisk>n at DOE-ID. Managers and technk^al mor^tors can easily 
access tf>e database to check the current status of projects. The 
applk:ation is desigr>ed to work in conjunction with a natural 
language inquiry product that allows retrieval of database 
information in plain Er)glish. DOE 

N86-11571# Center for Social and Economk; Issues, Ann Arbor, 

Ml. 

IMPLEMENTING AND MANAGING CHANGE: A GUIDE FOR 

ASSESSING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 

J. A. MORELL. a GRYDER. and M. FLEISCHER Aug. 1987 

100 p Prepared in cooperation with ORNL^ Tenn. 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 

(DE88-000035; (5RNL/TM-10520) Avafl: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

Assessing the impact of offk:e automation (OA) reqims 
expertise in the ger>eric aspects of evaluation artd innovatk>n 
adoption, comtMned with specialized krtowtedge of OA. There is 
an extensive literature on the two generk: subiects, fcxit no 
compank>n literature concerrting the applk^ation of tiie knowledge 
to the unkiue case of OA. By provkJing that specialized information, 
this report assists the implernentors of OA in two ws^ it shows 
them how to monitor implementation efforts, thus provkJing 
feedback to facilitate adoption of OA technokigy; and it provkles 
gukjance for measurir>g OA's impact on people and orgariizations. 
The report assumes an immediate impact of OA on the work 
groups wt)ere the technology is implemented, and a continually 
spreading effect from that kx;us of immediate use. Included in the 



47 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



report are discussions of: sources of data, methods of data 
coMection, factors which affect implementation, and measures of 
impact. Special attention is given to measuring productivity changes 
that may result from the use of OA. A detailed appendix supplies 
a variety of examples which show how the variables discussed in 
the report were actually measured in applied settings. DOE 

N88-11925*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

LEWIS INFORMATION NETWORK (LINK): BACKGROUND AND 

OVERVIEW 

ROGER R. SCHULTE Nov. 1987 34 p 

(NASA-TM-100162; E-3724; NAS 1.15:100162) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 17B 

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research 
facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test 
celts, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on 
a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. 
The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research 
in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and 
structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions 
require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data 
communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. 
In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter 
video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have 
developed. To address these and future communications 
requirements for the next 1 5 yrs, a project team was organized to 
design and implement a new high speed communication system 
that would handle both data and video information in a common 
lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable 
television broadband coaxial cable technology as the 
communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable 
began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network 
(LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the 
backbone of all data communications and video. Author 

N88-12333# Vanderbilt Univ.. Nashville, TN. Center for Intelligent 

Systems. 

A PROTOTYPE EXPERT SYSTEM FOR SEPARATION 

SCIENCE 

K. A. DEBELAK, M. R. LEUZE. J. R. BOURNE. J. E. WHITLOW, 
B. A. ANTAO. O. RATI NO-SI LICEO. and D. J. PRUETT (Oak Ridge 
National Lab., Tenn.) Aug. 1987 14 p Presented at the 
American Institute of Chemical Engineers Summer National 
Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn., 16 Aug.1 987 Prepared in 

cooperation with Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. 
(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 
(DE87-013542; CONF-870822-7) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 

The creation of an expert system that will aid in solving problems 
in separation science and technology is discussed. Such a system 
includes a user interface and a core expert system with the ability 
to access a number of modules designed to retrieve, calculate, 
and analyze information needed to solve separation problems. 
These modules include an analytical chemistry data base, existing 
chemical data bases, regulatory data base, theoretical models, 
engineering models, and a series of expert systems in each of 
the important separation technologies. DOE 

N8a-12417# Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. 

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON 

RESEARCH IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 

JONATHAN A. MORELL 1987 29 p Presented at the Howard 

R. Davis Society for Knowledge Utilization. Pittsburgh, Pa 9 Oct 

1987 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 

(DE88-000342; CONF-8710147.1) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

There is little research on the impact of information technology 
(IT) on how research is carried out by scientists and engineers. 
This paper draws on other bodies of writings which indirectly shed 
light on this question. Included are: the role of calculation in 
research, scientific productivity, the philosophical underpinnings of 
science and technology, systems analysis, and the use of computer 
aided design in engineering. A model is developed which helps 



identify the types of impact that IT may have on social system 
and epistemological aspects of research. Factors are hypothesized 
which may explain why IT may have particular effects in any given 
research endeavor. DOE 



N88-12954*# Sterling Software, Palo Alto, CA. 
SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE IN SCIENTIFIC AND 
ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTS: AN INTRODUCTION AND 
GUIDE 

DAVID WRIGHT Feb. 1986 27 p 

(Contract NAS2-1 1555) 

(NASA-CR-1 77409; NAS 1.26:177409; USAAVSCOM-TR-85-A-5) 

Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

The purpose of software maintenance techniques is addressed. 
The aims of perfective, adaptive and corrective software 
maintenance are defined and discussed, especially in the NASA 
research environment. Areas requiring maintenance, and tools 
available for this, and suggestions for their use are made. Stress 
is placed on the organizational aspect of maintenance at both the 
Individual and group level. Particular emphasis is placed on the 
use of various forms of documentation as the basis around which 
to organize. Finally, suggestions are given on how to proceed in 
the partial or complete absence of such documentation. Author 



N88-14038# Science Research Council, Chilton (England). 

Rutherford Appleton Lab. 

RELATIONAL DATA HANDLING SYSTEM FOR SCIENTISTS 

8. J. READ 1986 21 p 

(PB87-223426; RAL-86-053) Avail: NTIS HC E03/MF E03 

CSCL 05B 

Scientific applications may make special demands of a data 
base management system. It must not just cope with arrays and 
floating point numbers, but rather, recognize the different style in 
which data are used compared with ordinary commercial systems. 
R-EXEC was developed in response to the need for a simple, 
portable, relational file manipulation package in the FORTRAN 
environment. Relational algebra provides a firm theoretical 
foundation. This is then necessarily extended to handle data input, 
output, sorting, reports and graphs. The novel command interface 
is precedural and user efficient. The development of R-EXEC was 
strongly influenced by the immediate demands of applications in 
physics and astronomy. Apart from character strings, there are 
five numeric data types, all of which can be vectors. The data 
relations are self describing files, owned and managed by users 
without reference to a database administrator, and with no central 
schema to maintain. Particularly powerful data manipulation tools 
are the grouping operation, the outer join and the way functions 
of attributes are permitted in projection. Null, or default, values 
are optional. However, perhaps the most important attraction is 
the ease of adding new functions. Author 



N88-14039# National Technical Information Service, Springfield, 

VA. 

ROLE OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN INNOVATION 

J. E. CLARK and A. R. WENBERG 30 Aug. 1987 17 p 
Presented at the 194th American Chemical Society National 
Meeting, New Orleans, La., 30 Aug. - 4 Sep. 1987 
(PB87-235388) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

Innovation results from the acquisition and use of technical 
information are presented. Scientific journals are frequently used 
by academic and other researchers to summarize their research 
results while technical reports are used widely by academics, 
governments, and busimess to document their research and 
development results in more detail. Other products of research 
and development efforts such as patents, computer software, and 
technical data complete the toolbox which innovators and 
entrepreneurs need to accomplish change. The complementary 
roles of these various types of scientific and technical information 
are described. GRA 



48 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



N88-14040# National Technicat Information Sen/ice. Springfield, 

VA. 

ROLE OF THE TECHNICAL REPORT IN TECHNOLOGICAL 

I NNO VATION 

J. F. CAPONIO and D. D. BRACKEN 1987 21 p Presented 
at the 5th International Conference of Scientific Editors, Hamburg, 
Fed. Reput>lic of Germany, 14-19 Jun. 1987 
(PB87-232500) AvaH: NTiS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The United States has followed a policy since World War II of 
permitting and encouraging the flow of technology to the free 
world nations. For more than forty years, the National Technical 
Information Sen^ice (NTIS) has served as the primary source for 
the collection and cfetritMition of Government-sponsored research 
and engineering reports (TR's), research in progress simimaries, 
computer programs, macNne-readable data files, and applied 
technology. The scientific paper and the TR are examined, 
compared, ar)d appraised as carriers of scientific and technicat 
knowledge, tn addition to characterizing the taxonomy of the TR, 
the respective roles and functions of ttie put>ltshed paper and tiie 
unpublished TR are identified In the cfiffusion of scientific and 
technological knowledge. More importantly, arguments are 
advanced and evktonce presented to prove why the TR is more 
important than the scientifk; paper in stimulating technologk:al 
innovation in the United States today. GRA 

N88-14850# Science Resear^ Council. CNIton (England). 
SCIENTIFIC DATA MANIPULATION IN A RELATIONAL 
DATABASE SYSTEM 

B.J. READ Jul. 1986 10 p 

(PB87-1 24400; RAL-86-084) Avail: NTIS HC E03/MF E03 

CSCL05B 

Provkled the user interface is well designed, extended relational 
algebra can be a powerful tool for handling sdentifk; data. Its 
utility is greatiy enhanced fay the addition of attribute algebra to 
allow matiiematical man^xilatiOT of fiekj values. The paper reports 
on a devetopment which, motivated by practical requirements, 
integrates features such as functions, vector data types, iteration 
and conditional attribute values into a relational datat>ase 
management system. GRA 

N88-14859*# Illinois State Univ., Nonmal. Dq>t of Applied 
Corrwuter ScioncQ 

A REVIEW OF HYPERTEXT IN A NASA PROJECT 
MANAGEMENT CONTEXT Final Report 

CHRISTC^PHER J. BELL in NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space 
Center, Houston, Tex. NASA/American Society for Engineering 
Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Feltowship Program, 1987. 
Volume 1 12p Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A15/MF A01 CSCL 058 

The principles of data storage, ttw comparative strengths of 
data bases, and the evolution of hypertext within tfiis context are 
discussed. A dassifk^ation schema of indexing ar>d of hypertext 
document structures is provkled. Issues associated with hypertext 
implementation are also discussed and potential areas for further 
research are incficated. Author 

N88-15725# Defense Techrwcal Infomnation Center. Alexandria, 

VA. Offk5e of Information Syst Ems and Technology. 

DOD GATEWAY INFORMATION SYSTEM (DGIS) COMMON 

COMMAND LANGUAGE: THE FIRST PROTOTYPING AND THE 

DECISION FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELUGENCE 

ALLAN D. KUHN. RANDY L BIXBY. and DUG TIEN TRAN Aug. 

1987 26 p 

(AD-A185950; AD-F000114: DTIC/TR-87/19; 

DTIC-AI-FOUNDATION.SER-4) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL05B 

DoD gateway information system (DGIS) began its initial 
prototype in C language with DIALOG, BRS, NASA/RECON, and 
DROLS. These prototypes in a third-generation algorithmk: 
language brought to the surface a number of problems and 
questions in dealing with the distinctions of information systems. 
The issues concern both the user interface and the devek)pment 
design. Experimices, results, and concluskms in woridng with these 



systems are thought out The dedston to convert to and continue 
CCL development with artificiat intelligence toots is explained. Our 
effort is a merging of PROLOG and C capabilities, to provide the 
DGIS user an At-t>ased searcher assistant interface that makes 
the human-machine interaction more human-like on DGIS. GRA 

N88-15726# Defense Technrcal Information Center, Alexandria. 
VA. Offree of Information Systems and TechrK>logy. 
DOD GATEWAY INFORMATION SYSTEM (DGIS): COMMON 
COMMAND LANGUAGE MAPPING 

RANDY L BIXBY Oct 1987 22 p 

(AD-A1 85951; AD-F000114; DTIC/TR-87/20: DTIC-CCL-2) Avail: 

NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The DoD Gateway Information System (DGIS) Cknnmon 
(Command Language (CX^L) project was initiated to provkje a single 
starKtard commar>d language for searching arty online database 
system. This report relates the requirements analysis for the initial 
CCL prototypes in C language. Requirements were determined of 
six online database systems: DROLS. DIALOG. NASA/RECON, 
BRS. ORBIT, and MATRIS, using the National Information 
Standards Organization (NISO) draft standard for Common 
Command Language as a bas^. Four C prototypes were completed: 
DROLS. DIALOG. BRS. and NASA/RECON. At that time the 
decision was made to incorporate artifk»al intelHgence capabilities 
into CCL. and the programming of the CCL translators was 
converted to PROLOG. Author (GRA) 

N88-16414*# Alabama Univ.. Huntsvilte. Dept. of Computer 

S^ertce 

QUALITATIVE MODELS FOR PLANNING: A GENTLE 

INTRODUCTION 

JAMES D. JOHANNES and JAMES R. CARNES In NASA. Marshall 
Space Right (Center, Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for 
Space AppHcations, Part 1 p 297-302 Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

Qualitative modeling is the study of how the physk:al worid 
behaves. These physical models accept partial descriptions of the 
world arKJ output the possible chartges. Cun^ent systems assume 
that the model is static and that ph^k^l entities do not effect 
change into the worid. An approach to planning in physical domains 
and a woricing implementation which integrates c^rtative models 
with a temporal inten^al-based planner are described. The planner 
constructs plans involving physk^al qualities and then- behavk)ral 
descriptions. Author 

N88-16424*# National Aeror^utics and Space Administration. 

Goddard Space Right Center, Greenbelt. MD. 

THE INTELUGENT USER INTERFACE FOR NASA'S 

ADVANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

Abstract Only 

WILLIAM J. CAMPBELL, NICHOLAS SHORT, JR., LARRY H. 

ROLOFS. and SCOTT L WATTAWA (Science AppHcations 

Research, Lanctover, Md.) In NASA. Marshall Space Right Center. 

Tturd Confer^x:e on Artifk^ial Intelligence for Space Applk^ations, 

Part 1 p 359-360 Nov. 1987 

Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to 
design and develop advar>ced information mar^agement systems. 
The prefect's primary goal is to formulate, design arni develop 
advanced information systems that are capat>le of supporting the 
agency's future space research and operational information 
management needs. The first effort of the project was the 
development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an 
operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural 
language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User 
Interface formulation and development is given. Author 

N88-16577*# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council. Washington. DC. 

CRITICAL ISSUES IN NASA INFORMATION SYSTEMS Final 

Report 

Jun. 1987 68 p 



49 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



(Contract NASW-4124) 

(NASA-CR-1 82380; NAS 1.26:182380; PB88-101027) Avail: 

NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has 
developed a globally-distributed complex of earth resources data 
bases since LANDSAT 1 was launched in 1972. NASA envisages 
considerable growth in the number, extent, and complexity of such 
data bases, due to the improvements expected in its remote 
sensing data rates, and the increasingly multidiscipllnary nature of 
its scientific investigations. Work already has begun on information 
systems to support multidiscipllnary research activities based on 
data acquired by the space station complex and other space-based 
and terrestrial sources. In response to a request from NASA's 
former Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, 
the National Research Council convened a committee in June 
1985 to Identify the critical issues Involving information systems 
support to space science and applications. The committee has 
suggested that OSSA address four major information systems 
issues; centralization of management functions, interoperability of 
user Involvement in the planning and Implementation of its 
programs, and technology. GRA 

N68-17275*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsvllle, AL. 
THE USE OF COMPUTER QRAPHIC SIMULATION IN THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS 

KEN FERNANDEZ In NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 
Houston, Texas. First Annual Workshop on Space Operations 
Automation and Robotics (SOAR 87) p 501-511 Oct. 1987 
Previously announced In lAA as A87-15812 
Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

This paper describes the use of computer graphic simulation 
techniques to resolve critical design and operational issues for 
robotic systems. Use of this technology will result in greatly 
Improved systems and reduced development costs. The major 
design issues in developing effective robotic systems are discussed 
and the use of ROBOSIM, a NASA developed simulation tool, to 
address these issues is presented. Three representative simulation 
case studies are reviewed: off-line programming of the robotic 
welding development cell for the Space Shuttle Main Engine 
(SSME); the integration of a sensor to control the robot used for 
removing the Thermal Protection System (TPS) from the Solid 
Rocket Booster (SRB); and the development of a 
teleoperator/robot mechanism for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle 
(OMV). Author 

N88-17307# Logica Ltd., London (England). 
HARDWARE/SOFTWARE RELIABILITY STUDY Final Report 

PETER MELLOR Paris, France ESA Jan. 1987 261 p 
(Contract ESA-6640/86-NL-MA) 

(REPT-65.5686; ESA-CR(P)-2494; ETN-88-91 427) Avail: NTIS 
HC A12/MF A01 

Techniques for reliability analysis of the logical part of 
hardware/software systems are reviewed, and recommendations 
for requirements and analysis techniques needed to demonstrate 
compliance are made. Working practices to be used to assess 
software reliability in order to demonstrate compliance with 
requirements, and a comprehensive technical background of 
techniques and tools which can be used to assess 
hardware/software reliability are presented. Working practices to 
be used in collecting data for an assessment of software reliability 
are included, because of the nature of software reliability 
assessment techniques which involves a statistical analysis of the 
failure history of a system during trial. It is therefore essential that 
the necessary data be recorded during development, test, trial, 
and operation of a hardware/software system. ESA 

N88-18191# North Carolina Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Electrical 

and Computer Engineering. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON FUTURE 

DIRECTIONS IN COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND 

SOFTWARE 

DHARMAR P. AGRAWAL, ed. 30 Aug. 1986 421 p Wori<shop 



held in Charleston, S.C.. 5-7 May 1986; sponsored by ARC, 

Research Triangle Park, N.C. Prepared for Battelle Columbus 

Labs.. Ohio 

(Contract DAAG29-81-D-0100) 

(AD-A1 84949) Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

Topics discussed include instruction set considerations, custom 
chips, memory hierarchy and parallel architecture, interconnection 
and reconfiguration strategies, granularity issues, mapping 
algorithms and task assignment, resuable and retargetable 
software, distributed operating systems, concurrency control, MIMO 
parallelism and support, distributed computing systems, architec- 
ture and software issues, logic and functional programming, 
VLSI and related issues, and applicative language and data flow 
techniques. 

N8a-20210# Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, 

DC 

DEFENDING SECRETS, SHARING DATA: NEW LOCKS AND 

KEYS FOR ELECTRONIC INFORMATION 

Oct. 1987 191 p 

(PB88-143185; OTA-CIT-310) Avail: NTIS HC A09/MF A01; also 

available SOD HC $8.50 as 052-000-010-83-6 CSCL 05B 

Federal policies directed at protecting Information, particularly 
in electronics communications systems are examined. Also 
examined are the vulnerability of communications and computer 
systems, and the trends In technology for safeguarding information 
in these systems. The primary activities and motivations of 
stakeholders such as banks, government agencies, vendors and 
standards developers to generate and use safeguards are reviewed. 
The focus is on Issues stemming from possible conflicts among 
Federal policy goals and important trends taking place in the private 
sector are addressed. GRA 



N88-20212# National Technical Information Service. Springfield, 

VA. 

DIRECTORY OF JAPANESE TECHNICAL RESOURCES, 1987 

1988 128 p 

(PB87-205258; ISBN-0-93421 3-07-0) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF 

A01 CSCL 05B 

In order to provide a context for understanding how to use 
Japanese technical literature, the directory is supplemented with 
important background material. The directories, which comprise 
the major section of this publication, are divided into four parts. 
The first contains an alphabetical list of commercial services that 
collect, abstract, translate, or disseminate Japanese technical 
literature. Following this are two indices, one by area of 
specialization and one by state. The second lists government 
agencies with programs and services involving Japanese technical 
information. The third contains libraries in both the public and 
private sectors that have extensive holding of Japanese technical 
literature. The final part lists Japanese technical documents 
translated at Federal expense which are available to the public. 

B.G. 



N88-20214# Defense Technical Information Center, Alexandria. 

VA. Office of Information Systems and Technology. 

A DIRECTORY OF DATABASES AVAILABLE THROUGH 

SEARCHMAESTRO 

Oct. 1987 300 p 

(AD-A188813) Avail: NTIS HC A13/MF A01 CSCL 058 

SearchMAESTRO is Menu-Aided Easy Searching Through 
Relative Options. It is a knowledge gateway service set up for the 
Department of Defense by the Defense Technical Information 
Center. The MAESTRO gives DOD Endusers an easy-to-use way 
to access over 900 databases without needing to know how to 
search in any of them. This Directory of Databases is divided into 
two lists: (1) databases by subject, (2) alphabetically. The database 
vendors accessible; are: ADR Network Services. BRS, Data-Star, 
Datasolve Limited, DataTimes, DIALOG, G. Cam Serveur, News 
Net, Pergamon ORBIT Infoline. Telesystems/Questel. VU/TEXT, 
and H.W. Wilson. GRA 



50 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



Naa-208^# Callow Associates. Inc.. Fairfax. VA. 
ADVANCED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TOOL 
TECHNOLOGIES Fburi Report, 18 JuL 1996 - 2 Apr. 1997 

STEPHEN A. FLEGER. KATHRYN E, PERMENTER. and THOMAS 

B. MALONE 20 Mar. 1987 276 p 

(Contract DAAA15-86.C-0064) 

(AD-A1 89390) Avail: NTIS HC A13/MF A01 CSCL 23B 

Presented are the rest^ of a study to identify the human 
factors engineering (HFE) technologies or toote presently used, 
and projected for use. by HFE speciaKsta Both traditional and 
advanced tools were candidates for ir>ctusion in the report alttHMJ^^ 
the emphasis of the study was on advanced computer applications. 
Human factors practitioners representing the government, the 
military, academe and private industry were surveyed to identify 
those tools most frequently used or viewed as most important for 
conducting human factors en^neering related wori(. If advanced 
tool capabilities did not meet existing job requirements, the 
specialists identified the types of tools ttiNsy woirfd like to see 
developed to fill the existing technology gaps. The advanced tools 
were categorized using an eight pcMnt classification scheme, which 
included the phase(s) of the material acquisition process in which 
the tools' application would be most appropriate. All of the tools 
were ranked to fadlrtate toot selection, and entered into a database 
to accommodate future revisions. The survey resulted in the 
kientifrcatkm of 113 advanced human factors engineering tools. 

GRA 



N99-21697*# Natk)nal Aeronautics and Space Admini8tFatk>n. 
Lewis Research Center. Cleveland. OH, 
LABORATCmY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 
(UMS): A CASE STIH)Y 

KAREN S. CRANDALL. JUDITH V. AUPING. and ROBERT G. 
MEGARGLE(aeveland State Univ.. Ohk>.) 1987 16 p Presented 
at the 1st International Laboratory tnformatkm Management 
Systems Meeting. Pittsburgh. Pa.. 23-25 Jan. 1987 
(NASA-TM-1 00835; E-4024; MAS 1.15:100835) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

In the late 70's. a refurt»shment of the arralytk:al latx)ratories 
sen^ng the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center 
was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory 
InformatkMi Management System (LIMS) was to be included. 
Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the 
best chok^ in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled 
down versk>n of the original design has t»een in operatkxi srtce 
1984. The LIMS. a corryjinatkjn of computer hardware, provkles 
the chemk^ characterization lakx)ratory with an informatk)n data 
base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking 
capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved 
in designing and implementing that UMS. Author 



N88-22542# Los Alamos Natk>nal Lab.. NM. 
MONITORING THE USAGE OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM 

D. J. BAILEY Nov. 1987 14 p Presented at the IEEE 
Symposium on Security and Privacy. Oakland. Calif.. 1 Apr. 1^8 
(Contract W-7405-ENG-36) 

(DE88-004310; LA-UR-87-4103; CONF-880456-1) AvaH: NTIS 
HC A03/MF A01 

Controlling the usage of computer systems partk:ularty those 
operated for the Federal government is an tnr^xxtant topk: today. 
Audit requirements have grown to the point where they can be a 
significant burden to the proprietors of the system. The papor 
briefly mentions several proposals for responding to irtcreased 
audit requh-ements and for monitoring a system to delect 
unauthorized activity. A technk^ue is proposed for Sftuatk>ns where 
the proscribed or the intended activity can be characterized in 
terms of program or system performance parameters. The design 
of a usage monitoring system is outlined. The design is based on 
enhancing tf>e audit data provkted by the monitored system, 
capturing the audit data in a separate system to protect it from 
user access, and implementing one of the audit traH analysis 
systems cwentiy under devek)pment DOE 



N89-23446*# District of Columbia Univ.. Washington, DC. Dept 
of Computer Science. 

DATA MANAGEMENT AND LANGUAGE ENHANCEMENT FOR 
GENERALIZED SET THEORY COMPUTER LANGUAGE FOR 
OPERATION OF LARGE RELATIONAL DATABASES Fkud 



GAIL T. FINLEY 25 May 1988 48 p 

(Contract NAG5-91) 

(NASA-O^-1 82868; NAS 1.26:182868) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 09B 

This report covers the study of the relational database 
implemnentation in the NASCAD computer program system. The 
existing system is used primarily for computer akled design. 
Attentkxi is also d^ected to a hkiden-si^ace algorithm for final 
drawing output Author 

N89-23686 Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego. CA. Special 
Libraries Association. 

TRANSLATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL 
LITERATURE: A GUIDE TO THEIR LOCATION 

KATHLEEN WRIGHT 1987 32 p 
Avail: lssuir>g Activity 

The purpose of ttvis gukte is to assist searchers in the k)catk>n 
of English language trar>slations of foreign scientifk; arxJ techrucal 
literature. Strategies for kx^ting an existing translatk>n are given 
ak>ng with guklance for users who do not have access to the 
major bibHographK tools. Major provklers of existing translations 
are described, and procedures for having a puWteation translated 
by a commercial firm or a government agency are suggested. 

Author 

N88-23812*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Goddard Space Flight Center. Greenbelt MD. 
ENVIRONET: AN INTERACTIVE SPACE-ENVIRONMENT 
INFORMATION RESOURCE 

ALFRED L VAMPOLA. WILLIAM N. HALL (Air Force Geof^iysfcs 

Lab., Hanscom AFB. Mass.). and MICHAEL LAURIENTE 24 

May 1988 13 p Prepared for Air Force Space Div.. Los Angeles, 

Calif. 

(Contract F04701-85-C-0086-P00019) 

(NASA-TM-1 01 137; TR-0088(3671-01)-1; NAS 1.15:101137; 

SD-TR-88-60; AD-A1 97556) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL22A 

EnviroNET is an interactive mer>u-driven system set up as an 
information resource for experimenters, program managers, and 
design and test en^neers involved in space missions. Its basic 
use is as a fundamental single source of date for the environment 
encountered by Shuttte and Space Station payk>ads, but it also 
has wkjer applcability in that it includes information on 
environments encountered by other satellites in both k>w altitude 
and high altitude Qr^cluding geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates 
t>oth a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. 
The system is maintained on the ENVET MkroVAX computer at 
NASA/Goddard Space Right Center. Its sen/k;es are available at 
no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and modem. It 
is a tail-node on SPAN, and so it is accessible eititer directty or 
tfwough BITNET. ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS. 

Author 

N88-24150*# National Aerorwutics and Space Administration. 

Ames Research Center, Moffett RekJ. CA. 

IMAGE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH 

ANDREW B. WATSON fn /ts Space Station Human Factors 

Research Review. Volume 4: Inhouse Advanced Developnr>ent and 

Researd) p 23-28 May 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 CSCL 05H 

Two types of research issues are involved in image management 
systems with ^>ace station applk:ations: image processing research 
and image perception research. The image processing issues are 
the tracfitional ortes of digitizing, coding, compr^^ng. storing, 
analyzing, and displaying, but with a new emphasis on the 
constraints imposed by the human perceiver. Two image coding 
algorithms have been developed that may increase the effknency 



51 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



of image management systems (IMS). Image perception research 
involves a study of the theoretical and practical aspects of visual 
perception of electronically displayed images. Issues include how 
rapidly a user can search through a library of images, how to 
make this search more efficient, and how to present images in 
terms of resolution and split screens. Other issues include optimal 
interface to an IMS and how to code images in a way that is 
optimal for the human perceiver. A test-bed within which such 
issues can be addressed has been designed. J.P.B. 

N88-24179# Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern 

(England). 

DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT FOR SECURE SOFTWARE 

C. T. SENNETT Nov. 1987 22 p 

(RSRE-87015; BR104812; ETN-88-92512; AD-A191889) Avail: 

Nils HC A03/MF A01 

Criteria to which a development environment should conform 
to be suitable for the production of secure software are given. A 
rationale for the criteria and a suitable security policy model for 
software development are outlined. ESA 

N88-24200*# Maryland Univ., College Park. 

MODELS AND METRICS FOR SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT 

AND ENGINEERING 

V. R. BAStLI 1988 12 p 

(Contract NSG-5123) 

(NASA-CR-1 82953; NAS 1.26:182953) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 09B 

This paper attempts to characterize and present a state of the 
art view of several quantitative models and metrics of the software 
life cycle. These models and metrics can be used to aid in managing 
and engineering software projects. They deal with various aspects 
of the software process and product, Including resources allocation 
and estimation, changes and errors, size, complexity and reliability. 
Some indication is given of the extent to which the various models 
have been used and the success they have achieved. Author 

N88-25163# Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA. 
COMPUTER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY 
PROGRAM (PE 64740F). TASK NO. 9: ADVANCED USER 
AUTHENTICATION Final Report, May - Nov. 1987 

L. WATSON and W. BARRON Mar. 1988 125 p Sponsored 
by the Air Force, Hanscom AFB, Mass. 

(PB88-183066; DOT-TSC-RSPA-88-1; DOT-VA846-88-1) Avail: 
NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

The various technologies which can be used to perform user 
authentication are examined with an emphasis on biometric 
techniques. The methods by which each device performs the 
authentication of users are examined individually, and their 
suitability for a multilevel computer environment is assessed. The 
status and direction of computer user authentication devices and 
techniques, in general, are evaluated. Included are independent 
testing results, government requirements, selection considerations, 
and a glossary of computer security and user authentication 
terminology. Author 

N88-25176# Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY. Dept. of 

Computer Science. 

BEYOND ADA: GENERATING ADA CODE FROM EOUATIONAL 

SPECIFICATIONS 

BOLESLAW K. SZYMANSKI 1987 6 p 

(Contract N00014-86-K-0442) 

(AD-A191866) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 CSCL 12E 

Real time mission-oriented embedded systems are much more 
difficult to design than ordinary software systems. They require 
highly reliable and efficient implementations to satisfy mission and 
time constraints imposed by the applications. The Ada language 
has been design to facilitate real time system software 
development. However, for many programmers the size and 
complexity of Ada itself are of concern . In the assertive 
programming paradigm, computations are specified as sets of 
assertions about properties of the solution, and not as a sequence 
of procedural steps. Solving procedures are automatically 



generated from the assertive description. Real time programming 
for mission-oriented systems is supported by equational languages 
in which assertions are expressed as algebraic equations. Programs 
written in equational languages are concise, free from 
implementation details, and easily amenable to verification and 
parallel processing. The level of programming expertise required 
to program in an equational language is much lower than the 
level that is needed by Ada programmers. The paper describes 
an implementation of an equational language system which 
generates highly efficient distributed code in Ada. It also 
demonstrates how the equational language system can be used 
in real time software development. GRA 

N88-25188# Los Alamos National Lab., NM. 

THE -MDOC MACRO PACKAGE: A SOFTWARE TOOL TO 

SUPPORT COMPUTER DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS 

C. E. SANDERS 16 Sep. 1987 13 p Presented at the 35th 
Annual International Technical Communication Conference, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 10 May 1988 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-36) 

(DE88-000500; LA-UR-87-3129; CONF-880528-1) Avail: NTIS 

HC A03/MF A01 

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a small staff of writers and 
word processors in the Computer Documentation Group is 
responsible for producing computer documentation for the over 
8000 users of the laboratory's computer network. The -mdoc macro 
package was developed as a software tool to support that effort. 
The -mdoc macro package is used with the NROFF/TROFF 
document preparation system on the UNIX operating system. The 
-mdoc macro package incorporates the standards for computer 
documentation at Los Alamos established by the writers. Use of 
the -mdoc macro package has freed the staff of programming 
format details, allowing writers to concentrate on content of 
documents and word processors to produce documents in a timely 
manner. It is an easy-to-use software tool that adapts to changing 
skills, needs, and technology. DOE 

N88-26107# Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA. 
ADVANCES IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS FOR SCIENTIFIC 
APPLICATIONS 

D. E. CULLEN Apr. 1988 12 p Presented at the International 
Centre for Physics Workshop on Applied Nuclear Theory and 
Nuclear Model Calculations for Nuclear Technology Application, 
Trieste, Italy, 5 Mar. 1988 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-48) 

(DE88-009824; UCRL-98555; CONF-880342-2; CONF-880342) 

Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

Over just the last few years the power (in terms of speed and 
core size) of personal computers has grown at an incredible rate, 
which no one could have foreseen, and at the present time they 
have reached the point where it is practical to use personal 
computers for large scientific applications. What is truly amazing 
is that as the power of these personal computers has grown the 
price has remained relatively low. Of equal importance to the 
availability and cost of personal computers is the availability of 
computer software for use on these computers. At the current 
time personal computers have excellent FORTRAN compilers and 
related supporting software facilities and more and more application 
programs are being converted for use on personal computers. 
Today we have reached the point where the combination of 
personal computer power and tow cost can allow even small 
institutes that cannot afford larger computers to have significant 
computer resources available for their use. DOE 

N88-26266# Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROJECT ESTIMATING TOOLS 

K. A. JONES, A. R. SADLOWE, M. L EMRICH, L. F. ARROWOOD, 

B. D. WATSON, and R. SURAPANENl 1987 25 p Presented 

at the NARDAC Washington/ORNL/DSRD Conference on Expert 

Systems Technology in the ADP Environment, Washington, D.C., 

2 Nov. 1987 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 

(DE88-009059; CONF-871 128-2) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 



52 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



Existing project estimatk)n software may adequately estimate 
programming costs associated with large software development 
projects. However, customizing these packages to reflect unique 
organizational requirements may be difficult In addition, such 
systems may not offer justifications for indicated costs and 
personnel levels. A knowledge-based system, ADP-Estimator. is 
being developed to estimate project resources and costs. Such 
knowledge-based software can retain estimating expertise and 
make it availeible to other personnel. DOE 

N88-26805# Camegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh. PA. Dept. of 

Psychology. 

THE ROLE OF WORKING MEMORY IN LANGUAGE 

COMPREHENSION 

PATRICIA A. CARPENTER and MARCEL A. JUST Feb. 1988 

33 p 

(Contract N00014-85-K-0584: RRCM206) 

(AD-A1 92721 ; ONR-88-1 ) Avail: f^lS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 

05H 

This chapter provides an account of the transient computational 
and storage demands that typically arise during comprehension, 
and of the informatton management polfcies that attempt to satisfy 
those demands. The chapter describes a numt)er of recent studies 
that examine the trading relatk>n between computation and storage 
in working memory during language comprehension. Com- 
prehension processes tend to minimize storage requirements 
by minimizing the number of partial products that have to be stored. 
The minimization is accomplished by immediately digesting as much 
of the infomnation from the text as possible (what we have called 
the immediacy of processing), rather than using a wait-and-see 
strategy, A second focus is on the differences among indivkiuals 
in their ability to maintain information in working memory during 
comprehension. Such irKirvklual differences in woridng memory 
capacity are closely related to large and stable indrvk^al differences 
in reading comprehensk>n ability. GRA 



processors and prompting programs, electronic dictionaries, style 
and grammar checkers, logic analyzers, on-line information systems 
for research, disk-based references, commenting and review 
software, desktop publishing and typesetting systems, and 
hypertext systems. The purpose of this research report is to survey 
the field of Computer-Aided Writing (CAW) tools for use on 
IBM-compatible Personal Computer (PC) systems. The informatk)n 
presented in this report is intended to acquaint computer resource 
managers and prospective CAW users with current PC-based CAW 
technology. Based on an extensive review of recent PC literature 
and hands-on evaluatk>n of selected CAW products, this report 
discusses various categories of CAW tools, utility of current 
products, prospects for future developments, and selectk>n and 
planning criteria. The report also specifically ackiresses the 
applteation of CAW technology at the Air Command and Staff 
College (ACSC) which is the sponsor of this project. GRA 



N88-27109# Nattonal Bureau of Standards, Galthersburg, MD. 
Information Systems Engineerir^g Div. 
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: 
KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM FOR PHYSICAL DATABASE 
DESIGN Rnai Report 

C. E. DABROWSKI and D. K. JEFFERSON Feb. 1988 62 p 
(PB88-1 93289; NBS/SP-500/151) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01; 
also available SOD HC $3.25 as 003-003-02849-5 CSCL 05B 

A knowledge-based system for ph^steal database design has 
been developed at the Institute for Computer Sciences and 
Technology. The system processes large multi-entity databases 
with comp^x woricload requirements and ktentifies near-optimal 
physical designs. It employs heuristk^ developed by physrcal design 
experts and cost modeling algorithms to reduce the large number 
of design alternatives available in large complex problems to a 
few select designs. The system is implemented in LISP. GRA 



N88-26817# Institute for Water Resources, Fort Belvoir. VA, 
MANAGING MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS: A PRIMER 
AND GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICE 

RICHARD M. MALES and MICHAEL R. WALSH Mar 1988 92 p 
(AD-A1 92992; IWR-88-R-3) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 
CSCL 12F 

This report has a dual purpose. First, the report is a primer 
for managers to help them understand the potential impacts of 
the microcomputer on organization and staff productivity. The most 
common types of mrcrocomputer software are described and basic 
types of applications developed by planners are discussed. Second, 
the report is a guide for managers faced with managing the use 
of microcompHiters and the development of applications l>y their 
staff arKJ others. A process for managir>g the devek>pment of 
corporate applications is presented. The report is directed at a 
non-compvrter professional audience, i.e. managers within the Corps 
who have a technical background, but may not be microcomputer 
users themselves, and have as part of their responsttMlity the 
management of indivkjuals and/or projects in which 
microcomputers are used. The report is desigr>ed primarily to raise 
awareness of tfie need for, and the metfKXJs of, management of 
microcomputer applrcatk^ns. Outline formats are often used, and 
key kieas are highlighted. It is hoped that this fonnat will 
communk:ate the key concepts t>etter than a more traditional 
report. GRA 

N88-26837# Air Command and Staff Coll., Maxwell AFB, AL 
COMPUTER-AIDED WRITING 

DAVID A. KING Apr. 1988 81 p 

(AD-A192516; ACSC-88-1 465) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

CSCL 05F 

The productk>n of written communk:atk)ns is an important and 
time-consuming activity for most professional organizatk>ns. 
Computer-aided writing offers great potential for increased 
productivity, quality, and convenience. In additwn to word 
processors, Computer-Ak^ed Writing (CAW) tools include outline 



N88-27116# Oak Ridge Natk)nal Lab., TN. 
KNOWLEDGE-BASED COST ESTIMATING VS TRADITIONAL 
SOFTWARE COST MODELS 

L F. ARROWOOD. M. L EMRICH, A. R. SADLOWE, K. A. JONES, 

B. D. WATSON, and R. SURAPANENl 12 Apr. 1988 25 p 

Presented at the 2nd Annual Engineering Society of Detroit SMI 

Expert Systems 88 Solutk>ns in Manufacturing Conference and 

Exhibition, Detroit. Mrch,, 12 Apr. 1988 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 

(DE88-009707; CONF-8804115-1) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

A knowledge-based system, ADP-Estimator, is under 
development to perform ADP project cost estimating. Designed to 
retain crucial expertise heW by experienced project leaders, this 
system alkws new project leaders to interactively generate cost 
estimates. Initially, project leaders indicate constraints (e.g. 
personnel levels, equipment, and facilities) placed upon a project 
The system uses these to kientify resources and procedures 
required for project completion. The effteacy of this system is 
compared with manual efforts and traditional software cost 
models. pOE 



N88-27767# Massachusetts Inst of Tech., Cambridge. Artifkaal 

lntelliger>ce Lab. 

INSPECTION METHODS IN PROGRAMMING: CUCHES AND 

PLANS 

CHARLES RICH Dec. 1987 94 p 

(Contract N00014-85-K-0124; NSF lRI-86-1 6644) 

(AD-A1 92782; AI.M-1005) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 

12E 

lnspectk>n methods are a kind of engineering problem solving 
based on the recognitkm and use of standard fomns or cirches. 
Examples are given of program analysis, program synthesis and 
program validatbn by inspection. A formalism, called the Plan 
Calculus, is defined and used to represent programming clkihes 
in a convenient, canonrcal, and programming-language independent 
fashton. gRA 



53 



05 COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 



N88-27969# Air Command and Staff Coll., Maxwell AFB, AL. 
USE OF OPTICAL DISK TECHNOLOGY AT THE AIR 
COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE 

CURTIS H. ARRINGTON. Ill Apr. 1988 30 p 

(AD-A1 92424; ACSC-88-0130) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL 12F 

Optica) disk technology, the use of lasers to store and retrieve 
information, is a growing technology for use in audio, video, 
computer storage and multi-media applications. This technology 
has a great potential in educational applications. After reviewing 
the history of information capture and storage, this paper examines 
how optical disk technology works, its capabilities and limitations. 
The paper reviews current and potential educational applications, 
and matches ACSC technology requirements against the potential 
of optical disk. The paper concludes that optical disk is a viable 
technology to meet several ACSC requirements and recommends 
the acquisition of optical disk systems for use in specific 
applications. GRA 



N88-28637# Air Command and Staff Coll., Maxwell AFB. AL. 
WHATS ON THE MENU? FRIENDLIER COMPUTERS 

CARL A. BASILI Apr. 1988 30 p 

(AD-A1 94393; ACSC-88-0235) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL 12E 

The paper focuses on how to tap the true power, flexibility, 
and potential of personal computers by making these easier to 
use. It is a starting point from which computer users can begin to 
make computers do what they want, when they want, and in a 
manner they choose. The study includes an evaluation of 
computer-user interface programs as an alternative solution to 
learning computer languages and other technical features not 
directly associated with using computers to accomplish specific 
tasks. The study concludes that menuing programs are the most 
powerful interfaces available and offer users ease-of-use and 
greater productivity. GRA 



N88-28643# Dayton Univ., OH. Research Inst. 

RESEARCH ON WIDE AREA WORKSTATIONS Final Report, 

Jul. 1985 - Jul. 1986 

JAMES T. KAJIYA Mar. 1988 40 p Prepared in cooperation 
with California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. 
(Contract F30602-81-C-0206) 

(AD-AI 92529; RADC-TR-87-226) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 
CSCL 17E 

The use of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) for storing 
large digital images in a workstation environment was studied. 
The need and advantages of a workstation with access to a digital 
image stored in semiconductor memory are discussed. Algorithms 
that take advantage of the wide image area for image warping, 
correlation, panning, roaming, and zooming are shown. GRA 



N88-28680# Sanders Associates. Inc.. Nashua, NH. 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SOFTWARE ACQUISITION 
PROGRAM, VOLUME 2 Final Technical Report, Aug. 1985 - 
Aug. 1987 

CAROL BARDAWIL, URRY FRY, SANDY KING, LINDA 
LESZCYNSKI, and GRAHAM ONEIL Dec. 1987 83 p 
(Contract F30602-85-C-0254) 

(AD-AI 94239; RADC-TR-87-249-VOL-2) Avail: NTIS HC 
A05/MF A01 CSCL 12E 

This research evaluated the software development process for 
artificial intelligence (Al) systems and postulates a software 
acquisition model. The major elements performed were a literature 
search, a case study analysis of 26 knowledge based system 
(KBS) development efforts, and consultation with experienced Al 
system developers. This volume discusses a KBS process model 
and customer/ developer interface model. A comparison of the 
postulated model with DOD-STD-2167 and DOD-STD-2167A (draft) 
is made in terms of activities, products, reviews and baselines. 

GRA 



N88-29382*# General Dynamics Corp., San Diego. CA. Data 
Systems Div. 

ARCHETYPING: A SOFTWARE GENERATION AND 
MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY 

HUGH B. ROTHMAN and STANLEY M. PRZYBYLINSKI In NASA, 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Second Conference on Artificial 
Intelligence for Space Applications p 293-302 Aug. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 09B 

Many knowledge based software generation methods have been 
proposed to improve software quality and programmer productivity. 
Several government and industry initiatives have focused on 
software reusability as one solution to these problems. DARTS 
(trademark), a General Dynamics proprietary symbolic processing 
technology, provides a unique solution to the reuse problem: 
archtyping. Archtyping is the embedding of high order language 
statements in text files. An advanced macroprocessor uses the 
text files to generate new versions of complex software systems. 
A DARTS program, the Software Generation and Configuration 
Management (SGCM) System automates the archtyping process 
and maintenance cycle. The DARTS technology is briefly discussed, 
archtyping is described, and the SGCM system is presented in 
detail. Author 

N88-29385^# Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO. Space 
Station Program. 

INTELLIGENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS: APPROACH AND EVOLUTION 

ROGER MEIKE In NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center. Second 
Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 
319-324 Aug. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 09B 

The Data Management System network is a complex and 
important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation 
is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. Al is being considered 
to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the 
management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource 
Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is 
concerned with the application of Al techniques to network 
configuration and management. A network simulation was 
constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic 
toads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This 
simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN 
system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in 
prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An 
Al network design advisor is being added to help in the design of 
an efficient network. The Al portion of the system is planned to 
evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, 
the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results 
are described. Author 

N88-2943r# Draper (Charles Stark) Lab.. Inc., Cambridge, MA. 
ADVANCED INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM: 
INPUT/OUTPUT NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE 

GAIL NAGLE. LINDA ALGER, and ALEXANDER KEMP May 

1988 288 p 

(Contract NASI -17666) 

(NASA-CR-181678; NAS 1.26:181678) Avail: NTIS HC A13/MF 

A01 CSCL 09B 

The purpose of this document is to provide the software 
requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network 
Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing 
System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly 
outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the 
AlPS system before discussing the details of the design 
requirements and specifications of the AlPS I/O Network 
Management software. A brief overview of the AlPS architecture 
followed by a more detailed description of the network 
architecture. Author 

N88-29635 Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY. 
TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE COMPUTER 
INDUSTRY: AN INFORMATION-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS TO 



54 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



TRACK, MEASURE AND ENSURE QUAUTY Ph.D. Thesis 

ROGER ALAN GRICE 1987 438 p 
Avail: Urw. Microfilms Order No. DA8803441 

The needs of the information society have thrust into 
prominence those who produce the technical information needed 
to work with computers. As a consequence of the need for technical 
information, those who develop and produce that information are 
called upon to translate the technical capat>ilities of complex 
computer systems into a form that enables readers to perform 
needed tasks. Since the information produced is an integral part 
of the product, it folk>ws that the informatkm devek>pers must 
work as an integral part of the ^oduct-devek>pment team, not as 
post-facto wordsrroths who clean up the writing done by product 
devakspers. To fimctton in this capacity, they need an 
tnf6rmatk>r>-development process that is consistent with the 
product-development process. Devek>pfng tnformatk>n in this 
environment is not simply folkjwing a set of rules for communicating 
conractty. kxit is a process for converting detailed technk:at 
informatkm into infomiatk>n that enables users of high-technok>gy 
products to do the tasks they want or ryeed to do; it » not merely 
de8crtt)ing the stnjcture of those products and the functions that 
are available. White the process is well defined in many of its 
aspects, it also possesses many implications for further research 
and devek>pment efforts by academk: researchers and industrial 
practittoners alike. Dissert. Abstr. 

N86-303S5*# LNK Corp.. Riverdale. MD. 

A DESIGN FOR A GROUND-BASED DATA MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM 

BARBARA A. LAMBIRD and DAVID LAVtNE fn NASA. Goddard 
Space Flight Center. The 1988 Goddard Conference on Space 
Applk»tk>ns of Artifk:lal intelligence p 355-369 Aug. 1988 
Avail: m\S HO A19/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

An initial design for a ground-based data management system 
which includes intelligent data abstractk>n and catak)gtng is 
descrft)ed. The large quantity of data on some current and future 
NASA missk>ns leads to signifk^ant problems in provk^ng scientists 
with quk^k access to relevant data. Human screening of data for 
potential relevance to a partk:ular study is time-consuming and 
costly. Intelligent databases can provkie automatk; screening when 
given relevent scientifk: parameters and constraints. The data 
management system would provkie. at a minimum. informatkKi of 
availat>ility of the range of data, the type availat>le, spedfk; time 
periods covered together with data quality informatk>n. and related 
sources of data. The system would inform the user atxMit the 
primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentatk)n 
availat>le to the user. The system would then akl tf>e user with 
performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need 
only specify the scientifk; parameters and objectives, and not worry 
at>out spedfk; details for mnning a particular program. The design 
contains modules for data abstractk>n. catak)g plan abstractk>n. a 
user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data 
evaluatk>n. and applk:atk)n analysis. The emphasis is on developing 
general facilities for data representation, descriptk>n, analysis, and 
presentatkm that wiH be easily used by scientists directly, thus 
bypassing the knowledge acquisitk>n bottleneck. Expert ^em 
technology is used for many different aspects of the data 
management system, including the direct user interface, the 
interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of 
instrument status. Author 

N88-30453*# Jet Propulsk>n Lab.. Califomia Inst of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

1987 

15 Aug. 1988 32 p 

{NASA-CR-181198; JPL-BIBL-39-29; NAS 1.26:181198) Avail: 

NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

A biblk)^aphy is presented which describes and indexes by 
author the externally distributed technk^l reporting, released during 
the caler)der year 1 987. that resulted from scientifk; and engineering 
work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsk>n Lab. Three 
classes of publk;atk>ns are included: (1) JPL publk;atk>ns in whk:h 



the informatbn is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) 
Artk;les from the quarterly Telecommunk;atk)ns and Data 
Acquisitron Progress Report; and (3) Articles published in the open 
literature. e.R. 

N88-30459# Commissariat a I'Energie Atomkiue. Gif-sur-Yvette 

(France). 

LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL BARRIERS TO THE TRANSFER 

OF INFORMATION 

ROLAND LARUE //? AGARD, Baniers to Infonrtation Transfer 
and Approaches Toward Their Reductk)n 7 p Mar. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

The relative importance of languages in the worid in 1987 is 
described showing that the worid populatbn makes use of about 
ten languages, each of whk;h covers an area of the globe. The 
trends are revealed by an analysis of population density and 
sock>-economk; balances. The use of language is studied in the 
fiekJ of science and technology, according to the type of 
communication (written or spoken) and the contents (from 
mathematk;s to technology) and the tendencies are shown. The 
attempts whteh were made to overcome the linguistic barrier - 
such as the introduction of a single common language (esperanto 
or English) or the development of the study of foreign languages 
are examined. The detailed analysis of the cultural barrier is carried 
out by several approaches (sociological. psychosock>k>gksal. 
psychoanalytte, and psycholinguistte) in order to reveal the genuine 
individual and collects stakes. Fu^re trends, such as the working 
of the Commissksn of the European Communities with Its nine 
offkHal languages are discussed, and some predk:tk>ns are put 
forward on the Knguistk: state of the worid at the beginning of the 
21 St century. Author 

N8S-30463# Atlantic Refining Co.. Philadelphia. PA. ARCOviskw 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE GROUP 
INTERACTION 

CYNTHIA A SAVAGE fn AGARD, Baniers to lnformatk>n Transfer 
and Approaches Toward Their Reductk>n 3 p Mar. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

Atlantk; Rk;hfield has successfully operated an interactive, 
full-motkm vkleo teleconferencing system since September of 198a 
The system, named ARCOvision. is for internal use only and 
consists of six kx;atk>ns in the United States including Alaska. 
The implementation, capabilities, equipment, and co^ related to 
the ARCOvision system will be discussed. Author 



06 
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

Includes Contracts and Contract Management Project 
Management Program Management, Research Projects and 
Research Facilities, Scientific Research, Innovattons and 
InventkKis. Technotogy Transfer and Utilization, R&D Resources. 
Agency, Natk>nal and International R&D. 



A86-12428*# Natk>nal Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Houston. TX. 

SPACELAB LIFE SCIENCES 1 AND 2 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 

OBJECTIVES 

CAROLYN S. LEACH and HOWARD J. SCHNEIDER (NASA. 
Johnson Space Center, Houston. TX) (International Unton of 
Physk>logk;al Sciences, Commissk)n on Gravitational Physk>logy, 
Annual Meeting. 8th, Tokyo. Japan, Nov, 4-8, 1986) PhyskHogist 
Supplement (ISSN 0031-9376). vol. 30. Feb. 1987, p. S-6 to S-9. 
refs 

The pressurized Spacetab module was designed and built to 
alkw investigators to conduct research in space in an envronment 
approximating that of a ground-based laboratory. It is configured 
to allow multiple investigations employing both human and 



55 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



nonhuman subjects. This flexability is exemplified by the SLS-1, 
SLS-2, and SLS-3 experiment complement. A total of 21 
experiments are scheduled for these missions; the areas to be 
investigated are renal/endocrine function, cardiovascular/ 
cardiopulmonary function, hematology, immunology metabolic 
activity of muscle, Ca metabolism, the vestibular system, 
and general biology. A plan for integration of measurements will 
allow each investigator to use data from other experiments. The 
experiments make up a scientifically balanced payload that 
addresses fundamental biomedical problems associated with space 
flight and provides the first opportunity to study the acute effects 
of weightlessness in a comprehensive, interrelated fashion. 

Author 

A88-13974 

LOOKING TO YEAR 2001 

MICHAEL WILHITE Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340), vol, 29. Oct. 
1987, p. 48-53. 

The space programs of different countries are reviewed and 
ongoing developments in launch vehicle capability and manned 
space operations are identified. The primary feature of the new 
Soviet rocket Energia is its role as the booster for the Soviet 
Space Shuttle which is expected to lift up to 66.000 pounds of 
cargo. A small spaceplane has been developed which will replace 
the Soyuz-TM spacecraft in 1991 as a crew and limited-cargo 
transport to Mir. Space policy in the U.S. is discussed as well as 
the International Space Station, the return of expendable launchers, 
the evolution of Ariane, a European manned program, Japan's 
manned space goals, and India's domestic programs. K.K. 

A88-14364* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

SHUTTLE II 

T. A. TALAY (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton. VA) 

SAE, Aerospace Vehicle Conference, Washington, DC, June 8-10, 

1987. 10 p. NASA-supported research, refs 

(SAE PAPER 871335) 

This paper presents a status report on the study of a 
next-generation manned launch system, called Shuttle II, being 
conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Underlying 
reasons for considering such a system include the need for 
low-cost, safe, and reliable manned access to space. System and 
operational characteristics for a Shuttle 11 vehicle are presented. 
The need for fully reusable launch systems with radically simpler 
ground and flight operations is stated to be critical in reducing 
launch costs. Advancing technologies have a major impact on the 
choice of vehicle concepts. For a near-term level of technology, a 
two-stage vertical-takeoff rocket vehicle has been selected for 
further in-depth Shuttle II studies. The role of the Shuttle II vehicle 
in a proposed space transportation system, which includes heavy 
lift and Space Shuttle complementary manned systems, is 
discussed. Author 

A88-15833*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

TECHNOLOGY - THE BASIS FOR THE PAST. THE KEY TO 
THE FUTURE 

LEONARD A. HARRIS and RAYMOND S. COLLADAY (NASA, 
Washington, DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 38th, 
Brighton, England, Oct 10-17, 1987. 8 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-47) 

The relationship between new technology and space missions, 
and the objectives of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) 
are studied. The CSTI is concerned with technologies for safe 
and efficient access to space, earth-orbiting operations, and future 
science missions. The initiative focuses on research in the areas 
of propulsion, vehicles, information systems, large space structures 
and their control, power, and automation and robotics. 
Consideration is given to the development of high-pertormance 
engines for next-generation vehicles, booster technology for hybrid 
and pressure-fed propulsion systems, and a space OTV based on 
the aerobrake concept. Research involved with the application of 
automation and robotics to earth-orbiting operations are discussed. 



The control of flexible structure flight experiment, the use of nuclear 
systems for space propulsion, and the development of sensor 
devices and high-rate, high-capacity data systems are examined. 

I.F. 

A88-15912*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Earth Resources Lab., Bay St. Louis, MS. 

NASA'S EARTH RESOURCES LABORATORY - SEVENTEEN 

YEARS OF USING REMOTELY SENSED SATELLITE DATA IN 

LAND APPLICATIONS 

KENNETH D. CASHION and CHARLES A. WHITEHURST (NASA, 

Earth Resources Laboratory, Bay Saint Louis, MS) lAF, 

International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton, England, Oct. 

10-17, 1987. 8 p. 

(lAF PAPER 87-164) 

The activities of the Earth Resources Laboratoy (ERL) for the 
past seventeen years are reviewed with particular reference to 
four typical applications demonstrating the use of remotely sensed 
data in a geobased information system context. The applications 
discussed are: a fire control model for the Olympic National Park; 
wildlife habitat modeling; a resource inventory system including a 
potential soil erosion model; and a corridor analysis model for 
locating routes between geographical locations. Some future 
applications are also discussed. V.L. 

A88-16246# 

TOWARDS AN INTERNATIONAL LUNAR BASE 

H. H. KOELLE (Beriin, Technische Universitaet, Federal Republic 
of Germany) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 38th. 
Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17. 1987. 11 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-673) 

It appears very likely that eariy next century a lunar base wilt 
be established to explore and utilize the resources of the moon. 
This paper offers first a set of objectives which can be used for 
comparing alternative plans for such an international lunar base. 
Also the effects of lunar base size on its cost-effectiveness is 
shown. Furthermore the architecture of a lunar base is described. 
The major thrust of the paper is the presentation of a scenario 
which might lead to an international lunar base. The subjects 
discussed are: program scope and structure, program organization, 
program financing and ways and means of initiating such a program. 
The program presented envisions the establishment of a lunar 
orbiting Space Station by no later than the year 2001 and the 
construction of an initial lunar laboratory by no later thfin the year 
2010 to be followed by a lunar factory. A 'Lunar Development 
Conference' is suggested to take place in 1989 where Werested 
national governments and parties should discuss the objectives, 
structure, scope, schedule and organizational alternatives ofan 
international lunar base. Author 

A88-16376 

AEROSPACEPLANE - NASA'S FLAME REKINDLED 

JULIAN MOXON Flight International (ISSN 0015-3710), vol. 132. 
Oct. 10. 1987, p. 31, 32. 

The NASA/USAF joint National Aerospaceplane ('NASP') 
program has as its goal the creation of a Mach 25-capable, SSTO 
vehicle that will also be able to sustain endoatmospheric hypersonic 
cruise for passenger-carrying and reconnaissance missions. The 
testing of the integration of numerous state-of-the-art technologies 
involved in NASP has generated the further requirement for the 
creation of the X-30 test vehicle. Attention is presently given to 
the programmatic consequentiality of the development of an 
operational scramjet powerplant that can achieve sustained 
operation in the X-30. O.C. 

A88-17024 

COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES: THE TECHNOLOGY OF 

SPACE COMMUNICATIONS 

LARRY BLONSTEIN New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
1987, 175 p. refs 

An introduction to communications satellites is presented. The 
topics addressed include: getting a satellite into orbit; the 
geosynchronous orbit; transfer of a satellite from low orbit to 



56 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



geosynchronous attitude; c^sturt>ances in ortMt; the operational 
requirements, including station-keeping, pointing, electrical power, 
and thermal control; the orvteard communications equipment; arxj 
the allocation of radio frequencies and wavelengths. Also discussed 
are: coverage, gain, and EIRP; earth stations; traffic cafMu% and 
quality; satellite selection; economic system optirTKzation; 
encryption; the economics of satellite communications; and future 
trends. CD. 

A88-17039 

EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS FOR THE SPACE STATION 

WILLIAM D. CARTER (Glotiex. Inc.. Reston, VA) (COSPAR, 
Intennational Union of Geological Sciences, UN. et aL. Plenary 
Meeting, 26th. Workshop X and Topical Meeting on Remote 
Sensing: Earth's Surface and Atmosphere. Toukxjse. France, June 
30^uly 11, 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177). 
vol. 7, no. 3. 1987. p. 101-106. refs 

Begintng as early as 1994, the NASA Space Statk)n will t>e 
operatbnal in low equatorial ortMt It is presently recommended 
that the Station incorporate as part of its instrument suite a 
multispectral synthetk; aperture imaging radar. whk:h wouki be 
primarily used to map cloud-covered regions of Vhe gtobe. and an 
imaging spectrometer, wtwch would be similar to the Shuttle 
Multispectral IR Radiometer. The radar would give emphasis to 
the study of such transient phenomena as ocean surface roughness 
and wind shear effects during hurricanes and typhoons; the 
radiometer would have a 50-km swath wkfth. and 128 bands from 
0.4 to 2.5 nrwcrons. 0.0. 

A88-17314 

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR SPACE ASTRONOMY 

ROBERT A- BROWN and RICCARDO GIACCONl (Space 
Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore. MD) Science (ISSN 
0036-8075). vol. 238. Oct 30. 1987. p. 617-619. refs 

The foundatrons of tt>e current space-based astronomy program 
are reviewed, and the rmks associated with the Space Shuttle are 
described ak>ng with ttm opportunities missed through the adoption 
of the Shuttle program. The level of support that the Space Shuttle 
can extend to the space astonomy program is examined. An 
alternative space astrorK)my program for the 1990s based on 
unmanned missk>ns is suggested. CD. 

A88-17333# 

AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION - WHEN WILL WE HAVE IT? 

ALFRED J. TREDER (Boeing Aerospace Co.. Space Navigatk>n 
Technology Div., Seattle. WA) IN: Institute of Navigatkin. NatkHial 
Technk:al Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Jan. 20-23. 1987. Proceedings. 
Washington. DC. Institute of Navigatk>n, 1987. p. 96-105. Research 
sponsored by the Boeing Aerospace Co. refs 

Autonomous navigatkm capability has been defined as that 
additional capability designed into a spacecraft whrch alk>ws it to 
perform on-board task executk>n (with deciswn making) without 
interventwn or control from the ground. In the present paper, the 
utility of autonomous navigation for spacecraft operatkxis is 
examined to define the related critical issues confronting a 
spacecraft designer. Relative navigatkMi to other spacecraft, 
especially to GPS. is shown to be the most cost-effective near-term 
means of approaching the goals of autonomous navigatk)n without 
necessarily achieving real autonomy. BJ. 

A88-17933 

THE USE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION AND 

MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY IN NASA SPACE 

PROGRAMS 

LIN(X)LN L ENDELMAN IN: International Congress on High 
Speed Photography and Photonrcs. 17th, Pretoria. Republic of 
South Africa. Sept 1-5, 1986. Proceedings. Volume 2. Bellingham. 
WA. Society of Photo-Optical Instmmentatwn Engineers. 1986. p. 
507-520. refs 

A comprehensive account is made of the photo^Bphk: image 
acquisition, processing, and interpretatk>n resources developed and 
currently employed by NASA. Photographk; planrwng for such 
manned missrons as those of the Space Shuttle requires 18-24 



months from inceptkm to implementatk>n and must be informed 
by such conskleratx>ns as the ratk>ning of volume on the Shuttle 
Ort)iter and the severity of the environment that will be encountered 
during EVA photo^aphic sessions. Attentk>n is given to the special 
films, camera filters, and camera optk:s empbyed by NASA. 

O.C. 

A88-18223 

JAPAN - FUTURE SPACE SAMURAI? 

CHRIS BULLOCH Space Martlets (ISSN 0258-4212). Fall 1987, 
1987. p. 117-130. 

Tt>e prospects for Japan's role in space are assessed. The 
administrative structure of the Japanese space program is 
described, and the aut(^K>mous state it will attain with the H-ll 
launcher scheduled to fly in 1992 is adcfressed. Japanese space 
research pnsjects are examined, irrcluc^ those based on the 
Spaceplane. The Japanese role in the lntematk>nal Space Statkm 
is (fisci^sed. and Japanese activities in satellite-based 
telecommunk:atk>ns and broadcasting are examined. CD. 

A88-18226 

ADVANCED COMPOSITES: THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS; 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND CONFERENCE. DEARBORN, 
Ml, NOV. ia-20, 1986 

Conference sponsored by ASM International. Engineering Society 
of Detroit. SAMPE. et al. Metals Parte. OH, ASM International. 
1986. 322 p. For individual items see A88-18227 to A88-18246. 

The present conference on state-of-the-art composites 
discusses safety factors in corT^>osite automobile design, (tiesel 
engine pistons with ceramic fit>er reinforcement, novel methods in 
filament winding, flat thermoplastic tape-laying, the damage 
tolerance of three-dimensionatly braided cartx>n/PEEK ccKnposites. 
stacked composite springs, and thermoplastic vs. thermoset 
process ecorK>mics. Also discussed are the fluid mechanics of 
mold-filling, toughernng mechanisms for polymer-matrix composites. 
SMC suriace characterizaticm for adhesion, seam bonding in CRP. 
high-speed thermoplastic compression molding, long fiber- 
reinforced thermoplastic composites, metal matrix composites' 
use as a Be sut>stitute. stress concentration in composite structures, 
and new applications for dielectric monitoring and control. O.C. 

A88-18495# 

DIAMONDS SHINE BRIGHTLY IN AEROSPACE'S FUTURE 

ALAN S. BROWN Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X). vol. 
25. Nov. 1987. p. 12-15. 37. 

CVD processes have been developed for the deposition of 
continuous diamond films under carefully controlted conditior^ that 
permit a tailoring of resulting characteristics. Generally. CVD 
diamond films are strong, stiff, hard, and slippery; they can transmit 
light from the FIR through the UV. and are five times more thennally 
conductive than copper. Diamond semiconductors will t>e able to 
operate at mudi higher etectricat power levels than competing 
materials. The hardness of these films, together with their high 
transparericy. encourages their use as protective coatings for 
delicate optical device windows. Comparisons are made between 
true diamond film properties and those of CVD €fianrK>ndtike 
coatir>gs, which are amorphous. O.C. 

A88-21077* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Ames Research Center. Moffett Field. CA. 

ACCOMMODATING UFE SCIENCES ON THE SPACE STATION 

R(^ER D. ARNO (NASA. Ames Research Center. Moffett Field. 
CA) SAE, Intersodety Conference on Environmental Systems. 
17th. Seattie. WA. July 13-15. 1987. 8 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 871412) 

The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project 
(BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority 
life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space 
Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science 
commurHty ar>d the Space Station Program. This paper discusses 
the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating ti>ese research 
objectives to constraints inposed by the Space Station System, 
while maintaining a user-friendly environment Consideration is 



57 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, 
the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions 
and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, 
and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the 
Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe. Japan, and 
Canada) are compared. l.S. 

A88-21099* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
TECHNOLOGY BASE FOR MICROGRAVITY HORTICULTURE 

R. L. SAUER (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX), J. W. 

MAGNUSON, R. R. SCRUBY, and H. W. SCHELD (PhytoResource 

Research, Inc., College Station, TX) SAE, Intersociety Conference 

on Environmental Systems, 17th, Seattle, WA. July 13-15, 1987. 

10 p. refs 

(Contract NAS9-16671) 

(SAE PAPER 871436) 

Advanced microgravtty plant biology research and life support 
system development for the spacecraft environment are critically 
hampered by the lack of a technology base. This inadequacy 
stems primarily from the fact that microgravity results in a lack of 
convective currents and phase separation as compared to the 
one gravity environment. A program plan is being initiated to 
develop this technology base. This program will provide an iterative 
flight development effort that will be closely integrated with both 
basic science investigations and advanced life support system 
development efforts incorporating biological processes. The critical 
considerations include optimum illumination methods, root aeration, 
root and shoot support, and heat rejection and gas exchange in 
the plant canopy. Author 

A88-21122* Management and Technical Services Co., Houston, 

TX. 

LIFE SCIENCES BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH PLANNING FOR 

SPACE STATION 

GARY R. PRIMEAUX (RCA Government Services; Management 
and Technical Services Co., Houston, TX), ROGER MICHAUD. 
LADONNA MILLER, JIM SEARCY, and BERNtSTINE DICKEY 
(NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX) SAE, Intersociety 
Conference on Environmental Systems, 17th, Seattle. WA, July 
13-15, 1987. 9 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 871464) 

The Biomedical Research Project (BmRP), a major component 
of the NASA Life Sciences Space Station Program, incorporates 
a laboratory for the study of the effects of microgravity on the 
human body, and the development of techniques capable of 
modifying or counteracting these effects. Attention is presently 
given to a representative scenario of BmRP investigations and 
associated engineering analyses, together with an account of the 
evolutionary process by which the scenarios and the Space Station 
design requirements they entail are identified. Attention is given 
to a tether-implemented 'variable gravity centrifuge". O.C. 

A88-21124* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
BIOTECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES ON SPACE STATION 

JESS DEMING, KEITH HENDERSON, ROBERT W. PHILLIPS 
(NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX), BERNISTINE 
DICKEY, PHYLLIS GROUNDS (RCA Government Services; 
Management and Technical Services Co., Houston, TX) et al. SAE, 
Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, 17th, Seattle, 
WA. July 13-15, 1987. 7 p. 
(SAE PAPER 871468) 

Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the 
Space Station are examined. The advances possible in 
biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are 
discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences 
Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer 
processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and 
cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment 
for crystal growth, cell culturing. and the separation of biological 
materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research 



could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, 
genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management. I.F. 

A88-21156* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
STATUS OF THE SPACE STATION WATER RECLAMATION 
AND MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM DESIGN CONCEPT 

R. M. BAGDIGIAN and P. L. MORTAZAVI (NASA, Marshall Space 
Flight Center, Huntsville, AL) SAE, Intersociety Conference on 
Environmental Systems, 17th, Seattle, WA, July 13-15, 1987. 11 
p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 871510) 

A development status report is presented for the NASA Space 
Station's water reclamation and management (WRM) system, for 
which the candidate phase change-employing processing 
technologies are an air evaporation subsystem, a thermoelectric 
integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, and the vapor 
compression distillation subsystem. These WRM candidates employ 
evaporation to effect water removal from contaminants, but differ 
in their control of the vapor/liquid interface in zero-gravity and in 
the recovery of the latent heat of vaporization. O.C. 

A88-21570 

SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 

OF LIFE SCIENCES IN THE SPACE STATION 

FLEMMING BONDE-PETERSEN (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 
Denmart<) (Columbus II; Proceedings of the Second Workshop, 
Hanover. Federal Republic of Germany, June 9-11, 1986) Space 
Technology - Industrial and Commercial Applications (ISSN 
0277-4488), vol. 7, no. 1-2, 1987, p. 157-160. 

The types of biomedical experiments planned for the 
International Space Station are listed and briefly characterized, 
indicating the operational capabilities and equipment they require. 
Primary objectives include descriptive and applied human 
physiology and medicine, animal physiology, plant physiology, 
cellular physiology, radiation biology and exobiology, and 
bioprocessing. Consideration is given to the relatively noncritical 
microgravity specifications for life-science experiments (typically 
0.001 g or less), the crew-intervention requirements, the 
arrangement of experimental equipment in the Pressurized Module, 
and the integration of a large centrifuge module in the core Space 
Station. T.K. 

A88-22000 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL L5 SPACE 

DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE 

FRANK HECKER. ED. (L-5 Society, Tucson, AZ) San Diego. CA 
(Science and Technology Series. Volume 68), Univelt, Inc., 1987, 
268 p. No individual items are abstracted in this volume. 

Scientific, technological, and political aspects of present and 
planned U.S. space activities are discussed in reviews and reports. 
Topics addressed include space and U.S. politics, space resources, 
international space ventures, space-age education, and space 
biomedicine. Consideration is given to communities in space, space 
tourism, the 'pure' space sciences, and the cultural drive for space. 
Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical 
data are provided. T.K. 

A88-22145*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
John F. Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL. 
ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES PROGRAM AT NASA KENNEDY 
SPACE CENTER 

JAMES R. NICHOLSON and WILLIAM JAFFERIS (NASA, Kennedy 
Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL) AIAA. Aerospace Sciences 
Meeting, 26th, Reno, NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 4 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0197) 

A very keen awareness of the impact of lightning threat on 
ground operations exists at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 
because of the high frequency of thunderstorm occun'ences in 
Florida. The majority of thunder events occur in the summertime, 
initiated by solar heating of the land. Merritt Island, where KSC is 
located, produces its own thunderstorms under light flow conditions; 
because some are small, their importance might be unappreciated 



58 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



at first glance. The impress of these facts, arnj others of pertinence, 
on the KSC atmo^jheric sciences development program wilt t>e 
discussed, priorities enumerated, and a review of development 
projects presented. Author 



A88-22172*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA. 

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON HYPERSONIC 

AERODYNAMIC RESEARCH AT THE LANGLEY RESEARCH 

CENTER 

PATRICK J, JOHNSTON and WALLACE C. SAWYER (NASA. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA) AIAA, Aerospace 

Sciences Meeting, 26th, Reno. NV. Jan. 11-14. 1986. 14 p. refs 

(AIAA PAPER 68-0230) 

The 40-year history of hypersonic technology is reviewed from 
a technical perspective. A broad overview is first given of the 
major accomplishments of ^^personic flight projects and systems 
studies that have been conducted over the last 40-odd years. 
Then, the history of maior supersonic and hypersonic ground 
facilities at the NASA Langley ar>d Ames Research Centers is 
traced, and son>e of the research conducted in them over the 
past 40 years is reviewed. CD. 



A88-22286# 

LARGE SPACE SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTAL 

ENTANGLEMENTS 

CARL J. FRUSHON and JOHN A. GAUDET (USAF, Geophysics 
Laboratory, Bedford, MA) AIAA. Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 
26th, Reno. NV. Jan. 11-14. 1986. 27 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0368) 

The most important adverse environmental impacts on future 
space systems are identified and discussed. Charging, radiation, 
contamination, atomic oxygen erosion, particle impacts, 
high-voltage interactions, and thermal forces are considered. 
Research on ways to mitigate these forces and counteract their 
adverse impacts is addressed. CD. 

A88-24809 

METEORITES AND THEIR PARENT PLANETS 

HARRY Y. MCSWEEN. JR. (Tennessee. University, Knoxville) 
Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. 1987. 249 
p. refs 

This bool( explores the origins of meteorites by tracing them 
back to their parent tx>dies. which are the sites of various geological 
processes. Recent discoveries are reviewed which reveal that the 
chemk^at and physk^at properties of meteorites contain a record 
of the processes that forrned the solar system. How meteorites 
escape their parent t>odies ar>d find their way to earth is 
explained. CD. 



A88-24814 
SUPERALLOYS II 

CHESTER T. SIMS, ED., NORMAN S. STOLOFF, ED. (Rensselaer 
Polytechnrc Institute. Troy. NY), and WILLIAM C. HAGEL, ED. 
(ArtxMTnet Ltd.. Ann Artxx. Mt) New York, Wiley-lntersderKje, 
1987, 635 p. No indivkiual items are abstracted in this volume. 

Superalloys are those alloys based on Groi^ VIIIA-t>ase 
elements devek>ped for elevated temperature servk^ in virtue of 
their combinatk>n of mechanrcal strength with surface stability in 
such corrosive environments as those of aircraft arKl irKkistrial 
gas turbines, coal conversk>n plants, etc. An updated account is 
presently given of the genesis and character of superalloys; 
superalloys' impact on gas turbine design; precipitatk>n- and 
dispersion-strengthening, and precipitation-hardening; repre- 
sentative Ni-, Co-, and Ni-Fe-base alloys; directionally solidified 
superalloys; phase compositbn predk:tk>n. mec^ank^at k>ehavk>r, 
and fatigue; high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and 
protective coatings; irtvestment-cast, wrought, and P/M alkiys; arKl 
prospective competitk)n for superalbys from nonmetailk; 
materiais. O.C. 



A88-24820 

STATIC AND DYNAMIC PHOTOELASTICITY AND CAUSTICS 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 

A. LAGARDE. ED. (Poitiers, Universite, Fraf>ce) Vienna and New 
York, Springer-Verlag (lntematk>nal Centre for Mechanfcal 
Sciences, CISM Courses and Lectures, No. 290), 1987. 526 p. 
No irKJfvkJual items are abstracted in this volume. 

The fundamental principles and applk:atk>ns of photoelastk; 
analysis and NDE are examined in chapters contributed by leading 
experts. Topics addressed include integrated photoelasticity; 
coherent-light photoelastic NDE with applications to two- 
dimensional and three-dimensional problems in statics, contact 
stresses, fracture mechanics, and dynanruc impulse; dynamk: 
photoelastk% and its applk:atk>n to stress-wave propagation, 
fracture mechank^s, and fracture control; and the shadow-optrcs 
method of caustics. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and sample 
images £ire provkled. T.K. 

A88-24978# 

CANADIAN DIRECTIONS IN SPACE SCIENCE - AN UPDATE 

A. L VANKOUGHNETT and D, J. W. KENDALL (National Research 
Cour)cil of Canada, Space Div., Ottawa) Canadian Aeronautk^s 
and Space Journal (ISSN 0008-2821). vol. 33. Dec. 1967, p. 
205-210. refs 

An evaluation is made of current Canadian commitments arxj 
future prospects in space scierrce, urKJer the aegis of the Natk>nal 
Research Council of Canada. Efforts are urnierway in 
magnetospherk: and plasma physics, upper atmospheric chernistry 
and physics, space astronomy, and both bk>k>gk>al and 
materials-oriented microgravity scier>ces. These efforts alt invoh^e 
collaboratk>n with either ESA. NASA, Japan, or the USSR. Attentk)n 
is given to the Canadian contributk>n to such projects as the 
Viking spaceo-aft Imager, the suprathermal k>n mass spectrometer 
for EXOS-D, the lntert>all Imager, and the wind-imaging 
interferometer for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. 

O.C. 

A86-27750*# Natk)nal Aeronautrcs and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

IN-SPACE RESEARCH. TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING 
EXPERIMENTS AND SPACE STATION 

RICHARD TYSON (NASA. Office of Aeronautrcs and Space 
Technok)gy, Washington. DC) and CHARLES F. GARTRELL 
(General Research Corp., McLean, VA) AIAA, Meeting on Space 
Statbn Utiltzatbn, 1st, Ariington, VA, Mar. 7-9, 1^6. Paper. 18 p. 
refs 

The NASA Space Station will serve as a technok)gy research 
laboratory, a payload-servicing facility, and a large structure 
fabricatk)n and assembly facility. Space structures research will 
encompass advanced structural concepts arvj their dynamics, 
advanced control concepts, sensors, and actuators. Experiments 
dealing with fluid managentent will gather data on such 
fundamentals as multiphase flow phenomena. As requirements for 
power systems and thermal management grow, experiments 
quantifying the performance of energy systems and thermal 
management corK^epts will be urxiertaken, together with expanded 
efforts in the fields of information systems. automatk>n. and 
robotk». O.C. 

A88-27833 

PROPOSED USES OF ERS-1 

G. DUCHOSSOIS and J.-P. GUIGNARD (ESA, Paris. France) 
(COSPAR, WMO, URSI, et al.. Plenary Meeting, 26th. SyiT^x>skim 
3. Woritshop V, and Topk:al Meeting A2 on Remote Sensing from 
Space. Toukxise, France, June 30-July 11, 1966) Advances in 
Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177), vol. 7, no. 11, 1967, p. 
293-298. 

The first European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) is one of 
the major programs of the European Space Agency (ESA) in the 
field of earth obsen/atk)n. It is due to be launched in December 
1 989 and will embark a very comprehensive set of radar instrunrmnts 
designed to observe the surface wind and wave structure over 
the oceans and to provide high resolution all-weather images of 



59 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



the ice caps, coastal zones and land surface. The paper briefly 
describes the main features and expected geophysical 
performances of these various instruments; it provides examples 
for the utilization of ERS-1 data for scientific research in such 
fields as physical oceanography, glaciology and climatology, as 
well as in application demonstrations for offshore activities and 
land resources management. Author 



A88-28538 

CHOOSING PARTNERS FOR A MANNED MISSION TO MARS 

MICHAEL A. G. MICHAUD (U.S. Department of State, Washington, 
DC) Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4, Feb. 1988, p. 
12-18. refs 

Proposals for cooperation with the USSR in space are 
discussed. It is shown that any U.S. administration will remain 
sensitive to the transfer of technologies central to the achievement 
of a Mars mission (such as propulsion, sensors, computers, and 
communication) which can be used for military purposes. 
Experience suggests that making a Mars mission dependent on 
U.S.-Soviet cooperation may delay its realization. A complementary 
model is outlined in which technologies are developed separately, 
and the exchange of information concerns mission plans, scientific 
data, mutual support on the Martian surface, and rescue capability. 
It is concluded that a cooperative Mars-rover and surface-sample- 
return effort could provide a useful precedent for complementary 
manned Mars missions. A.S. 



A88-29103 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE 1986; PROCEEDINGS OF 
THE 1986 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM. NAGOYA. JAPAN. 
NOV. 10-12. 1986 

SATORU WATANABE, ED., SHIGEO MORI, ED. (Nagoya 
University, Japan), and GENYO MITARAI, ED. (Chukyo University, 
Toyota, Japan) Symposium sponsored by MOESC, Natural Space 
Development Agency of Japan, Japan Society of Microgravity 
Application, et al. Tokyo, MYU Research (International Symposium 
Series, No. 2), 1987, 392 p. For individual items see A88-29104 
to A88-29148. 

This book includes topics in space physiology and medicine, 
space biology and CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support 
System), space radiology, and space biotechnology. Papers are 
presented on the role of preventive medicine in the future of USA 
space life sciences and the status of space life sciences in Japan. 
Consideration is given to sympathetic nervous responses in man 
to weightlessness simulated by head-out water immersion, the 
effect of centrifugal force on the gain and phase of the canal-ocular 
reflex in rabbit, DNA damage and mutation induced by health 
lamp-light (UVB) in Echerichia coli, Azolla and other small vascular 
floating plants as a functioning agent of nitrogen fixation in CELSS, 
the interaction of cosmic radiation and microgravity in the 
development processes of Carausius morosus, and the 
electrofusion of plant protoplasts under microgravity conditions. 

I.S. 



A88-28551 

MATERIALS PROCESSING IN THE REDUCED GRAVITY 
ENVIRONMENT OF SPACE; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
SYMPOSIUM. BOSTON. MA. DEC. 1-3. 1986 

ROBERT H. DOREMUS, ED. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
Troy, NY) and PAUL C. NORDINE. ED. (Midwest Research Institute, 
Kansas City, MO) Symposium sponsored by the Materials 
Research Society. Pittsburgh, PA, Materials Research Society 
(Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings. Volume 87), 
1987, 377 p. For individual items see A88-28552 to A88-28588. 

The present conference on microgravity materials processing 
discusses gravitational effects in CVD, containerless processing 
of undercooled melts, isothermal dendritic growth, fluid mechanics 
and materials science experiments using acoustic levitation, the 
influence of thermal gravitational convection on solidification 
processes, applications of charged drop levitators, floating-zone 
processing of In in earth orbit, and the free-fall behavior of 
liquid-metal drops in a gaseous atmosphere. Also discussed are 
ultrafine particle and fiber production in microgravity, monodisperse 
latex particles produced in space, evaporation kinetics in the 
hanging drop method of protein crystal growth, phase separation 
kinetics in tnmiscible liquids, glass formation in microgravity, and 
containerless metal evaporation by laser-induced fluorescence. 

O.C. 



A88-29104 

THE ROLE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN THE FUTURE OF 

USA SPACE LIFE SCIENCES 

JAMES M. VANDERPLOEG (Keisey-Seybold Clinic, Houston, TX) 
IN: Biological sciences in space 1986; Proceedings of the 1986 
International Symposium, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 10-12, 1986. Tokyo, 
MYU Research, 1987, p. 1-8. refs 

The preventive, diagnostic, and treatment capabilities of the 
Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) which will fly aboard the Space 
Station are discussed. The preventive aspects of the HMF will 
include facilities for fitness-maintenance exercises and for the 
periodic collection and evaluation of physiological data which wilt 
be used to detect early changes in physiological parameters and 
to institute corrective measures if needed. This data base will 
also help to determine the natural history of physiologic changes 
in space and to define the physiologic norms for microgravity. 
The dignostic capabilities, which will include cardiorespiratory 
assessment, clinical laboratory analyses, and imaging system, will 
enable the crew members to detect and diagnose medical problems 
inflight and to intitiate remedial action immediately. The treatment 
capabilities will include a life support module, an anesthesia and 
minor surgery work station, intravenous fluid generation and 
therapy, a hyperbaric treatment facility, and a pharmacy. I.S. 



A88-28951 

UNIVERSE (2ND EDITION) 

WILLIAM J. KAUFMANN, III (San Diego State University, CA) New 
York, W. H. Freeman and Co., 1988, 654 p. refs 

A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of 
the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye 
observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic 
tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and 
the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is 
addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed 
individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is 
described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, 
star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other 
phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the 
sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky 
Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are 
addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 

CD. 



A88-29105 

MAN IN SPACE: 25 YEARS OF MANNED SPACE FLIGHTS IN 

THE SOVIET UNION - BIOMEDICAL ASPECTS 

ANATOLII I. GRIGOR'EV and INESSA B. KOZLOVSKAIA (tnstitut 
Mediko-Biologicheskikh Problem, Moscow, USSR) IN: Biological 
sciences in space 1986; Proceedings of the 1986 International 
Symposium, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 10-12, 1986. Tokyo, MYU 
Research, 1987, p. 9-16. 

Primary weightlessness-induced physiological disorders that 
appear soon after exposure to the conditions of space flight are 
identified, and measures used to maintain good health condition 
and high work capacity of crewmembers during prolonged space 
flights are discussed. Among these measures are taking 
countermeasures against specific symptoms and providing 
adequate and comfortable environment, rational work and rest 
cycle, sufficiently long sleep, and well balanced nutrition. Of great 
importance is also the proper selection of individual crew members 
and the proper balance of crews, as well as their physical, 
professional, and medical training. I.S. 



60 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



A86-29106 

THE SPACE LIFE SCIENCES RESEARCH AND APPUCATiON 

IN EUROPE 

KARL E. KLEIN (DFVLR, Instrtut fuer Flugmedizin. Cologne, Federal 
Republic of Germany) IN: Biological sciences In space 1986; 
Proceedings of the 1986 International Symposium, Nagoya. Japan. 
Nov. 10-12. 1986. Tokyo, MYU Research, 1987, p. 17-24. 

The space life sciences activities planned and implemented by 
ESA and by various West-European natiortal space organizations 
focus on three domains: (1) the utilization of the space envronment 
for basic reserach in space life sciences (LSs), (2) the development 
of technologies for the maintenance of physical arKJ mental f>ealth 
of man in space, and (3) the utilization of microgravity for a potential 
commercial application. The past projects with European LS 
payloads on the USSR and the U.S. missions are discussed along 
with the LS payloads of future missions planned and the specific 
research activities to be carried out on these flights. t.S. 

A88-29107 

SPACE LIFE SCIENCES IN JAPAN 

GENYO MITARAI (Chukyo University, Toyota, Japan) IN: Bk)logteal 
sciences in space 1986; Proceedings of the 1986 Intematioruit 
Symposium, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 10-12, 1986. Tokyo, MYU 
Research, 1987, p. 25-37, refs 

Space life sciences (LSs) research activity of Japan is reviewed, 
and the present status of the twelve LS experiments planned for 
the First Materials Processing Test planned to be conducted aboard 
the Space Station is discussed. The experiments planned for the 
FMPT projects include studies on erniocrine and metat)olk; changes 
and on visual staWlity in space, a neurophysiological study of 
posture control in fish, studies of the effect of microgravity on the 
development and formation of bone tissue, and studies on the 
genetic effects of HZE and cosmk: radiation. Other experiments 
will include investigations on crystal growth in zero gravity, 
utrastructural changes of cells in culture, the circadian rhythm of 
fungus, the electrophoretk; separation of cells, and the efficiency 
of protein electrophoresis in zero gravity. l.S. 

A88-29195 

LONG-TERM STRATEGY OF SPACE SCIENCE IN JAPAN 

M. ODA (Tokyo. University. Japan) (COSPAR. lAU. lUGS. et al.. 
Plenary Meeting, 26th, Topical Meeting 03, Workshop 111, and 
Symposium 8 on Planetary Studies, Toulouse. France. June 30-July 
11, 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177). vol. 7, 
no. 12, 1987. p. 171-174. 

The scientific satellites of Japan which have been launched 
since 1 970 and are scheduled for launch in the 1 990s are discussed 
with respect to their characteristics, mission goals, and the 
highlights of the observations obtained by past missions. The 
strategy so far was to place emphasis on the frequency of the 
programs rather than on the scale of the mission. Future model 
missions for astrorK>my/astrophysics and solar systems science 
are discussed. The astronomy/astrophysics missions to be 
launched in the 1990s and the early 2000s will include four X-ray 
observatories, two IR missions, two solar physk:s observatories, 
and one each of gamma-ray, space VLSI, and UV missions. Misswn 
models for solar systems science include satellites for investigating 
Venusian atmosphere, Jovian magnetosphere. solar wind, and the 
geomagnetic field. In preparation for planetary science in the 21st 
century, a lunar mission is planned for the mkj 1990s. l.S. 

A88-29196* Los Alamos National Ub.. NM. 
A LUNAR LABORATORY 

P. W. KEATON (Los Alamos National Laboratory. NM) and M. B. 
DUKE (NASA. Johnson Space Center. Houston, TX) ((X)SPAR, 
lAU, lUGS. et al., Plenary Meeting, 26th, Topical Meeting 03. 
Workshop III, and Symposium 8 on Planetary Studies, Toulouse. 
France. June 30-July 1 1 , 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 
0273-1177), vol. 7, no. 12, 1987, p. 175-183. Previously announced 
in STAR as N87.12580. refs 

An international research laboratory can be estat>lished on the 
Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using 
the transportation system now envisk>ned by NASA, which includes 



a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer 
vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific latxxatory on 
the Moon would permit extended surtace and subsurtace geological 
exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar 
environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes 
of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental 
physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The 
discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost 
of constructir)g large permanent facilities in space and enhance 
ott>er space programs such as Mars exploration. D.E. 

A88-29197 

THE PHOBOS MISSION - SCIENTIFIC GOALS 

R. Z. SAGDEEV, V. M. BALEBANOV, A. V. ZAKHAROV, V. M. 
KOVTUNENKO, R. S. KREMNEV (AN SSSR, Institut Kosmteheskikh 
Issledovanil, Moscow. USSR) et al. (OOSPAR, lAU, lUGS, et al.. 
Plenary Meeting, 26th. Topteal Meetirig 03, Workshop 111, and 
Symposium 8 on Planetary Studies, Toulouse. France. June 30-Juty 
11, 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177), vol. 7, 
no. 12, 1987. p. 185-200. 

Tf)e objectives of the USSR Phobos mission, which include 
studies of the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos. the 
atmospheric phenomena of Mars, and physical processes occurring 
on the sun and in the interplanetary space medium, are described. 
The Phobos spacecraft will carry scientific payload for 22 
experiments. Two descenders, each with its own scientific 
instruments, will be jettisoned for landing on Phot)OS's surtace for 
a thorough study of this satellite. The partkHpants of the Phobos 
project include agencies, scientists, and specialists from Austria, 
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, ESA, Finland. France, the GDR, Hungary, 
the FRG. Poland, the Soviet Unron, Switzeriand, and Sweden. 
Diagrams of experiments' schematics and the spacecraft 
trajectories are included. l.S. 

A88-29226* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

SPACE SCIENCE AT NASA - RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT 

JEFFREY D- ROSENDHAL (NASA. Office of Space Science and 
Applications, Washington, DO) British Interplanetary Society. 
Journal (NASA Space Science) (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 41. 
Jan.-Feb. 1988. p. 3-9. refs 

Following a brief overview of past accomplishments in space 
science, a status report is given conceming progress toward 
recovering from the Challenger accident and a numt)er of trends 
are described which are likely to have a major influence on the 
future of the NASA Space Science program. Key changes in 
process include a trend toward a program centered on the use of 
large, long-lived facilities, the emergence of strong space 
capabilities outside the U.S.. and steps being taken toward the 
diversification of NASA's launch capability. A number of recent 
planning activities are also discussed. Major considerations which 
will specifically need to be taken into account in NASA's prgram 
planning include the need for provision of a spectrum of flight 
activities and the need to recognize likely resource limitations and 
to do more realistic program planning. Author 

A88-29230 

THE PROMISE OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE 

O. R. O'DELL (Rice University. Houston, TX) British Interplanetary 
Society. Journal (NASA Space Science) (ISSN 0007-084X), vol. 
41, Jan.-Feb. 1988, p. 35-40. refs 

Aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are discussed. 
The background of the HST program is reviewed, and the 
characteristics of the observatory are discussed- The status of 
the hardware and the metfK>d of operations are addressed, and 
the maintenance and refurbishment are considered. The 
possibilities opened by the HST are examined. CD, 

A88-29231 

THE EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 

DAVID MORRISON (Hawaii. University, Honolulu) British 

Interplanetary Society. Journal (NASA Space Science) (ISSN 
0007-084X), vol. 41. Jan.-Feb. 1988, p. 41-47. 



61 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



Acoomplishments in the study of the solar system over the 
past two decades are reviewed. The findings that have been made 
in missions to the moon, inner planets, outer planets and their 
satellites, and the solar system's primitive bodies are discussed. 
Future planetary missions are briefly addressed. CD. 

A88-29237 

SPACE FARMING IN THE 21ST CENTURY 

FRANK B. SALISBURY and BRUCE G. BUGBEE (Utah State 
University, Logan) Twenty-first Century Science and Technology 
(ISSN 0895-6820), vol. 1, Mar. -Apr. 1988. p. 32-41. rets 

An account is given of the system design features and proiected 
productivity of a fusion-powered farm on the moon, dubbed 'Luna 
City'. Attention is given to the rationale for nuclear fusion power 
and to the nutritional and cultural criteria applied to crop evaluation, 
as well as to plant physiological responses to the entirely artificial 
environment, and the cuisine that could be based on the crops in 
question. Legumes, salad crops, leaf and flower crops, 
sugar-precursors, nuts, roots and tubers, grains, fruits, oil-bearing 
crops, and herbs and spices, are all included in the plan for Luna 
City. Q.C. 

A88-29768# 

SOVIET SPACE PHYSIOLOGY FROM ITS ORIGINS TO THE 

'CLOSE LOOK' 

CATHLEEN LEWIS (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC) 
Society for the History of Technology. Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 24, 
1986, Paper. 17 p. refs 

Research areas covered by space physiology experiments 
conducted in the USSR since 1948 are overviewed together with 
the sources of Soviet information on space physiology that exist 
for U.S scientists. It is emphasized that information sources 
stemming from international scientific contact, in form of meetings 
or personal contacts of scientists, and, in particular, in form of 
joint experiments, present the most reliable and relevant sources 
of information. Two major bilateral exchanges between the two 
countries in the past have been the exchange of data on space 
physiology during the meetings of the Joint Working Group of 
Space Biology and Medicine, during which the representatives of 
the Soviet Institute for Biomedical Problems and of NASA's Life 
Sciences Division have exchanged data on the Soyuz-Salyut 
project, and the joint Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, which afforded 
the U.S scientists a rare close look at the Soviet instruments 
used in space. I.S. 

A88-30168 
BORN AGAIN 

RALPH D. LORENZ Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340), vol. 30, March 
1988, p. 93-95. 

Examples of the reutilization of spacecraft and space hardware 
in other applications, some far removed from that originally 
intended, are described. The reutilization of spacecraft and 
components associated with comet exploration in other cometary 
missions, both past missions and planned missions, is addressed. 
Proposals to sharing items l)etween Space Shuttle missions and 
using Space Shuttle external tanks for unrelated purposes, such 
as a container for enclosing the gamma ray telescope, are 
described. CD. 

A88-30400 

GOING TO MARS BY WAY OF THE MOON - THE ROLE OF A 

LUNAR BASE IN MARS EXPLORATION 

MICHAEL B. DUKE Planetary Report (ISSN 0736-3680), vol. 8, 
Mar.-Apr. 1988, p. 4-7. 

Lunar mission experience derived from the Apollo program 
allows confident planning to be undertaken in the near term with 
a view to the establishment of a lunar base around the turn of 
the century. Attention is presently given to major aspects of such 
an undertaking that directly bear on the comparative risks of a 
manned mission to Mars. These involve experience-accumulation 
in LEO for the longer Mars mission, the development of mining 
technologies and closed cycle life-support systems required for 



operations independent of terrestrial supplies, and testbed 
experimentation for human survival in microgravity environments. 

O.C. 



A88-31187 

CIVIL AIR TRANSPORTS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY - A 

EUROPEAN VIEW 

DENIS LITTLE (Airbus Industrie, Blagnac, France) ICAO Bulletin 
(ISSN 0018-8778). vol. 43, Feb. 1988, p. 9-13. 

A comprehensive view is presented of the next-generation 
development plans of Airbus Industrie. Near-term technology 
growth will extend to the incorporation of computer-driven 
fly-by-wire controls, wingtip fences, and horizontal tailplane 
trim-tanks on A300 and A3 10 variants. Farther afield, CRT cockpit 
displays and sidestick controllers will be applied to the all-new, 
150-seat A320 flight deck. The next-generation four-engine A340 
and twin-engine A330 will involve an extremely high level of 
commonality in basic fuselage, wing, cockpit, empennage, and 
systems. O.C. 

A88-32827# 

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN NASA - HISTORY, 

STATUS, PROSPECTS 

ROBERT L. HELMREICH (Texas, University, Austin) American 
Psychological Association, Annual Convention, 94th, Washington, 
DC, Aug. 22-26, 1986, Paper. 5 p. refs 

The history of psychological research in NASA is reviewed 
with consideration given to changes and new roles for psychology. 
With a view to establishing a permanent presence in space in the 
form of the Space Station, consideration is currently being given 
to a plan for research in aviation and space psychology. Multiple 
methodologies and research settings wqould be utilized, ranging 
from the laboratory to the simulator to the undersea habitat and 
to the simultaneous examination of behavior at the organizational, 
group, and individual level. K.K. 

A88-33442 

ADVANCED SPACE PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPACE 

LEADERSHIP 

STEPHEN A. EVANS, ALAN DARBY, and KEITH N. WATTS 
(Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA) 
IN: EASCON *87; Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Electronics 
and Aerospace Systems Conference, Washington, DC, Oct. 14-16, 
1987. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 
Inc., 1987, p. 135-141. 

The application of a water electrolysis system as a propulsion 
system for the Space Station is discussed. The advantages of 
water in space operations are indicated, and a block diagram of 
the propulsion system is shown. The application of this propulsion 
system to other space missions is addressed. CD. 

A88-35051 

AEROSPACE CENTURY XXI: SPACE MISSIONS AND POLICY; 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-THIRD ANNUAL AAS 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, BOULDER, CO, OCT. 26-29, 

1986 

GEORGE W. MORGENTHALER, ED. (Colorado, University. 

Boulder) and GAYLE L. MAY, ED. Conference sponsored by 

AAS. San Diego. CA. Univelt, Inc., 1987, 685 p. For individual 

items see A88-35052 to A88-35092. 

The present conference discusses the NASA Space Station's 
evolution and development status, the Spacehab testbed. Space 
Station benefits from tether operations, the Columbus resource 
module for ESA's man-tended free-flier, global climate research 
with Topex/Poseidon. the Saenger and Hotel reusable launcher 
concepts, the Tethered Satellite System, mission analysis and 
phased development of a lunar base, and extraterrestrial 
infrastructure design projects. Also discussed are the Galileo 
mission to Jupiter and the Magellan mission to Venus; future 
international space programs; ESA. German, and Japanese space 
exploration plans; future applications of space law, and recent 
developments in U.S. space policy and law; space science and 



62 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



engineering education; and public and professional attitudes to 
space exploration in the U.S. O.C. 

A86-35055* Rockwell International Corp.. Downey. CA. 
PANEL ON SPACE STATION UTIUZATION BENEFITS 

SY Z. RUBENSTEIN (Rockwell Intematwnal Corp.. Downey. CA). 
FRANK DRAKE (California, University. Santa Cmz), STANLEY C. 
WHITE (Bk)netics Ck>rp.. Pasadena, CA). JAMES V. TARANIK 
(Nevada. University. Reno). HERMANN JORDAN (DFVLR, Cok>gne. 
Federal Republk; of Germany), and RAY ARNOLD (NASA. Office 
of Space Science and Applications. Washington. DC) IN: 
Aerospace century XXI: Space missk>ns arKi pcHicy; Proceedings 
of the Thirty-third Annual AAS lntematk)nal Conference. Boulder, 
CO. Oct 26-29. 1986. San Diego, CA. Univett. Inc., 1987. p. 
77-87. 
(AAS PAPER 86-421) 

An account is given of recent changes in the NASA Space 
Station, under the guidance of updated user community paytoad 
requirements. The user communities are those of astrorKHrry. the 
life sciences, earth c^servatk)n. and intematk>nal applicatiorts. 
Attention is given to the resolutions that will be achievable by 
astronomical instruments atx>ard the Space Station, the testif>g of 
prototype earth observation instruments aboard the Station's 
manned module. arKJ the mk:rogravfty research efforts planned in 
conjunction with ESA. O.C. 

A88-35123 

AEROSPACE CENTURY XXI: SPACE SCIENCES, 

APPLICATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS; 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-THIRD ANNUAL AAS 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, BOULX>ER, CO, OCT. 26-29, 

1986 

GEORGE W. MORGENTHALER. ED. and JEAN N. KOSTER, ED. 

(Colorado. University. Boulder) Conference sponsored by AAS. 

San Diego, CA. Univelt. Inc., 1987. 721 p. For indivkluai items 

see A88-35124 to A88-35165. 

Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet 
Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitwning from 
Spacetab to Space Statk>n science, and assemblers and future 
space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales 
of atmospheric disturt>ar>ces, Doppter radar for predk:tion ar>d 
warning, data managenient for the Columbus program. 
communk:ations satellites of the future. ar>d commercial launch 
vehicles. Other topics include space geodesy and earthquake 
predictions, inverted cellular radio satellite systems, material 
processing in space, and potential for earth ot>servatk>ns from the 
manned Space Statk>n. R.R. 

A88-35149* Jet Propulsion Lab.. California Inst, of Tech.. 

Pasadena. 

A SYSTEMS-LEVEL PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF GET AWAY 

SPECIALS AFTER 25 SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS 

REX W. RIDENOURE (California Institute of Technology. Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena) IN: Aerospace century XXI: 
Space sciences, ap^catkxis. and commercial developments; 
Proceedings of the Thirty-third AnrHial AAS lnteFnatx>nal 
Conference, Boukler, CO. Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego. CA. Urwelt, 
Inc.. 1987, p. 1533-1540. 
(AAS PAPER 86-291) 

This paper summarizes the results of a thorough performarx^e 
study of Get Away Special (GAS) payloads that was conducted in 
1 986. During the study a complete list of standard and nonstandard 
GAS payloads vs. Shuttle mission was constructed, including 
specific titles for the experiments in each canister. A t>road data 
base for each canister and each experiment was then compiled. 
Performance results were then obtained for all txit a few 
experiments. The canisters and experiments were sut>sequentty 
categorized according to the degree of experiment success. For 
those experiments that experienced failures or anomalies, several 
correlations and generalizations were extracted from individual 
subsystem performance data. RecommerKtatk>ns are made whk^ 
may enhance the success and performance of future GAS 
payloads. Author 



A88-35150 

NUSAT I - THE FIRST GAS CAN EJECTED SATELLITE 

ROBERT J. TWIGGS (Weber State College. Ogden. UT) IN: 
Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applicatk)ns, and 
commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual 
AAS International Conference. Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29. 1986. San 
Diego. CA. Univelt, Inc., 1987, p. 1541-1559. refs 
(AAS PAPER 86-293) 

Nusat 1, an 18-irK:h diameter satellite, made history on April 
29. 1985 by being the first satellite ejected from a newly designed 
Get-Away-Spectal canister on the Challenger ortMter. This ejectron 
marked the beginning of a new era of satellite designs which can 
be inexpensively placed in ort>it via the Space Shuttle. This paper 
describes the development of that project, including the project 
organization and funding, satellite design evolutkm, final design 
objectives, final satellite assembly and testing. integratk>n before 
launch, and operatk>r>al performance. CD. 

A88-35163 

HARVESTING NONTERRESTRIAL RESOURCES - A STATUS 

REPORT 

GREGG E. MARYNIAK (Space Studies Institute, Princeton, NJ) 
IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences. applk:ations. and 
commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual 
AAS Internationa! Conference, Boulder. CO. Oct. 26-29, 1986. San 
Diego. CA. Univelt. Inc., 1987, p. 1735-1746. refs 
(AAS PAPER 86-341) 

The principal barrier to space exploration and development is 
the cost of launching materials from the surface of the earth into 
orbit. This seemingly inescapable obstacle can be overcome by 
using resources already in space for propellents, shielding, life 
support and constnjction. This paper outlines the work of the 
Space Studies Institute in developing the tools and techniques 
which will enable the space program to reach a new level of 
maturity characterized by the use of locally-available resources 
for space operations. Author 

A8a-37725# 

THE NATIONAL LABORATORIES - PAST AND FUTURE 

DONALD P. HEARTH (Colorado, University. Boulder) AlAA, Annual 
Meeting and Intematwnal Aerospace Exhibit, Artington, VA. May 
3-5, 1988. 11 p. refs 
(AlAA PAPER 88-4199) 

The U.S. system of National Laboratories is examined with a 
view to their institutional development history and wider economic 
and technologkjal impact, on the one hand, ar>d on the other the 
dawning prospects for further contribution to U.S. intematk>ruil 
competitiveness through collaborative ventures with industrial and 
academk: research institutions. Attention is given to the Natk>r>al 
Bureau of Standards, and especially to NASA-Langley. whteh has 
k>een an exemplary case of fruitful research endeavor since 1920, 
and has been singulariy prominent during and after World War 11. 

O.C. 

A86-38304 

30 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN SPACE; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
THIRTY-EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL 
CONGRESS. BRIGHTON, ENGLAND. OCT. 10-17, 1987 

L G. NAPOLITANO. ED. (Napoli, Universita. Naples, Italy) 
Congress sponsored by lAF. Acta Astronautica (ISSN 0094-5765). 
vol. 18. 1988. 398 p. For individual items see A88-38305 to 
A88-38307. 

The present conference gives attention to orbital maneuvering 
vehicle capat>ilities, the impact of launch vehicle constraints on 
NASA Space Station design and operations, the Office of Space 
Flight satellite servicing program plan, an end-to-end analysis and 
demonstration of telerobotics and ortsital laboratories, a 
development scenario for the H-11 orbiting spaceplane HOPE, 
navigation of the Hermes spaceplane, and a postoperational 
disposal strategy for a space nuclear reactor. Also discussed are 
combined cycle propulsion systems for hypersonic flight hybrid 
boosters for future launch vehicles, nuclear rocket safety, the 
development history of NASA tracking and data acquisition 



63 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



networks, the Indian remote sensing program, remote mineraloglcal 
and vegetation mapping using imaging spectrometry, and solar 
system colonization and interstellar migration. O.C. 



A88-39048 

THE SSD GRAPH - A TOOL FOR PROJECT SCHEDULING 

AND VISUALIZATION 

HYUNG LEE-KWANG (Korean Institute of Technology. Taejon, 
Republic of Korea) and JOEL FAVREL (Lyon. Institut National 
des Sciences Appliquees, France) IEEE Transactions on 
Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol. 35. Feb. 1988, 
p. 25-30. refs 

A graphic tool, the SSD graph, is proposed for three important 
phases of project management: planning and scheduling, control, 
and evaluation. The SSD graph represents the structure, states 
(scheduled and actual states), and deviation of a system. A project 
management system using the SSD graph is developed, and it 
visualizes the actual state of a project and keeps the historical 
record of the project performance. This system allows a project 
manager to see overall status and to review the project 
performance. Several applications have shown its usefulness for 
scheduling and control of project systems. Author 



A88-39330 

INTERNATIONAL SPACE SCIENCE 

THOMAS M. DONAHUE (Michigan, University, Ann Arbor) Physics 
Today (ISSN 0031-9228). vol. 41, May 1988, p. 26-29. 

A comprehensive evaluation is made of current national and 
international collaborative resources for space projects and the 
prospects for their future development. While the space research 
programs of the USSR, Western Europe, and Japan are flourishing, 
the delayed resumption of Space Shuttle operations has restricted 
U.S. efforts to such paytoads as may be carried on obsolescent 
launch vehicles. Nevertheless, brisk activity is noted in U.S. 
spacecraft manufacture and in the elaboration of ambitious 
long-term plans for satellites and planetary probes. O.C. 

A88-39331 

SOVIET SPACE SCIENCE 

ROALD Z. SAGDEEV (AN SSSR. Institut Kosmicheskikh 
Issledovanii, Moscow, USSR) Physics Today (ISSN 0031-9228) 
vol. 41, May 1988, p. 30-38. 

An evaluation is made of the current status and prospective 
developments of the USSR space science research effort In 
astronomy, solar system physics, and space plasma physics, which 
enjoy the greatest priority. Specific projects are underway for the 
sending of a landing craft to Mars and its moon. Phobos, using 
laser and ion beam sounding to study elemental composition; the 
lofting of the Granat and Spektr-X-gamma X-ray and gamma-ray 
observatories into orbit; and the placing of a 10-m radio telescope 
in orbit, in order to conduct interferometric investigations in 
conjunction with an earth-based instrument. Venus and Comet 
Halley probes are also contemplated. O.C. 

A88-39332 

WESTERN EUROPEAN SPACE SCIENCE 

IAN AXFORD (Max-Planck-lnstitut fuer Aeronomie, 
Katlenburg-Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany) Physics Today 
(ISSN 0031-9228). vol. 41. May 1988, p. 42-52. 

An account is given of the national and ESA-coordinated space 
science research efforts of the West European countries to date, 
including the substantial portion of these undertaken iri 
collaboration with NASA, such as the Exosat, COS-B, Geos, and 
ISEE satellites. Program origins, goals, and achievements are 
discussed for the cases of SPOT, Giotto, Hipparcos, the lUE. 
Ulysses, Galileo. Rosat, the IR Space Observatory, and the 
European Retrievable Carrier. Longer-term plans encompass a 
Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return 
Mission, the Quasat VLBI worldwide network, and the Cassini 
Saturn probe. O.C. 



A88-39333* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

SPACE SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES 

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER (NASA, Washington, DC) and FRANK 
B. MCDONALD (NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center. Greenbelt. 
MD) Physics Today (ISSN 0031-9228), vol. 41. May 1988, p. 
57-65. refs 

Despite the hiatus in spacecraft launches after the Space 
Shuttle Challenger accident In 1986, the U.S. space program 
continues to generate research data on the basis of the productive 
operation of 18 scientific spacecraft. Attention is presently given 
to NASA's planned missions for the 1990s in such fields as 
astronomy and astrophysics (the Hubble Space Telescope, the 
Extreme UV Explorer), solar system exploration (the Magellan 
Venus orbJter, the Galileo Jupiter orbiter). space physics (the 
Tethered Satellite System, the Combined Release and Radiation 
Effects Satellite), earth science (the Upper Atmospheric Research 
Satellite), and microgravity sciences (the International Microgravity 
Observatory). o.C. 

A88-40552* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH AT NASA 

JOHN S. BURKS (NASA. Washington. DC) Vertiflite (ISSN 
0042-4455). vol. 34, May-June 1988, p. 12-17. 

An overview of NASA research in rotorcraft technology is 
presented. Ten percent of the NASA aeronautics program is made 
up of rotorcraft research. The aeronautics program conducts 
research in five areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, materials and 
structures, information sciences and human factors, and flight 
systems. The key objectives of NASA research are major reduction 
in external noise and aircraft vibration, reduction of pilot workload 
for night, adverse weather and NOE flying, increasing power and 
reducing fuel consumption in small engines, and identifying and 
exploiting vehicle characteristics and concepts for triple current 
speed and improved maneuverability and agility. NASA and Army 
resources are combined to pursue research at three major centers. 
The Ames research center conducts research in the physics of 
transition and turbulent flows, using a new improved wind tunnel 
and the NAS system. At the Langley Research Center, work is 
done in noise and vibration reduction, finding lighter and more 
durable composite stmctures. and aeroelasticity for tilt motors and 
X-wing configurations. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, 
researchers are working on improving helicopter propulsion 
systems. r.b. 

A88-41276* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt. MD. 

VISIONS OF TOMORROW: A FOCUS ON NATIONAL SPACE 

TRANSPORTATION ISSUES; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

TWENTY-FIFTH QODDARD MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM, 

GREENBELT, MD, MAR. 18-20, 1987 

GERALD A. SOFFEN. ED. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center. 

Greenbelt, MD) Symposium sponsored by AIAA. AAS. National 

Space Club, et al. San Diego. CA, Univelt, Inc. (Science and 

Technology Series. Volume 69), 1987, 338 p. For individual items 

see A88-41277 to A88-41290. 

The present conference on U.S. space transportation systems 
development discusses opportunities for aerospace students in 
prospective military, civil, industrial, and scientific programs, current 
strategic conceptualization and program planning for future U.S. 
space transportation, the DOD space transportation plan. NASA 
space transportation plans, medium launch vehicle and commercial 
space launch services, the capabilities and availability of foreign 
launch vehicles, and the role of commercial space launch systems. 
Also discussed are available upper stage systems, future space 
transportation needs for space science and applications, the 
trajectory analysis of a low lift/drag-aeroassisted orbit transfer 
vehicle, possible replacements for the Space Shuttle, LEO to GEO 
with combined electric/beamed-microwave power from earth, the 
National Aerospace Plane, laser propulsion to earth orbit, and a 
performance analysis for a laser-powered SSTO vehicle. O.C. 



64 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



A88-41278* National Aeronautics and Space Admimstration. 
WasTmgton. DC. 

NASA SPACE TRANSPORTATION PLANS AND ROLES OF A 
MIXED FLEET 

DARRELL R. BRANSCX)ME (NASA. Washington, DC) IN: Visions 
of tomorrow: A focus on national space transportation issues; 
ProceecJKngs of tt>e Twenty-fifth Goddard Memorial Symposium, 
Greenbett. MD. Mar. 18-20. 1987. San Diego. CA. Univett Inc., 
1987. p. 93-95. 
(AAS PAPER 87-112) 

An account is given of ttie rest^ of a Septen^>er. 1987 NASA 
*mixed fleet* launcNng resouroes/scheduKng study that predk»led 
capabBfty projections on a fleet of available ELVs. The laurtch 
capat)^ protections extended as f»^ as 1995, arid in their later 
phases encompassed the reswnption of Space Shuttle operations 
and the availability of Ort)ital Maneuvering Vehide. which could 
accomplish such things as the reboosting of the Hubble Space 
Telescope in 1991, and even the Shuttle-Derived Vehicle, of which 
two distinct concepts are presently being considered; t)Oth woi^ 
heavily rely on Space Shuttle hardware, but would t>e inmanned. 

O.C. 



ABa-41284 

THE FUTURE SPACE TRANSPORTATION NEEDS FOR SPACE 

SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS 

WILUAM P. BISHOP (Science Applications International Corp., 
McLean, VA) IN: V»ions of Vomofrom: A focus on national space 
transportation issues; Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Goddard 
Memorial Symposium, Greent>elt MD, Mar. 18-20, 1987. San Diego, 
CA, Univett, Inc.. 1987. p. 147-161. refs 
(AAS PAPER 87-121) 

An evaluation is made of the U.S. space scierK:e and appfcation 
missions that have been planned through the year 2000, with a 
view to trer>ds in ttier launch vehicle requirements m li^ of the 
impact of Space Shuttle opwations' curtaHment All unctassifled 
missions are considered, including foreign-origin and 
defense-related ones. Almost 100 missions involving free fliers or 
their servicing are noted, as well as nearty 40 Space Shuttle fRghts 
with attached payloads. Large orbital obsenmtories are planned; 
operational missions wfll require smaller weights arxj volumes ttian 
R&D missions, and there will be more tests of enatiKng 
technology. O.C. 



A86-41961 

REMOTE SENSING FOR RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND 
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, ENSCIB>E, 
NETHERLANDS, AUG. 25-29, 1988. VOLUMES 1, 2, & 3 
M. C. J. DAMEN, ED., G. SICCO SMIT. ED., and H. TH. 
VERSTAPPEN, ED. (Intennational Institute for Aerospace Survey 
and Earth Sciences, Enschede, Netherlands) Symposium 
sportsored by the International Society of Ptwtogrammetry and 
Remote Serving (Commission Vtl) and Netherlands Remote 
Sensing Board. Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, 1986, p. Vol. 1, 562 
p.; vol. 2, 414 p.; vol. 3, 115 p. For irKlividual items see A88-41962 
to A8&42070. 

Papers and workir^g group corx^tustons and recommendatk>r)8 
are presented concerning the use of remote sensing for resources 
development and envronmental management in ttie fields of visit)le 
and infrared data, microwave data, spectral signatures of objeds, 
renewable resources in rural areas, nonrenewable resources, 
hytfrology, human settlements, ar>d geoinformation systems. Topics 
covered include methods of image and data processing and 
classification, the use of remote sensing for geological analysts, 
satellite mapping of vegetation, forestry, agriculture, soil sun^. 
and lar)d and water use. Tt>e use of remote sensirig in 
geomor|^K>logy, oceanography and engnieering profects, satellite 
ot>servation of surface water, coastal zones, ice and snow, and 
remote sensing for urt>an suveys. human settlement analysts, and 
archeology, and the analysts of data obtained by Landsat. SIR-A. 
SIR-B, SLAR, and SPOT systems are also discussed. R.B. 



A88-42906*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 
PREPARATION FCffi MICROGRAVrTY - THE ROLE OF THE 
MICROGRAVmr MATERIAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 

J. CHRISTOPHER JOHNSTON, BRUCE N. ROSENTHAL, MARYJO 
B. MEYER, and THOMAS K. GLASGOW (NASA, Lewis Research 
Center, QevelarKl. OH) AIAA, Space Programs and Technolo^es 
Confererxje, Houston, TX, June 21-24, 1988. 5 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3510) 

Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity 
Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical 
models to delineate tt>e effects of gravity on processes of scientific 
and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent 
model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal 
growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive 
flow, arx^ polymer reactior>s. Materials studied include metals, 
alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies 
discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study 
of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth 
apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, 
the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics 
and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities. 

R.B. 

A88-43247 

SCIENTIFIC AND ECONOMY-ORIENTED SPACE SYSTEMS 

/REVISED EDITION/ 

V. S. AVDUEVSKM and G. R. USPENSKII (Narod- 
nokhoziaistvennye i nauchnye kosmicheskie kompleksy, 
Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Mashinostroenie, 1985) Moscow, MIR 
Put>lishers, 1988, 440 p. Translation. Previously cited in issue 13, 
p. 1803, Accessk>n no. A86-29843. refs 

A8fr43299*# 

SPACECRAFT TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE 

NASA MISSIONS 

WAYNE R. HUDSON and GORDON I. JOHNSTON (NASA, 
Washington, DC) AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies 
Conference, Houston, TX, June 21-24, 1988. 10 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3487) 

By working with advanced planners in the NASA Office of 
Space Science and Abdications (OSSA), a spacecraft techn<^ogy 
model has been generated that represents the predominant themes 
of their respective programs for the next twenty years. This set of 
missk>r)s serves as a t>ase from ¥/tnc^ a few representative and 
ctialtertging landmark missk>r^ have t)een extracted to serve as a 
focal point for k5entifying the most critical techrK>logy issues. Each 
missk>n requires significant advances in several technology 
disc^ines in order to t>e feasitMe. The missk)n set selected to 
serve as a technok>gy focus reflects the increased emphasis within 
NASA on a potential civil space leadership initiative, and include 
ttie Geostationary Earth Ot>serving PLatform from ttie Planet Earth 
initiative ar)d tiie precursor Mars Rover and Sample Return missk>n 
from tt\e Mars Exploration Initiative. These missk>ns are briefly 
descnt>ed and ttie key technology requirements are discussed. 

AuttK)r 

A88-439S3# 

RECONSIDERING ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY FOR TWENTY-FIRST 

CENTURY SPACE HABITATS 

PETER H. DIAMANDIS (MIT. Cambridge, MA) IN: Space 
manufacturing 6 • Nonterrestrial resources, biosciences, and space 
engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI 
Conference, Princeton. NJ, May 6-9, 1987. Washington, DC, 
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987, p. 55-68. 
Research supported by the Space Studies Institute, refs 

Ihe medfcal bases for development of arlifk:ial gravity systems 
that can be incorporated t)y spacecraft on tong duration misstons, 
ortxtal habitats, and lunar and asteroklat bases are presented. 
After giving an account of the renal, cardbvascular. and 
muscuk>ske{etal effects of weightlessness, attention is given to 
such consklerations as how much artificial gravity is required, the 
physk>k>gk»l limits of radii and angular velocity for centrifugal 



65 



,^, 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



artificial gravity systems, and the economic limits to radius and 
angular velocity. Motion sickness due to Cortolis cross-coupled 
accelerations is identified as a major problem. O.C. 

A88-43959# 

LOW EARTH ORBIT SPACE FARM 

STEPHEN M. BULL. NILS BRUNN, and RANDOLPH LIEBELT 
(Medaris Industries, New York) IN: Space manufacturing 6 - 
Nonterrestriat resources, biosciences, and space engineering; 
Proceedings of the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference, 
Princeton, NJ, May 6-9, 1987. Washington, DC, American Institute 
of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987, p. 102-111. rets 

The paper proposes a modular low earth orbit space farm 
which combines the current CELSS technology with a single launch, 
artificial gravity space vehicle to provide fresh produce to a nearby 
space station crew in a balanced exchange for their biodegradable 
waste and carbon dioxide. While growing a substantial amount of 
produce, the space farm will also be developing the plant 
propagation technology for transfer to future lunar colonies and to 
accompany long range space missions, i.e., interplanetary 
exploration. The components of the space farm will be launched 
by conventional booster, then manned, assembled and operated 
by a crew of two. Since the space farm is habitable during all 
stages of development, the Shuttle rendezvous to deliver the crew 
will be brief. Adding modules will facilitate increasing crop yields. 

Author 

A88-44002# 

SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION - AN OVERVIEW BY AN 

AEROSPACE CORPORATION 

J. T. VIOLA (Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand 
Oaks, CA) IN: Advanced topics in manufacturing technology: 
Product design, bioengineering; Proceedings of the Symposium, 
ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Dec. 13-18, 1987. 
New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1987, p. 
53-57. 

The development of user-friendly access to space 
experimentation by the provision of flight hardware and integration 
services is discussed, giving examples of specific processing 
experiments being conducted in earth orbit. Semiconductor crystal 
growth is examined, emphasizing low-gravity growth of It-VI alloys, 
CdTe crystal growth, float-zone crystal growth of low melting 
elements, and photochemical beam epitaxy of ll-VI compounds. A 
project concerning microgravity welding is presented, and 
participation in NASA Centers for the Commercial Development 
of Space is discussed. R.B. 

A88-44006*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

MICROGRAVITY SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS PROJECTS 
AND PAYLOADS 

R. K. CROUCH (NASA, Microgravity Science and Applications Drv., 
Washington, DC) IN: Advanced topics in manufacturing 

technology: Product design, bioengineering; Proceedings of the 
Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Dec. 
13-18, 1987. New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
1987, p. 85-88. 

An overview of work conducted by the Microgravity Science 
and Applications Division of NASA is presented. The goals of the 
program are the development and implementation of a 
reduced-gravity research, science and applications program, 
exploitation of space for human benefits, and the application of 
reduced gravity research for the development of advanced 
technologies. Space research of fluid dynamics and mass transport 
phenomena is discussed and the facilities available for reduced 
gravity experiments are presented. A program for improving 
communication with the science and applications communities and 
the potential use of the Space Station for microgravity research 
are also examined. R.B. 



A88-44150 

THE U.S. SPACE STATION 

EVOLUTION 



A QUARTER-CENTURY OF 



PHILIP D. HATTIS (Charles Stark Draper Laboratory.. Inc., 
Cambridge, MA) Technology Review (ISSN 0040-1692), vol. 91. 
July 1988. p. 28-40. 

In October, 1986, NASA Langley's Critical Evaluation Task 
Force recommended that the Space Station be built in two phases. 
The relatively modest Phase I station would encompass the central 
horizontal truss of the dual-keel model, together with all pressurized 
modules; this would entail 19 Space Shuttle flights over three 
years. Phase II. for which funding approval would be sought only 
after substantial progress toward launching Phase I, would use 
six additional Shuttle flights to put the full dual-keel Space Station 
configuration in operating order. As Phase I is embarked upon, 
major programmatic questions remain as to the intersection of 
military and international interests in the Space Station's design 
and use. O.C. 

A88-44613 

NASA'S PATHFINDER PLOTS FUTURE US SPACE ACTIVITIES 

ANDREW WILSON Interavia (ISSN 0020-5168), vol. 43, June 
1988, p. 591-593. 

NASA's $850-million 'Pathfinder' project has as its goal the 
definition and development of generic technologies for future 
missions beyond earth orbit; these are grouped under the 
categories of 'exploration*, 'operations', 'transfer vehicles', and 
'human life support'. Pathfinder will attempt to define advanced 
capabilities for both manned and unmanned ventures, of which 
the latter may be typified by a Mars sample-return mission by 
1998. A Mars mission would entail substantial development of 
such techniques as aerobraking, in order to reduce spacecraft 
earth departure masses by up to 50 percent, as well as electric 
propulsion and controlled-environment life-support systems. O.C. 

A88-44856 

PHYSICS OF THE GALAXY AND INTERSTELLAR MATTER 

HELMUT SCHEFFLER (Landessternwarte Koenigstuhl, Heidelberg, 
Federal Republic of Germany) and HANS ELSAESSER 
(Max-Planck-lnstitut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg, Federal Republic 
of Germany) Berlin and New York, Springer- Veriag, 1987, 503 
p. Translation, refs 

Issues pertaining to the stellar system, interstellar matter, and 
dynamics and evolution are reviewed. Included in the discussion 
of the positions and motions of stars are astronomical coordinate 
systems, temporal changes of the star coordinates, and space 
velocities and solar motion. The structure and kinematics of the 
stellar system are discussed as welt as interstellar phenomena 
and the physics of interstellar matter. The dynamics of the Galaxy 
is discussed with attention given to stellar dynamics, the gravitation 
theory of the spiral structure, and the dynamics of the interstellar 
gas. K.K. 

A88-45037* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. 
FLIGHT AND GROUND PACKET TELEMETRY SYSTEMS 
ACTIVITIES AT NASA'S GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

RICHARD D. CARPER (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 
Greenbelt, MD) British Interplanetary Society, Journal (ISSN 
0007-084X), vol. 41, July 1988, p. 325-328. refs 

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the 
responsibility for the telemetry ground data processing for two 
current spacecraft which use packet telemetry. These spacecraft 
are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Gamma Ray 
Observatory (GRO). GSFC has designed and built two ground 
systems to meet this responsibility. The first is the HST DATA 
Capture Facility (DCF), which has now completed its integration 
and test phase and is supporting spacecraft and data flow tests. 
The second is the Packet Processor System (Pacor). This system 
became operational in July 1987. These systems are known 
generally as Level Zero Processors. Level Zero Processors ingest 
telemetry composite bit streams, output selected user specific data 
in real time, and in a batch mode perform all necessary processing 
to produce individual user data files which are, within the limits of 
the quality of the received data, contiguous, complete, ordered 
and nonredundant. Author 



66 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



A8&-45112 

EARTH OBSERVATION PROGRAM IN JAPAN AND ITS 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES 

TAKESHI MASUDA. TASUKU TANAKA, MASAHIRO KOJIMA, and 
KOHEI CHO (National Space Devetopement Agency of Japan. 
Tokyo) Geocarto International (ISSN 1010-6049). vol. 3, June 
1988, p. 3-12. 

An overview of the Japanese Earth Observation Program 
including the Marine Observation Satellite (MOS-1). the Earth 
Resources Satellite (ERS-1). the Advanced Earth Observing 
Satellite, the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the program's 
tntemational cooperative activies is presented. The MOS-1 is an 
experimental satellite to establish technology for observing the 
earth, primarily the ocear>s. The system parameters of mission 
instruments, the function and charactertetics of sensors and satellite 
systems and data usefulness of the MOS-1 are being evaluated 
in the MOS-1 verification program. The goals of the ERS-1 program 
are to establish SAR and high resolution optic sensor technology 
primarily for geological and topographical survey. The ADEOS, to 
be launched in the 1990s, will carry two core sensors, the Ocean 
Color and Temperature Scann^ and the Advanced Visible and 
Near Infrared Radiometer. NASDA is working with NASA, NOAA. 
ESA, arnl Canada to develop the POP program. R.B. 



A88-45597 

PHYSICS OF MASSIVE NEUTRINOS 

FELIX BOEHM and PETR VOGEL (California Institute of 
Technotogy, Pasadena) Camtwidge and New York, Cambridge 
University Press, 1987, 216 p. refs 

Various aspects of neutrino physics are described with particular 
attentk>n given to current knowledge concerning neutrino mass 
and partk;le-antipartk:le symmetry. Topk:s include kinematk; tests 
for neutrino mass, cross sections of neutrino-induced reactions, 
and heavy neutrinos and neutrino decay. ConskJeratwn is also 
given to neutrino oscillatk)ns and double beta decay. K.K. 



A88-46228* National Aeror)autk:s and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA. 
TURBULENT DRAG REDUCTION RESEARCH AT NASA 
LANGLEY - PROGRESS AND PLANS 

S. P. WILKINSON. J. B- ANDERS. B. S. LAZOS. and D. M. 
BUSHNELL (NASA. Langley Research Center. Hampton. VA) IN: 
TurtHjIent drag reductk>n by passive means; Proceedings of the 
lntematk)nal Conference, London, England, Sept 15-17. 1987. 
Volume 1. London. Royal Aeronautk:al Society. 1987. p. 1-32. 
refs 

Prospective research efforts planned at NASA-Langley in view 
of results obtained to date in passive turtxjient drag reductk>n 
experiments are discussed. It has been established that 
conventional flow-altgr>ed riblets are effective even in the preserice 
of a degree of fk>w inclination and pressure gradients, arKi at 
transonk; speeds. No ir)crease in net drag reductk>n is expected 
from nonconventional riblet geometries. Large eddy breakup 
devices promise drag reductions in the 6-15 percent range. Heat 
transfer-augmentation, noise-reduction, turboprop/fuselage 
interaction noise reduction, are other advantages expected from 
this line of research. O.C. 

A88-46299 

REVIEW OF RADIO SCIENCE 1984-1966 

G. HYDE, ED. (COMSAT Laboratories, Qarksburg. MD) Bmssels, 
Belgium, International Unk)n of Radk> Science. 1987, 184 p. No 
individua] items are abstracted in this volume. 

Theoretk^al. experimental, and applk:atk>r)s aspects of radio 
science are examir>ed in a collectk>n of sttoject-area reviews. Toptes 
addressed include EM metrok>gy, fiekls and waves, sigrials arKJ 
systems, etectronk: and optical devk^es and their appUcatk>ns, and 
EM noise and interference. Consideration Is given to wave 
propagation and remote sensing, ionospheric radio and wave 
propagatk>n in plasmas, radio astronomy, and the iMokygk^ effects 
of EM waves. An extensive gtossary of acronyms is provkJed. 

T.K. 



A68-45599 
GALACTIC DYNAMICS 

JAMES BINNEY (Oxford University. England) and SCOTT 
TREMAINE (Toronto, University. Canada) Princeton, NJ, Princeton 
University Press, 1987. 747 p. refs 

A comprehensive review of the theory of galactk: dynamk:» is 
presented. Key empirical facts about stellar systems are briefly 
reviewed, and the ingredients needed to construct galaxy models 
are assembled, including potential theory, stellar ortHts. ar>d the 
theory of the equilibrium configurations of stellar systems. The 
stability of these configurations and the theory of spinal structures 
are discussed. Collisions ar>d errcounters between stellar systems 
are considered, and two-body re€Uizatk>n and the approach to 
statistical equilibrium in star clusters are addressed. It is shown 
how the observable properties of galaxies such as tfieir kiminosities 
and colors are changed by the aging of their constituent stellar 
populatkHis. Finally, it is shown that most of the mass in the 
universe is locked up in some still invisible form. CD. 

A86-45605'' Delaware Univ.. Newark. 

SPACE 2000: MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF A NEW ERA 

HARRY L SHIPMAN (Delaware. Urwer^. Newarl^) Research 
supported by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. 
Research Corp.. NASA, and NSF. New York. Plenum Press. 1987, 
439 p. refs 

The focus of the present tx>ok is on the variety of past and 
future human activities in space. NASA's response to the 
Challenger explosbn is discussed and an overview is given of the 
agency's relations with foreign competitors In the 1980s. The 
practical uses of space are described with attention given to 
communications satellites, the orbital high ground (weather 
watching, spying, and SDI), earth science, and materials processing 
in space. Other topk^ include the expbration of the near and 
distant universe, and permanent stations in space and on tiie 
moon. K.K. 



A86-46300 

LASER DIAGNOSTICS AND MODELING OF COMBUSTION 

KAZUO IINUMA, ED. (Hosei University. Koganei, Japan). 
TSUYOSHI ASANUMA. ED. (Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan). 
TOSHIHIKO OHSAWA. ED. (Tokyo University of Agriculti^ and 
Technology, Koganei, Japan), and JUNTA DOI, ED. (Tokyo, 
University, Japan) Beriin and New York, Springer-Veriag. 1987. 
373 p. No individual items are abstracted in this volume. 

Recent advances in the experimental measurement and 
theoretical modeling of combustion processes are examir>ed in 
chapters contributed by leading Japanese experts. Topk^ 
addressed include the principles of LDV, LDV technk)ues for 
combustors. spray and soot measurements. Raman arxl 
non-Raman spectroscopy, imaging technk^ues. and image 
processing. Consideration is given to molecular-process analysis, 
models of combustion in piston engines, analysts of t>umer systems, 
flow simulations, and combustion simulations. Extensive diagrams, 
drawings, graphs. arKJ photographs are provided. T.K. 

A86-46305 

MATERIALS SCIENCE IN SPACE: 

THEORY-EXPERIMENTS-TECHNOLOGY 

LIA L REQEL (Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Institut Kosmk^heskikh 
Issledovanii, Moscow. USSR) (Itogi Nauki i Tekhniki, Serita 
Issledovanie Kosmicheskogo Prostranstva, vol. 21, 1964) New 
York. Halsted Press, 1987, 253 p. Translation. Prevkwsly cited in 
issue 03, p. 270. Accession no. A85-13500. refs 

A88-46308 

THE STRUCTURE OF THE PLANETS 

JOHN ELDER London. Academic Press, 1987, 227 p. refs 

The dynamical, chemical, and structural evolution of the solar 
system is sun^eyed from a unified perspective, combining data 
from recent astronomk:al and geok)gk5al Investigations. Toptes 
addressed include models of solar-system origin, the emergence 
of the solar disk, the evolution of the hydrogen bodies, degassing 



67 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



and core formation on the prototerrestrial planets, the onset of 
geological time, chemical and physical development, and thermal 
history. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are 
provided. T.K. 

A88-49090*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

GROUND-BASED MICROGRAVITY MATERIALS SCIENCE 

RESEARCH AT NASA'S MICROGRAVITY MATERIALS 

SCIENCE LABORATORY 

BRUCE N. ROSENTHAL (NASA, Lewis Research Center, 

Cleveland, OH) Metallurgical Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy 

and Materials Science (ISSN 0360-2133), vol. 19A, Aug. 1988, p 

1915-1917. 

A88-49630 

PULSARS - AN OVERVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 

J. H. TAYLOR (Princeton University, NJ) IN: Texas Symposium 
on Relativistic Astrophysics, 13th, Chicago, IL, Dec. 14-19, 1986, 
Proceedings. Singapore and Teaneck, NJ, World Scientific 
Publishing Co., 1987, p. 467-477. refs 

A88-49820# 

THE EUROPEAN LONG-TERM SPACE PLAN 

K.-E. REUTER (ESA, Coordination and Monitoring Office, Paris, 
France) ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), no. 54, May 1988, p. 
14-29. 

A recent proposal for a coherent European space program for 
the 1 990s and beyond is outlined. The proposed scientific program 
includes solar terrestrial science research, missions to asteroids 
and comets, and a spectroscopic observatory for X-ray sources. 
The earth observing program will involve the use of polar orbiting 
systems for studying ice, the ocean, coastal processes, and 
meteorology. The microgravlty research program, including the 
Man-Tended Free Flyer and Eureca, and the telecommunications 
program are also considered. Other topics discussed include the 
Space Station and space platforms programs, the space- 
transportation program, space infrastructure operations, the 
future ground infrastructure, and organizational and budgetary 
considerations. r.r. 

A88-50209*# Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

NASA OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS 

STUDY ON SPACE STATION ATTACHED PAYLOAD POINTING 

R. A. LASKIN, J. M. ESTUS, Y. H. LIN, J. T. SPANOS, and C. M. 
SATTER (California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory, Pasadena) IN: AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control 
Conference, Minneapolis, MN, Aug. 15-17, 1988, Technical Papers. 
Part 1. Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1988, p. 430-443. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4105) 

A study has been conducted to determine the 
articulated-pointing requirements of a suite of instruments carried 
by the NASA Space Station, and define a pointing system 
architecture accomodating those requirements. It is found that 
these pointing requirements are sufficiently exacting, and the Space 
Station's disturbance environment sufficiently severe, to preclude 
the successful use of a conventional gimbal-pointing system; a 
gimbaled system incorporating an isolation stage is judged capable 
of furnishing the requisite levels of pointing performance. O.C. 

A88-51422 

U.S. SCIENTISTS VIEW FUTURE MARS MISSIONS - IS THE 

SEARCH FOR LIFE* A PRIMARY GOAL 

DONALD F. ROBERTSON Space Markets (ISSN 0258-4212). 
Summer 1988, p. 72-75. 

The data used in the search for signs of life on Mars are 
discussed. The Viking mission, the Mars Rover and Sample Return 
mission, and possible future missions are included. The use of 
soil samples, the question of which data are evidence for life, 
and the value of generalized observations are examined. The 



possibility that a lack of life on Mars will lead to a rethinking of 
chemical evolutionary theory is considered and the benefits from 
manned and automated missions are compared. R-B. 

A88-53176* Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL. 
ADVANCES IN CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING. VOLUME 33 - 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING 
CONFERENCE, SAINT CHARLES, IL, JUNE 14-18, 1987 

R. W. FAST, ED. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, 
IL) Conference sponsored by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 
NASA, NBS, et al. New York, Plenum Press, 1988, 1199 p. For 
individual items see A88-53177 to A88-53235. 

Papers are presented on superconductivity applications 
including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil 
protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are 
insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and 
mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for 
superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, 
refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and 
refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on 
cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties 
of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data 
acquisition. R.R. 

A88-53301 

ADVANCES IN CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING (MATERIALS). 

VOLUME 34 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH 

INTERNATIONAL CRYOGENIC MATERIALS CONFERENCE, 

SAINT CHARLES. IL, JUNE 14-18, 1987 

A. F. CURK, ED. and R. P. REED, ED. (NBS, Boulder, CO) 

New York, Plenum Press, 1988, 1090 p. For individual items see 

A88-53302 to A88-53323. 

Various papers covering advances in cryogenic engineering 
materials are presented. The general topics addressed are: 
composite insulators, alloy development, mechanical and physical 
properties, mechanical property test variables, A15 conductors, 
high critical temperature superconductors, Chevrel phases, flux 
pinning, superconducting films and junctions, superconducting 
filaments, and superconducting conductors, CD. 

A88-53302 

HOTOL - A CRYOGENIC MATERIALS CHALLENGE 

S. WALMSLEY and J. WILSON (British Aerospace. PLC, Military 
Aircraft Div., Preston, England) IN: Advances in cryogenic 
engineering (Materials). Volume 34 - Proceedings of the Seventh 
International Cryogenic Materials Conference, Saint Charles, IL, 
June 14-18, 1987. New York, Plenum Press, 1988, p. 1-10. 

HOTOL (Horizontal Take-Off and Land) will be a fully reusable 
single-stage-to-orbit unmanned launch vehicle with a service life 
of 120 flights. A fundamental feature of the design is that the 
propeltant tanks constitute an integral part of the airframe. In this 
paper, the HOTOL concept, design features, mission, and selection 
of materials for the cryogenic propellant tanks are discussed. 

CD. 



A88-53517# 

NASA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - A RETURN TO 

LEGITIMACY 

ANGELA L PRAY AIAA Student Journal (ISSN 0001-1460), 
vol. 26, Summer 1988, p. 24-30. refs 

It is suggested that an at once pragmatic and fundamental 
solution to the difficulties in which NASA has found itself in the 
wake of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident is to reassert 
NASA's original orientation toward R and D. In an R and 
D-dominated institutional climate, goals and limits are more easily 
adhered to without the forcing of goal definition or breaking of 
established limits by unexpected operational costs. Such a basis 
for meticulous planning would also ease funding rivalries among 
alternative programs. ESA is held out as a model for such a 
redirection of NASA activities, in view of its clear separation 
between R and D and operational responsibilities. O.C. 



68 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



A88-53695 

MEASUREMENT OF OUTPUT FROM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH: 

A CASE STUDY 

J. T. WALLMARK, D. H. MCQUEEN, and K. G. SEDIG (Chalmers 
Tekniska Hogskola, Goteborg, Sweden) IEEE Transactions on 
Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), vol, 35, Aug. 1988. 
p. 175-180. rets 

A case study to test the feasit>ilrty of measuring output from 
university research has been performed at Chalmers University of 
Technology based on five categories: graduate degrees awarded, 
scientific publications, stations, and spin-off companies. These 
outputs have been subjectively comt)fr)ed into a merit figure and 
compared to inputs in the form of d^>artment budgets and other 
outputs such as the teaching load. Regression aneilyses with the 
budget allocated with a peer review have been made. Cost 
estimates for the measurement method are presented. The method 
has also been compared to a peer review method. I.E. 

A88-53749 

SECOND THOUGHTS ON THE WAY TO THE STATION 

DAVID BAKER New Scientist (ISSN 0028-6664), vol, 119, Aug. 
25, 1988, p. 41-44. 

The development of the Space Station is discussed. The stages 
of constructing the Station are presented, includir>g an outline of 
the flights involved and what they would carry. The Station design 
is described and illustrated, irK^uding the elements of the Space 
Statkjn contritHited by Europe and Japan. Economic conskJerations, 
the problem of debris in space, and problems whk^h might be 
caused by a delay during the stages of constructk>n are 
considered. R.B. 

A88-53766# 

THE APOLtO UGHTCRAFT PROJECT 

M. A. ANTONISON, W. L SMITH, and L N. MYRABO (Rensselaer 
Polytechnrc Institute. Troy, NY) AIAA. AHS. and ASEE. Aircraft 
Design, Systems and Operatk>ns Meetir>g, Atlanta, GA, Sept 7-9, 
1988. 7 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4486) 

The NASA-sponsored 'Apollo Lightcraft Project' systems- 
integration and analysis effort is concerned with a high 
energy beam-powered SSTO vehicle for 21st-century operation 
that will reduce payload transportation costs by a factor of 1000 
t>elow those typical of the cun^ent Space Shuttle. Both laser and 
microwave beams are under consideratbn. as well as innovative 
combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket ermines. The five-crewmemk>er 
vehicle was inspired by the Apollo command nrKXJule; 5CX)-kg of 
the 5550-kg gross liftoff mass of the vehrcle will constitute the 
payload, and 300 kg the LH2 propellant O.C. 

A88-53848 

ADVANCES IN GEOPHYSICS. VOLUME 30 

BARRY SALT2MAN, ED. (Yale University, New Haven, CT) San 
Diego, CA, Academk; Press. Inc. 1988, 252 p. No irxjividual items 
are abstracted in this volume. 

Recent advar^ces in selected areas of geophysics are 
addressed. Selected P wave prok>lems are consktered, including 
multiple P waves, P wave reftectk)ns, arxj travel times of diffracted 
P waves. Topics related to ocean currents over the continental 
slope are examined, including the observatk)nal evkience. the 
fundamental slope effect, vortex tube stretching versus vortidty 
advection. topographs waves, pressure torque versus bottom 
stress curi, and pressure torque and planetary vorticity advection. 
Obtaining attractor dtmen$k>ns from meteorological time series is 
addressed, including the basis of model reconstruction and the 
calcutatk>n of attractor dimensions. CD. 

A88-54790 

MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH - THE CURRENT SITUATION 

VINIT NIJHAWAN (Payload Systems, Inc., MA) and PETER 
PLETSCHACHER Space Markets (ISSN 0258-4212), Autumn 
1988, p. 160-162, 164-167. 

Microgravity research projects being cor>ducted by industries 
and governmental agencies in the U.S., Canada, and West Germany 



are reviewed. NASA and private activities in the U.S. are discussed, 
focusing on protein crystallization ar>d life sciences. Work being 
conducted at NASA microgravity research centers and centers for 
the commercial development of space is presented in tables. 
Activities in West Germany, including ground-based drop towers 
and balloons, parabolic micro-gravity flights, and sounding rockets 
are examined. Cooperative research between industries in West 
Germany and the Soviet Union and China are discussed and the 
development of recoverable capsules is considered. R.B. 

A88-54854*# Natbnal Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 
BEYOND THE STATION 

JOHN C. MANKINS (NASA, Washington, DC) Aerospace America 
(ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 26. Sept 1988. p. 30-32. 

The NASA Pathfinder program for sending humans and robots 
to explore the solar system is discussed. The various technologies 
which are to be developed to support the program are described, 
emphasizing techrK>logy for an in-situ resource-processing plant 
for production of oxygen on the moon and space nuclear power 
for propulsion to the outer planets. The use of Pathfinder to valklate 
advanced propulsion concepts ar\6 the use of aerobraking to land 
on Mars are discussed. Communications t>etween Mars arKJ earth 
are addressed. Mission scenarios currently under consideration 
for Pathfinder are examined. CD. 

A88-54876 

DEVELOPMENTS IN MECHANICS. VOLUMES 14(A), 14<B), A 

14(C) - MIDWESTERN MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 20TH, 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY, WEST LAFAYETTE, IN, AUG. 31-SEPT, 

2, 1987, PROCEEDINGS 

Conference sponsored by Purdue University. West Lafayette. IN. 

Purdue University, 1987, p. Vol. 14(a), 519 p.; vol. 14(b), 507 p.; 

vol. 14(c), 502 p. For individual items see A88-54877 to 

A88-54982. 

Papers are presented on beam vibratkw, turtwient flow, pressure 
vessels, plasticity, fracture mechanics, stochastics, elastic stability, 
and space structures and t>ridges. Also considered are shell 
vibration, design optimlzatk>n, plate vibratk>n, numerical methods 
in fluid mechanics, contact mechanics, constitutive models, 
turiaulent and wake flow, and buckling. Other topics include 
composite shells, nonlinear vibrations, suspended partrcles, 
geomechanics, acoustics, chaotic motion, and dissimilar materials. 
Papers are also presented on fluid-structure interactions, trit)Oiogy, 
thermoelastk:ity. active vibration control, creep, vehk:te and tire 
mechanics, and residual stresses. R.R. 

A88-55022*# European Space Agency. European Space 

Research and Technology Center, ESTEC, Noordwijk 

(Nethertands). 

CLUSTER AND SOHO - A JOINT ENDEAVOR BY ESA AND 

NASA TO ADDRESS PROBLEMS IN SOLAR, HELIOSPHERiC, 

AND SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS 

RUDOLF SCHMIDT, VICENTE DOMINGO (ESA, Space Science 

Dept., Noordwijk, Nethertands), STANLEY D. SHAWHAN. and 

DAVID BOHLIN (NASA, Washington, DC) EOS (ISSN 0096-3941). 

vol. 69. March 29, 1988, p. 177, 179. 180, 189, 190. refs 

The NASA/ ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which 
consists of the four-spacecraft cluster missk>n and the Solar arKl 
Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that 
the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar 
interior structure ar>d the physk:al processes associated vvith the 
solar corona. The SOHO design, operatk>n, data. arKl grour>d 
segment are discussed. The Cluster missk>n is designed to study 
small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The 
Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, 
which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentatwn and design. The 
capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and 
ground segment of Cluster are discussed. R.B, 

A88-55025 

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 

B. G. EVANS, ED. (Sun-ey, University. Guildford. England) London, 



69 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



Peter Peregrinus, Ltd. (lEE Telecommunications Series. Volume 
18), 1987, 475 p. No individual items are abstracted in this 
volume. 

Technological and applications aspects of satellite 
communication (SC) are examined in chapters contributed by 
leading experts. Topics addressed include SC organizations, 
multiple-access techniques, the electromagnetic spectrum and its 
regulation, propagation and interference problems, modulation and 
modems, coding, networking and services, earth-station and 
satellite antennas, repeaters, and spacecraft engineering. 
Consideration is given to military SC, space stations and 
earth-resources platforms, data-relay satellites, direct-broadcasting 
satellites, cost-effective spacecraft engineering for LEO satellites, 
project organization and costing, and future trends. T.K. 

A88-55239 

THE NEXT STEPS - 20 POSSIBILITIES 

A. TOUGH (Toronto, University, Canada) IN: Bioastronomy - 
The next steps; Proceedings of the Ninety-ninth lAU Colloquium, 
Balaton, Hungary, June 22-27, 1987. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic 
Publishers, 1988, p. 397-404. refs 

In the field of bioastronomy, at least 20 search strategies and 
other next steps are possible at present. Twenty possible strategies 
and projects are listed. They are arranged in five clusters: (1) 
develop the field of bioastronomy and its ideas; (2) search beyond 
the solar system; (3) search inside the solar system; (4) search 
the earth; and (5) take action to make the contact beneficial. 
Three assessments are provided for each strategy: (1) the likelihood 
of success if there are adequate effort and funding; (2) the 
magnitude of benefits to humanity if it is successful; and (3) the 
likely payoff from greatly increased effort and resources. It is 
concluded that nine strategies are particularly high-priority but all 
nine are neglected or at least underfunded at present. Author 

A88-55410*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

THE CHALLENGE OF HUMAN EXPLORATION 

JOHN AARON (NASA, Office of Exploration, Washington, DC) lAF, 
International Astronautical Congress, 39th, Bangalore, India, Oct. 
8-15, 1988. 7 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-387) 

The new U.S. space policy has as its goal the expansion of 
human activity and presence beyond low-earth orbit and into the 
solar system. This paper addresses the approach and initial steps 
that have been taken toward this goal. Studies being undertaken 
to identify the requirements to achieve the goal are addressed, 
and the main themes involved in the exploration of space are 
described. Exploration strategies and scenarios involving human 
expeditions, scientific outposts in space, and evolutionary 
expansion into space are examined. A human space exploration 
roadmap is shown. C.D. 

A88-55433*# George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. 
EARTH BENEFITS FROM SPACE LIFE SCIENCES 

V. GARSHNEK (George Washington University, Washington, DC), 
A. E. NICOGOSSIAN, and L GRIFFITHS (NASA, Washington, 
DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 39th, Bangalore, 
India, Oct. 8-15. 1988. 5 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 88-500) 

The applications to medicine of various results from space 
exploration are examined. Improvements have been made in the 
management of cardiovascular disease, in particular the use of 
the ultrasonic scanner to image arteries in three dimensions, the 
use of excimer lasers to disrupt arterial plaques in coronary blood 
vessels, and the use of advanced electrodes for cardiac monitoring. 
A bone stiffness analyzer has helped to diagnose osteoporosis 
and aid in its treatment. An automated light microscope system is 
used for chromosome analysis, and an X-ray image intensifier 
called Lixiscope is used in emergency medical care. An advanced 
portable defibrillator has been developed for the heart, and an 
insulin delivery system has been derived from space 
microminiaturization techniques. q q 



A88-55486 

SPACE STATION - HOME AND WORKPLACE IN ORBIT 

JERRY GOLDMACHER and JOHN MOCKOVCIAK. JR. (Grumman 
Corp., Bethpage, NY) Horizons (ISSN 0095-7615), vol. 24. no. 
1, 1988, p. 10-15, 17. 

The design of the Space Station is examined, focusing on 
plans for the living quarters. The process for building the station 
in space is outlined and the construction of a mockup of the 
habitation module are considered. Problems in designing the living 
quarters include accounting for the size range of astronauts, 
providing privacy, noise reduction, creating an area suitable for 
exercise, and allowing enough storage space. Plans for maintaining 
a sterile laboratory and providing equipment for personal hygiene 
are presented. The ability to repair all of the Space Station 
equipment in place and plans for dealing with emergency situations 
are discussed. R.B. 

N88-10084*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 
SPACECRAFT 2000 

Jul. 1986 236 p Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, 29-31 Jul. 

1986 

(NASA-CP-2473; E-3358; MAS 1.55:2473) Avail: NTIS HC 

A11/MF A01 CSCL22B 

The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key 
technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs 
needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics 
addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; 
structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; 
telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and 
attitude control. 

N88-10819*# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Advanced Space 

Technology. 

SPACE TECHNOLOGY TO MEET FUTURE NEEDS 

1987 183 p Original contains color illustrations 

(Contract NASW-4003) 

(NASA-CR-181473; NAS 1.26:181473) Avail: NTIS HC A09/MF 

A01 CSCL 22 A 

Key technologies were identified where contemporary 
investments might have large payoffs in technological options for 
the future. The future needs were considered for space 
transportation, space science, national security, and manned 
missions. Eight areas were selected as being vital for the national 
future in space. Findings regarding representative mission and the 
recommendations concerning high priority technologies are 
summarized. B.G. 

N88-10870*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton. VA. 
SPACE CONSTRUCTION 

JANE A. HAGAMAN, ed. Oct. 1987 308 p Conference held 
in Hampton. Va., 6-7 Aug. 1986 

(NASA-CP-2490; L-16378; NAS 1.55:2490) Avail: NTIS HC 
A14/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

The purpose was to present to the aerospace community an 
in-depth review of Experimental Assembly of Structures on EVA 
(EASE) /Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space 
Structures (ACCESS) space flight experiments and to present the 
status of activities regarding future space flight experiments and 
accompanying technology developments that will demonstrate the 
capability of on-orbit construction required for the Space Station. 

N88-10875*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER'S ROLE IN 
EASE/ACCESS MISSION MANAGEMENT 

GERALD W. HAWKINS fn NASA. Langley Research Center, 
Hampton, Va. Space Construction p 67-80 Oct. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A14/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload 
Project Office was responsible for the mission management and 



70 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



development of several successful payloads. Two recent space 
construction experiments, the Experimental Asserrtity of Structures 
in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for 
Construction of Erectat>le Space Structures (ACCESS), were 
combined into a payload managed by the center. The 
Ease/ ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61 -B. 
The EASE/ACCESS experiments wwe the first structures 
assembled in space, and the method used to manage this 
successful effort will be useful for future space construction 
missions. The MSEC mtesion management responsibilities for the 
EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons 
learned from the mission can be applied to future space 
construction projects are discussed. Author 

N88-11399*# University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg. 

Coll. of Science and Technology. 

USING BrBUOGRAPHIC DATABASES IN TECHNOLOGY 

TRANSFER 

G. DAVID HUFFMAN Oct 1987 235 p Sponsored by NASA 
(NASA-CR-181403; NAS 1.26:181403) Avail: NTIS HC A11/MF 
A01 CSCL 09B 

When technology developed for a specific purpose is used in 
another application, the process is called technology transfer-the 
application of an existing technology to a new use or user for 
purposes other than those for which the technology was ori^nally 
intended. Using Biblioyaphical Databases in Technology Transfer 
deals with demand-pull transfer, technology transfer that arises 
from need recognition, and is a guide for conducting demand-pull 
technology transfer studies. It can be used by a researcher as a 
self-teaching manual or by an instmctor as a classroom text. A 
major problem of technology transfer is finding applicable 
technology to transfer. Described in detail is the solution to this 
problem, the use of computerized, bibliographic databases, which 
currently contain vfftuaHy all documented technology of the past 
15 years. A general framework for locating technology is described. 
NASA technology organizations and private technology transfer 
firms are listed for consultation. Author 

N88-11577*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Washington. DC. 
SPINOFF, 1987 

Aug. 1987 134 p 

(NASA-TM-89652; NAS 1.15:89652) Avail: SOD HC $7.00 as 

033-000-01008-7; NTIS MF A01 CSCL 05B 

Various current or forthcoming NASA projects and experiments 
with potential fw technology spinoff are described. NASA 
technological advances with existing commercial applications are 
outlined in the following areas: transportation; consumer; home; 
and recreation; n>edicine; resources management; energy; public 
safety; and manufacturing technology and industrial productivity. 
Specific systems, devices, and equipment are described. A 
concluding essay describes the NASA technology utilization/ 
transfer effort. J-P-B- 

N68-12062# Joint Publications Research Sennce. Artington, VA. 
JFRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. CHINA 

7 Aug. 1987 128 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Chinese 

(JPRS-CST-87-033) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

Various translated articles from Chinese books and foumals 
are presented. All articles are generally covered under the topic 
of science and technology but more specifically under the topics 
of Aerospace. Applied Sciences, Environmental Quality. Life 
Sciences and Chinese National Developments. 

N88-12410# National Science Foundation. Washington. DC. 
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Annual Report, 1986 

Jul. 1987 107 p 

(PB87-228375; NSF-87.1) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01; also 

available SOD HC $4.75 as 038-000-00576-6 CSCL 05A 

The National Science Foundation (NSF) programs and activities 
for Fy 1986 are described. GRA 



N88-12426*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington. DC. 

SPINOFF 

JAMES J. HAGGERTY Aug. 1986 131 p Original contains 

color illustrations 

(NASA.TM-89651; NAS 1.15:89651) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF 

A01; also available SOD HC $6.50 as 033-000-00989-5 CSCL 

05B 

The major programs that generate new technology and therefore 
expand the bank of knowledge available for future transfer are 
outlined. The focal point of this volume contains a representative 
sampling of spinoff products and processes that resulted from 
technokjgy utilization, or secondary application. The various 
mechanisms NASA empk>ys to stimulate technology utilization are 
described and in an appendix, are listed contact sources for further 
information. B.G. 

N88-12866# Commission of the European Communities 

(Luxembourg). 

SOLAR ENERGY: EUROPEAN RESEARCH AND 

DEVELOPMENT 

W. PALZ 1985 341 p 

(PB87-1 07645; EUR-9374-EN; ISBN-92-825-5307-8) Avail: NTIS 
HC E12/MF E12; customers in the European Community 
Countries should apply to the Office for Official Publications of 
the European Communities, B.P. 2985, Luxembourg CSCL 10A 

The catalog contains two-page summaries of the results 
obtained in the contracts on solar energy R and D, i.e.. solar 
radiation data, solar heating, the Eurelios solar tower power plant, 
photovoltaic power generatton, which were concluded t)etween 
the Commissk>n of the European Communities. Directorate General 
for Science, Research and Development. Brussels, and a number 
of publk; and private research institutions of the European 
Community. GRA 

N88-12915# Joint Publications Research Service. Ariington, VA. 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. USSR: UFE 
SCIENCES 

5 Aug. 1987 103 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Russian 

articles 

(JPRS-ULS-87-009) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

Articles from the open literature are presented or summarized 
on the following topics: aerospace medicine, agricultural science, 
biochemistry, biotechnology, epWemiology, genetics, immunology, 
industrial medicine, laser bioeffects, medicine. nfWcrobiok)gy. military 
medicine, nonionizing radiation effects, pharmacology and 
toxicology, physiology, public health, radiation k)tology, and virology. 
Recent research in the U.S.S.R. is the focus. 

N88-13083*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center. Huntsville, AL 
FY 1985 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REPORTS, ARTICLES, 
PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS 

JOYCE E. TURNER, comp. Nov. 1985 82 p 
(NASA-TM-86521; NAS 1.15:86521) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 
A01 CSCL 058 

This document presents fomial NASA technical reports, papers 
published in technical journals, and presentations by Marshal Space 
Flight Center (MSFC) personnel in FY 85. It also includes papers 
of MSFC contractors. After t)eing announced in STAR, all of the 
NASA series reports may be obtained from the National Technical 
Infonnation Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield. 
Va. 22161. Author 

N88-14063# Office of Naval Research, London (England). 
AGARD: THE NATO ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE 
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

DENNIS R. SADOWSKI 18 Aug. 1987 4 p 

(AD-A1 85062; ONRL-7-025-C) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 

CSCL05A 

The AGARD origin, mission, organization, and list of AGARD 
Panels are presented in this brief summary of an important 
aerospace advisory body. GRA 



71 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



N88-14608# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington VA. 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. USSR: LIFE 
SCIENCES 

5 Nov. 1987 74 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Russian 

articles 

(JPRS-ULS-87-013) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

Topics in life sciences addressed include: agricultural science; 
biophysics; biotechnology; epidemiology; genetics; immunology; 
medicine; laser bioeffects; pharmacology; toxicology; radiation 
effects; physiology: public health; and psychiatry. 

N88-14626*# Boeing Aerospace Co.. Seattle, WA. 
CONTROLLED ECOLOGICAL LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS 
(CELSS) PHYSIOCHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 
EVALUATION 

M. OLESON, T. SLAVIN, F. LIENING, and R. L OLSON Jun 

1986 146 p 

(Contract NAS2-11806) 

(NASA-CR-1 77422; NAS 1.26:177422; BAC-37) Avail: NTIS HC 

A07/MF A01 CSCL 06K 

Parametric data for six waste management subsystems 
considered for use on the Space Station are compared, i.e.: (1) 
dry incineration; (2) wet oxidation; (3) supercritical water oxidation; 
(4) vapor compression distillation; (5) thermoelectric integrated 
membrane evaporation system; and (6) vapor phase catalytic 
ammonia removal. The parameters selected for comparison are 
on-orbit weight and volume, resupply and return to Earth logistics, 
power consumption, and heat rejection. Trades studies are 
performed on subsystem parameters derived from the most recent 
literature. The Boeing Engineering Trade Study (BETS), an 
environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) trade study 
computer program developed by Boeing Aerospace Company, is 
used to properly size the subsystems under study. The six waste 
treatment subsystems modeled in this program are sized to process 
the wastes for a 90-day Space Station mission with an 8-person 
crew, and an emergency supply period of 28 days. The resulting 
subsystem parameters are compared not only on an individual 
subsystem level but also as part of an integrated ECLSS. 

Author 

N88-14671# University Coll., London (England). Dept. of 

Computer Science. 

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURES FOR ARTIFICIAL 

INTELLIGENCE 

P. C. TRELEAVEN, A. N. REFENES, K. J. LEES, and S C 
MCCABE Mar. 1986 122 p 

(PB87-1 23824; UCL-CS-TR-119) Avail: NTIS HC E07/MF E07 
CSCL 09B 

Novel computer architectures to support Artificial Intelligence 
(Al) applications and Al programming languages are under 
development in the United States, Japan, and Europe. The Al 
application area having greatest influence on computer architecture 
is knowledge-based expert systems. Knowledge-based systems 
are programs that embody the specialized knowledge of human 
experts sufficient to perform as consultants. For programming these 
systems, the most suitable languages support symbolic 
computation. Symbolic programming languages divide into three 
broad classes: functional (e.g., LISP); logical (e.g., PROLOG); and 
what the authors refer to as Knowledge-Based languages (e.g., 
OPS5). GRA 

N88-14846* National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Washington. DC. 

UNIVERSITY PROGRAM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 
SYSTEM, FISCAL YEAR 1985 

1985 383 p 

(NASA-TM-88381; NAS 1.15:88381) Avail: NTIS HC $32.00 

CSCL 05A 

The University Program Report provides current informa- 
tion and related statistics for approximately 4200 grants/ 
contracts/cooperative agreements active during the 
reporting period. NASA Field Centers and certain Headquarters 
Program Offices provide funds for those research and development 



activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of 
that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of 
documenting the NASA-University relationship, frequently denoted, 
collectively, as NASA's University Program. Author 

N88-14847*# Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND 

DEVELOPMENT: A LITERATURE SEARCH 

CAROL K. STERKIN, comp. 15 Jan, 1988 67 p 
(NASA-CR-1 82337; JPL-D-5099; NAS 1.26:182337) Avail: NTIS 
HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

Each abstract was reviewed as to its described contents and 
potential applicability to the topics expected to be addressed at 
the 1988 National Conference on strategic management of 
research and development. In each section the citations are listed 
alphabetically by senior or corporate author. The names, addresses, 
and telephone numbers of organizations from which the listed 
material may be requested, are provided. B.G. 

N88-14893# Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of General Systems 

Studies. 

IMPRESSIONS, OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS ON 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN 

R. S. CUTLER (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.) 
May 1987 14 p Sponsored by NSF, Washington, D.C. 
(PB87-235743) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The observations of a research scholar in Japan on how 
Japanese transfer scientific and technical know-how within their 
country are presented. Science and technology in Japan, the 
author's research activities in Japan, Japan's physical and 
economic environment, areas of excellence, research and 
development planning and funding, the education system, 
management, manners, and cooperative research are discussed. 

Author 

N88-14894*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVES AND PLANS. 
SUMMARY, FISCAL YEAR 1986 

Jan. 1986 124 p 

(NASA-TM-87504; NAS 1.15:87504) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

This publication represents the NASA research and technology 
program for FY86. It is a compilation of the Summary portions of 
each of the RTOPs (Research and Technology Objectives and 
Plans) used for management review and control of research 
currently in progress throughout NASA. The RTOP summary is 
designed to facilitate communication and coordination among 
concerned technical personnel in government, industry, and 
universities. The first section containing citations and abstracts of 
the RTOPs is followed by four indexes: Subject, Technical Monitor, 
Responsible NASA Organization, and RTOP number. Author 

N88-15354*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. 
MICROGRAVITY PARTICLE RESEARCH ON THE SPACE 
STATION 

STEVEN W. SQUYRES, ed., CHRISTOPHER P. MCKAY, ed.. and 
DEBORAH E. SCHWARTZ, ed. Dec. 1987 48 p Workshop 
held in Moffett Field, Calif., 22-24 Aug. 1985 
(NASA-CP-2496; A-87361; NAS 1.55:2496) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 CSCL 06B 

Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station 
Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended 
particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were 
determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar 
nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and 
life science, and physics and chemistry. 

N88-15721# Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. 

Environmental Research Lab. 

DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH PROJECTS 



72 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



T. A. MURPHY Sep. 1987 16 p 

(PB88-1 06380; EPA/600/D-87/263) Avail: rmS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

[Resign and nnanagemont of research prefects is a complex 
task which varies vvidely with the people and circumstances 
involved. An attempt is made to distill the literature and the author's 
personal experience into the bamc elements of project 
management Thus it is siAjjective and selective. It also is t>ased 
largely on experierx^e withffi the U.S. Since management is the 
art of influencing human t)ehavior, it has a significant cultwal 
cornponent Sorne of the principles described may differ significantly 
under other cultural or social concfitions. Finally, the cAscusston 
deals primarily with applied reseitfch in a governmental or industrial 
research (Kgar^zation rather than the more t>asic research typicaNy 
found in academia. Author 

N8a-15924*# National Aeronautics and Space Admirustration. 
Lewis Research Center. Clevelar)d, OH. 
CRYOQENiC FLUID MANAOEMENT TECHIIOU)GY 
WORKSHOP. VOLUME 1: PREKNTATION MATERIAL AND 
DISCUSSION 

JOHN C. AYDELOTT. ed. and WILLIAM DEVOU ed. (Sver*up 
Technology. Inc.. Middleburg Hei^Tts. Ohio.) Sep. 1M7 386 p 
Woricshop held in CtevelarKl. Ohio. 28-30 Apr. 1967 
(NASA-CP-10001; E-3732; NAS 1.55:10001) Avail: NTIS HC 
A17/MFA01 CSCL20D 

The major objective of the wortcshop was to identify future 
NASA needs for technology that will allow the management of 
subcritical cryogenic fluids in the low gravity space environment 
Wori(shop participants were asked to identify those technologies 
which will require in*spaoe experimentation and are thus candidates 
for inclusion in the flight expernnent l)eing defined at the Lewis 
Research Center. 

N88-16281''# r^4ational Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council. Washington. DC. 

INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF US GEOSCIENCE Final Report 

Jun. 1987 104 p Sponsored In part by NASA; National Geodetic 

Survey. Rockville, Md. 

(Contract NA84-AA-D-00009) 

(NASA-CR-182407; NAS 1.26:182407; PB88-113683) Avail: 

NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 08G 

Geologic processes are ^obal in scope and no country or 
continent has areas that encompass all the phenomena Joint 
participation between U.S. and foreign scientists is indispensable 
for advancing basic sdentiflc coricepts arxj their application to 
economic and policy issues in the U.S. Up-to-date krKywIedge is 
critical to assure an adequate flow of industrial minerals and to 
assure an adequate supply of stratepc minerals. GRA 

N8a-16317*# Lockheed Engineering and Management Servkses 

Co.. Inc.. Washington. DC. 

USSR SPACE UFE SCIENCES DIGEST, ISSUE 14 

LYDIA RA2RAN HOOKE. RONALD TEETER. MIKE RADTKE, and 

JOSEPH ROWE (Ubrary of Congress. Washington. D. C.) 

Washington. D.C. NASA Feb. 1988 110 p 

(Contract NASW-4292) 

(NASA-CR-3922(16); NAS 1.26:3922(16)) AvaH: NTIS HC 

A06/MF A01 CSCL 06B 

This is the fourteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life 
Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 32 papers recently 
published in Russian language perkxicals ar>d t>ound coHectkxis 
and of three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are 
illustrated with flgires and tat>les from the original. Also included 
is a review of a recent Soviet conference on Space Bk)k)gy and 
Aerospace Medk:ine. Current Soviet life sciences titles availat>ie 
in English are cited. The n^terials included in this issue have 
been klentified as relevant to the folk>wing areas of aerospace 
medk^ne and space bk>k>gy: adaptatk)n. t)k)k>gk:al rtiythms. body 
flukls. botany, can^ovascular and respiratory systems, 
devek)pmentai l)k)k>gy. endocrinotogy. enzymotogy. eqiapment and 
instrun>entatk>n. gastrointestinal systems. habitebHity and 
environment effects, human performance. imrmtfK)k)gy. IHe 8i^)port 



systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal 
system, neurophysiotogy. nutritkKi, operatwnal medk^tne, 
peroeptk>n. personr^et selectbn. psychology, radiobiology. and 
space bk>logy and medfcine. Author 

N88-16318# Joint Publk:atk>ns Research Sendee. Ariington, VA. 
imSR REPORT: UFE SCIENCES. BIOMEDICAL AND 
BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 

5 Dec. 1986 121 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Russian 

articles 

(JPRS-UBB-86-022) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

Artk^les from the open literature are summarized in the areas 
of aerospace medk^ine, agrotechnology. bkx:hemistry. bk>physk:s. 
bk>technok>gy. environment, epklerruology. gervetics. immunok>gy. 
laser bk)effects. marine mammals, medk^ine. mk;rot>k>k)gy. military 
n)e<ficine. molecular bk)logy. pharmacology and toxicotogy. 
physk>k)gy. pi^k: health, radiatk>n t»ology. veterinary medk»ne. 
and psychiatric conferences. 

N88-16417*# Auburn Univ.. AL. Dept. of Computer Science 

arxJ Er)gineerir)g. 

PLANNING ACTIVITIES IN SPACE 

KAl-HSIUNG CHANG fn NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center. 
Third Conference on Artiflcial Intelligence for Space Applteations. 
Parti p 315-319 Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

Three aspects of planning activities in space are presented. 
These include generating plans effteientiy. coordinating actions 
among mutt^ agents, and recovering from plan execution errors. 
Each aspect is discussed separately. Author 

N8B-16720# European Space Agency. Paris (France). DepL of 

Future Scientific Programs, 

STUDIES FOR FUTURE SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS 

E. PEYTREMANN In As ESA Bulletin No. 8 p 8-12 Feb. 1977 
Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

A Sun-Eartii Observatory and aimatoU^gy Satellite. (SEOCS) a 
Grazing-lnckJence Solar Telescope (GRIST) for Spacelab. an 
Extreme Ultravk>let and X-Ray Sun/ey Satellite (EXUV). and a Space 
Astronometry missk>n are discussed. The projects are alternatives 
to the Space Telescope and Out-of-Ecliptic missk>ns. joint 
NASA-ESA projects whk:h await approval by U.S. auttK)rities. 
Smaller projects (solar probe, dumb bell configuration, transient 
X-ray sources. IR satellite. Spacelab superconducting magnetic 
facility, and Tife sciences) are mentioned. Author (ESA) 

N88-17205*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington. DC. 

PUBUCATIONS OF THE EXOBIOLOGY PROGRAM FOR 1986: 
A SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mar. 1 988 57 p Prepared in cooperation with George Washington 

Univ.. Washington. D.C. 

(Contract NASW-3165) 

(NASA-TM-4029; NAS 1.15:4029) Avaii: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

CSCL06B 

A list of 1986 publk^tions resulting from resean:h pursued 
under the auspk^es of NASA's ExotMOlogy Program is contained. 
Research supported by the program is explored in the areas of 
cosmk; evolution of bk)genk; compounds. pretMOtic evolution, eariy 
evolution of life, and evolution of advartced life. Premissk)n and 
preproject activities supporting these areas are supported in the 
areas of solar system exploration and search for extrateaestria) 
intelligence. Author 

N88-17577*# National Aeronautics and Space Administi-ation. 

Langley Research Center. Hampton. VA. 

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 1987 Annual Report 

Dec 1967 154 P 

(NASA-TM-4021; L-16381; NAS 1.15:4021) Avail: NTIS HC 

A08/MF A01 CSCL 05D 

The misston of the NASA Langley Research Center is to 
increase the knowledge and capability of tt\e United States in a 
full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space 



73 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



disciplines. This mission will be accomplished by: performing 
innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals; 
transferring technology to users in a timely manner; and providing 
development support to other United States Government agencies, 
industry, and other NASA centers. Contained are highlights of the 
major accomplishments and applications that were made during 
the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of 
the research and technology activities at the NASA Langley 
Research Center and the contributions of this work toward 
maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space 
research. Author 

N88-17691*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt. MD. 

THE 1987 GET AWAY SPECIAL EXPERIMENTER'S 

SYMPOSIUM 

NEAL BARTHELME, ed. and FRANCES L MOSIER, ed. (RMS 
Technologies, Inc., Landover, Md.) Feb. 1988 169 p Symposium 
held in Greenbelt, Md., 27-28 Oct. 1987 

(NASA-CP-2500; REPT-88B0049; NAS 1.55:2500) Avail: NTIS 
HC A08/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

The 1 987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium 
provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share 
the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on 
payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads 
that will be flown in the future. 

N88-17711*# Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. 
LIGHTSATS AND THEIR ATTRACTION TO BUDGET 
ORIENTED FEDERAL AGENCIES 

CHARLES A. BONSALL In NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, 
The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium p 141-146 
Feb. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

The term Lightsats refers to low volume, low mass, low Earth 
orbit, satellites suitable for launch from Get Away Special canisters, 
or as secondary payloads on expendable launch vehicles. New or 
existing technology that offers potential to improve the safety, 
capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System is 
discussed. The discussion is presented from the point of view of 
an individual within a government agency who wants to see a 
new technology to enhance the mission of that agency. Author 

N88-17725*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

AXAF: THE ADVANCED X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY 

1988 40 p Original contains color illustrations 
(NASA-EP-251(M); NAS 1.1 9:251 (M)) Avail: SOD HC $2.50 as 
033-000-00904-6; NTIS MF A01 CSCL 22B 

The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will be the 
X-ray astronomy component of U.S. space exploration via Great 
Observatories (mostly orbital) for the remainder of the century. 
AXAF and the research planned for it are discussed for a lay 
audience. J.P.B. 

N88-17761*# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 
Council, Washington, DC. 

EARTH MATERIALS RESEARCH: REPORT OF A WORKSHOP 
ON PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF EARTH MATERIALS 

1987 134 p Sponsored In part by DOE, Washington, D.C. and 

by Geological Survey, Reston, Va. 

(Contract DE-FG01-82ER-12018; DI-1 4-08-0001 -G-1 124; NSF 

EAR-85-18789) 

(NASA-CR-182519; NAS 1.26:182519; PB88-131594) Avail: 

NTIS HC A07/MF A01 CSCL 07D 

The report concludes that an enhanced effort of earth materials 
research is necessary to advance the understanding of the 
processes that shape the planet. In support of such an effort, 
there are new classes of experiments, new levels of analytical 
sensitivity and precision, and new levels of theory that are now 
applicable in understanding the physical and chemical properties 
of geological materials. The application of these capabilities 
involves the need to upgrade and make greater use of existing 



facilities as well as the development of new techniques. A 
concomitant need is for a sample program involving their collection, 
synthesis, distribution, and analysis. GRA 



N88-18150# Joint Publications Research Service, Arilngton. VA. 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. USSR: SPACE 
BIOLOGY AND AEROSPACE MEDICINE, VOLUME 21, NO. 6, 
NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 1987 

O. G. GAZENKO, ed. 11 Mar. 1988 149 p Transl. into 
ENGLISH of Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya 
Meditsina (Moscow, USSR), v. 21. no. 6, Nov. - Dec. 1987 95 p 
(JPRS-USB.88-004) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

Topics addressed include: aerospace medicine; electrocar- 
diography; human tolerance to acceleration; effects of 
weightlessness on rats; effect of oxygen inhalation on respiratory 
function; cardiorespiratory parameters; hemodynamics; and space 
flight stress. 



N88-18174*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. 

NASA WORKSHOP ON BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION 

EMILY MOREY-HOLTON. ed. and MARC TISCHLER, ed. (Arizona 

Univ., Tucson.) Feb. 1988 105 p Workshop held 28-30 Apr. 

1986 

(NASA-TM-89468; A-87248; NAS 1.15:89468) Avail: NTIS HC 

A06/MF A01 CSCL 06B 

A workshop was convened to review the cun-ent program in 
Space Biology Biological Adaptation Research and its objectives 
and to identify future research directions. Two research areas 
emerged from these deliberations: gravitational effects on 
structures and biomineralization and gravity affected regulatory 
nnechanisms. The participants also recommended that research 
concentrate on rapidly growing animals, since gravity effects may 
be more pronounced during growth and development. Both 
research areas were defined and future research directions were 
identified. The recommendations of the workshop will assist the 
Life Sciences Division of NASA in it assessment and long-range 
planning of these areas of space biology. Equally important, the 
workshop was intended to stimulate thought and research among 
those attending so that they would. In turn. Interest, excite, and 
involve other members of the academic community in research 
efforts relevant to these programs. Author 



N88-18175*# Lockheed Engineering and Management Services 

Co., Inc., Washington, DC. 

USSR SPACE LIFE SCIENCES DIGEST, ISSUE 15 

LYDIA RAZRAN HOOKE, ed., RONALD TEETER, ed., VICTORIA 

GARSHNEK. ed., and JOSEPH ROWE, ed. (Library of Congress. 

Washington, D. C.) Mar, 1988 120 p 

(Contract NASW-4292) 

(NASA-CR-3922(18); NAS 1.26:3922(18)) Avail: NTIS HC 

A06/MF A01 CSCL 06B 

This is the 15th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences 
Digest. It contains abstracts of 59 papers published in Russian 
language periodicals or presented at conferences and of two new 
Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures 
and tables from the original. An additional feature Is a review of a 
conference devoted to the physiology of extreme states. The 
abstracts Included in this issue have been identified as relevant 
to 29 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are 
adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, 
cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, 
enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, 
genetics, habitabtlity and environment effects, human perfor- 
mance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical 
modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, 
neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, 
personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, 
and space biology and medicine. Author 



74 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



N88-18333# National Academy of Sciences - Nationat Research 
Council, Washington, DC. 

INTERDtSCIPUNARY RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS, 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION 

1 987 96 D 

(Contract NSF SPE-84-70489) 

(PB88-131446) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 12A 

The role of interdisciplinary research is discussed, as well as 
research needs in science and mathematics education, experience 
with interdisciplinary research, and research program alternatives. 

GRA 

N88-18504# Massachusetts Inst of Tech.. Camt>ndge. Energy 

Lab. 

A COLLABORATIVE PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN 

ENGINEERING SCIENCES 

Mar. 1987 458 p Prepared in cooperation with Idaho National 
Engineeririg tab., Idaho Falls 

(Contract DE-FG02-85ER- 13331; DE-AC06-87Rt-10930) 
(DE88-003383; DOE/ER-13331/1) Avail: NTIS HC A20/MF A01 
This proposal descrit>es a collaborative program of 
energy-related engineering research. The proposal t)uilds upon, 
and extends, research begun in 1985. Research areas in the initial 
program were: thermal plasmas; automated welding; engineering 
analyses and design; and solid mechanics. Work in these areas 
will continue. New projects are proposed in the area of sensors 
and diagnostics. Each organization, MIT and Idaho National 
Engineering tabratory (INEt), will conduct research in each of 
the areas. The research projects are coordinated between 
institutions and are designed to enhance the productivity of the 
program by exploiting the separate strengths of each organization. 
The MIT segment of the program involves 18 faculty members, 8 
professional staff members, and 31 graduate research assistants. 
The program is planned for a 5-year duration. DOE 

Na8-18548*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
John F. Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL 
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 1987 ANNUAL REPORT OF 
THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER 

Dec 1987 72 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00303; NAS 1.15:100303) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 

A01 CSCt 05D 

As the NASA Center responsible for assembly, checkout 
servicing, launch, recovery, and operational support of Space 
Transportation System elements and payloads, Kennedy Space 
Center is placing increasing emphasis on the Center's research 
arKl technology program. In addition to strengthenir)g those areas 
of engineering and operations techrK>logy that contribute to safer, 
more efficient and more economical execution of our cwrent 
mission, we are developir>g the technological toots needed to 
execute the Center's mission relative to future programs. The 
Engineering Development Directorate erKX)mpasses most of the 
laboratories and other Center resources that are key elements of 
research and technology program implementation, and is 
responsible for implementation of the majority of the projects of 
this Kennedy Space Center 1987 Annual Report. Author 

N88-19066*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

GENETIC RESEARCH IN SPACE 

N. t- DELONE. V. V. ANTIPOV. and YE. A. ILYIN Mar. 1988 
10 p Transl. into ENGLISH of Geneticheskiye Issledovaniya v 
Kosmose (Moscow, USSR), Inst, for Medk:al-Biok)gk:al Problems, 
Ministry of Health USSR, Scientific Council. 1987 p Ml Transl 
by Scientific Translation Servkie, Santa Bart)ara. Calif. 
(Contract NASW-4307) 

(NASA-TT-20216; NAS 1.77:20216) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF 
A01 CSCt 06B 

The role of the genetic apparatus in the adaptation of the 
organism to conditions of weightiessness is studied. The 
investigation includes studies at the gene, chromosome, cell, tissue, 
and organism levels, as well as studies at the population level. 

Author 



N88-19079# Joint Publications Research Servtee, Ariington. VA. 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. USSR: UFE 
SCIENCES 

12 Feb. 1988 65 p Transl. into ENGLISH fi^om various Russian 

flrtids^ 

(JPRS-UtS-88-001) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

Articles and summaries of articles from the open literature are 
presented in the areas of aerospace medteine. agricultural science, 
bkx:hemistry. bwtechnology, epidemiology, genetics, laser 
fcMoeffects, microbioU)gy, molecular btoiogy, pharmacology and 
toxicology, physiology, public health, radiation biology, and 
virotogy. 

N88-19283# Office of Technok)gy Assessment Washington. 

DC 

STARPOWER: THE US AND THE INTERNATIONAL QUEST 

FOR FUSION ENERGY 

Oct 1987 247 p 

{PB88-128731; OTA-E-338; tC-87-619854) Avail: NTIS HC 
A11/MF A01; also available SOD HC $10.00 as 
052-003-01 0-79-8 CSCt 201 

The status of magnetic confinement fusion research is reviewed 
and compared with the requirements for devetopment of a useful 
energy technok>gy. Inertial confinement fusion research is not 
arwiyzed. Some topk:s covered are: history of fusk>n research; 
fusk>n science and technology; fusion as an energy program; fuskxi 
as a research program; fusion as an international fvogram; and 
futijre patiis for the magnetic fusion program. AppencBxes include: 
nonelectric applfcations for fusk>n; other appri»ches to fusion; 
data for figures; etc. Author 

N88-19375*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington, DC. 

SPACELAB: AN INTERNATIONAL SUCCESS STORY 

DOUGLAS R. LOTJD (Science Applications International Corp., 

Washington, D.C.) 1987 565 p Original contains color 

illustrations 

(Contract NASW-4092) 

(NASA-SP-487; NAS 1.21:487; tC-86-17979) Avail: NTIS HC 

A24/MF A01 CSCt 05D 

Spacelab is a European-developed and U.S.-operated space 
laboratory carried in the cargo bay of Vhe Space Shuttte Ort)iter. 
This story of the Spacelab Development Program traces the 
program from the origin of the Spacelab concept, describing 
negotiations and agreements for European participation and the 
role of Eim>pe and the United States in system development 
operational capability development and utilization planning. It also 
considers the joint management structure, coordir^tion. and 
experience in solving management and technical interface 
problems. The t>ook is not an exhaustive historical treatise. t>ut 
an informative and readable story of the evolution and technical 
accomplishments of this unique program in manned space flight 
and of some of the unusual political and human interest aspects 
of the program from the viewpoint of one of the key participants. 

Auttior 



N88-19382# Lawrence Uvermore National tab., CA. 

A STUDY OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ARRANGEMENTS 

FOR NATIONAL LABORATORIES 

R. C. DORF and K. K. F. WORTHINGTON 25 Aug. 1987 103 p 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-48) 

(DE88-005423; UCRL-15967) Avail: NTIS HC A06 

The transfer of technology to industiial partners and users is 
a complex task. The interactions between federal laboratories and 
industry and the market knowledge and at>ility to assess the needs 
of business users are beyond the charter of a federal laboratory. 
Therefore, new organizational mechanisms are required in order 
to obtain full commercial value from the laboratories' efforts. This 
paper will analyze cases of new ventures emerging from technology 
developed within federal laboratories. Seven models will be 
identified for technology transfer. These are tt>e Information 
Dissemination Model, the Ucensing Model, ttie Venture Capital 



75 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



Model, the Large Company-Joint Venture Model, the 
Incubator-Science Park Model, the Ferret Model, and the 
Agriculture Extension Model. Out of 13 laboratories, a Lawrence 
Livermore National Laboratory Partnership wilt be identified as 
having the greatest potential for successful implementation. The 
arrangement is a proposed consortium of the Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory, the University of California, venture capitalists, 
industrial firms, and federal and state agencies. DOE 

N88-20225*# LFW Management Associates. Inc., Alexandria, 

VA. 

DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONWIDE NETWORK FOR 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Annual Report 

LOUIS B. C. FONG and PAUL R. BROCKMAN 30 Jun. 1987 

27 p 

(Contract NASW-4128) 

(NASA-CR-181058; MAS 1.26:181058) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

The winter and spring of 1 987 saw the cooperative nationwide 
network for technology transfer translated from concept to reality. 
The most obvious of the network relationships which were 
developed or which are anticipated are summarized. The objective 
was to help assure that every U.S. business which has the capacity 
to exploit, or the need to obtain new technology in any form, has 
access to the technology it needs or can use. B.G. 

N88-20228# National Academy of Sciences - National Research 

Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Engineering and 

Technical Systems. 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM US FEDERAL 

LABORATORIES: REPORT OF A ROUNDTABLE Final Report 

J. W. LYONS Oct. 1987 9 p Meeting held in Washington, 

D.C., 10 Jun. 1987 

(PB88-1 44803) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

In response to a request from the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy of the Executive Office of the President, the 
National Council invited a group of industrial research managers 
and Federal laboratory representatives to an all-day discussion of 
problems with, and opportunities for, cooperation between industrial 
firms, and Federal laboratories, with the aim of benefitting American 
industry and, ultimately, the U.S. economy as a whole. The meeting 
was held on June 10. 1987, at the National Academy of Sciences 
in Washington, D.C. Points made: transferring technology from 
the Federal laboratories is easier now than it was 20 years ago; 
Federal laboratories are more willing to facilitate such transfers- 
Federal laboratory and industry cultures do not match perfectly! 
but there is a high level of goodwill between them; and obstacles 
remain, especially in obtaining approvals for the formal transfer of 
technology elements, such as patent rights. GRA 

N88-20253*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 1987 Annual Report 

Dec. 1987 143 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00323; NAS 1.15:100323) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

Three broad goals were presented by NASA as a guide to 
meet the challenges of the future: to advance scientific knowledge 
of the planet Earth, the solar system, and the universe; to expand 
human presence beyond the Earth into the solar system; and to 
strengthen aeronautics research and technology. Near-term and 
new-generation space transportation and propulsion systems are 
being analyzed that will assure the nation access to and presence 
in space. Other key advanced studies include large astronomical 
observatories, space platforms, scientific and commercial payloads, 
and systems to enhance operations in Earth orbit. Longer-range 
studies include systems that would allow humans to explore the 
Moon and Mars during the next century. Research programs, both 
to support the many space missions studied or managed by the 
Center and to advance scientific knowledge in selected areas, 
involve work in the areas of atmospheric science, earth science, 
space science (including astrophysics and solar, magnetospheric, 
and atomic physics), and low-gravity science. Programs and 



experiment design for flights on the Space Station, free-flying 
satellites, and the Space Shuttle are being planned. To maintain 
a leadership position in technology, continued advances in liquid 
and solid propellant engines, materials and processes; electronic, 
structural, and thermal investigations; and environmental control 
are required. Progress during the fiscal year 1987 is discussed, 

B.G. 

N88-20524*# Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena. 

THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK 

Jan. 1988 25 p 

(NASA-CR-1 82700; JPL-400-333; NAS 1.26:182700) Avail: NTIS 

HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 17B 

The Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most 
sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation 
network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to support 
unmanned interplanetary spacecraft missions and to support radio 
and radar astronomy observations in the exploration of the solar 
system and the universe. The DSN facilities and capabilities as of 
January 1988 are described. B.G. 

N88-20599*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY 

WORKSHOP. VOLUME 2: ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION OF 

TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS 

Mar. 1988 84 p Workshop held in Cleveland. Ohio. 28-30 Apr. 

1987 

(NASA-CP- 10009; E-3987; NAS 1.55:10009) Avail: NTIS HC 

A05/MF A01 CSCL 20D 

The Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop was 
held April 28 to 30, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center in 
Cleveland, Ohio. The major objective of the workshop was to 
identify future NASA needs for technology concerning the 
management of subcritical cryogenic fluids in the low-gravity space 
environment. In addition, workshop participants were asked to 
identify those technologies which will require in-space 
experimentation and thus are candidates for inclusion in the flight 
experiment being defined at Lewis. The principal application for 
advanced fluid management technology is the Space-Based Orbit 
Transfer Vehicle (SBOTV) and its servicing facility, the On-Orbit 
Cryogenic Fuel Depot (OOCFD). Other potential applications 
include the replenishment of cryogenic coolants (with the exception 
of superfluid helium), reactants, and propellants on board a variety 
of spacecraft including the space station and space-based weapon 
systems. The last day was devoted to a roundtable discussion of 
cryogenic fluid management technology requirements by 30 
representatives from NASA, industry, and academia. This volume 
contains a transcript of the discussion of the eight major technology 
categories. Author 

N88-21076*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER'S STRATEGIC GAME PLAN: 
CHARTING A COURSE TO THE YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND 

Oct. 1987 45 p 

(NASA-TM-89733; NAS 1.15:89733) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

The Johnson Space Center has established five major goals 
to meet the Nation's expectation of maintaining U.S. preeminence 
in space. The first three are technical in nature. They define the 
basic mission-the reason for being. The two goals relating to the 
Space Shuttle and Space Station are obviously the most demanding 
in their immediate claim for major resources. The third goal is 
equally important in that the technical competence must be 
maintained and enhanced. The remaining two goals address the 
two critical success factors required for achieving the first three. 
One goal pertains to maintaining and enhancing the highly skilled 
work force. The other goal concerns the important relations with 
other key members of the U.S. space team. Each goal is listed 
along with a proposed strategy or approach for implementing each 
goal. Subsequently, each goat is accompanied by a brief 



76 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



explanation and a set of objectives. These c^jectives provide the 
specifK: targets of opportunity for focusing the immediate efforts. 

B.G. 

N88-21084# Department of Energy, Washington. DC. 
TECHNOLOGY '87: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM Annual 
Report 

Jan. 1988 113 p 

(DE88-003142; DOE/ER-0355) Avail: NTIS HO A06/MF A01 

An overview of technology transfer of U.S. Department of 
Er>ergy*s National Latx>ratories is presented. Areas specifically 
presented are: Materials Science and Manufacturing; Analysis and 
Instrumentation; Energy Techriology; Environment and Waste 
ManagerTYent; Biology ar>d Medicir^e; and Computers arKi 
Communication. Specific research accomplishments are dis- 
cussed. DOE 

N88-21254*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

POWER SYSTEMS FOR PRODUCTION, CONSTRUCTION, UFE 
SUPPORT AND OPERATIONS IN SPACE 

RONALD J. SOVIE 1988 16 p Proposed for presentation at 
Space '88, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 29-31 Aug. 1988; sponsored by 
the American Society of Civil Er^ineers 

(NASA-TM-1 00838; E-4026; NAS 1.15:100838) Avail: NTIS HC 
A03/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

As or>e looks to mcm's futile in space it becomes obvious 
that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the 
exploration, colonization. arKt exploitation of space. Activities 
envisioned include interplanetary travel ar>d LEO to GEO transport 
using electric propulsion, Earth and lunar observatories, ad- 
vance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, 
communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and 
Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest 
power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as 
manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are 
developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require 
very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system 
technologies being pursued tiy NASA to fulfill these future r>eeds 
are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, 
photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including 
energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and 
thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made 
by technology advancements will k>e discussed. Mission 
requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and 
Martian) will t>e treated, and data for power systems rar)ging 
from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be 
represented. In additk>n the space power technologies being 
initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Techrrology Initiative 
(CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be 
discussed. Author 

N8a-21866# Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches 

Aerospatiales, Paris (Frartce). 

ACTIVITIES REPORT IN AEROSPACE Annual Report, 1986 

Jun. 1987 19 p 

{ETN-88-91978) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

Aerospace research management and organtzatk>n are 
described, and patents are listed. ESA 

N88-21872# Office of Technology Assessment Washington, 

DC. 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO CHINA. VOLUME 2: WORKING 

PAPERS, PART 1 

ALBERT KEIDEL, ROBERT BRUCE. D. F. SIMON. J. MCLUCAS. 

and D. G. BLAINE Nov, 1987 472 p 

(PB88-1 58704) Avail: NTIS HC A20/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The contents of this report on technology transfer to China 
(Volume 2) are as follows: The role of technotogy transfer for 
China's economic future; China's evolving computer industry; the 
role of foreign technology transfers; satellite telecommunications 



technology transfer to China; and, railroads of the People's Republk: 
of China. GRA 

N88-21873# Offrce of Technology Assessment, Washington, 

DC. 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO CHINA. VOLUME 2: WORKING 

PAPERS, PART 2 

W. A. FISCHER. A. CRANE, T. FINGAR, T. W, ROBINSON, and 

R. F. GROW Nov. 1987 400 p 

(PB88-158712) Avail: NTIS HC A17/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The contents of this report on Techrx>logy Transfer to China 
are as folk>ws: The transfer of western managerial knowledge to 
China; natk>nal security risks of dual-use transfers to China; politics, 
policy and China's future course; China's foreign policy, Beijing's 
military modemizatbn and American policy alternatives; Amerk^an 
firms and the transfer of technoktgy to China; and, how t>usir>8ss 
people view the process. GRA 

N88-22218# Joint Publrcations Research Servrce, Ariington, VA 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. JAPAN 

3 Mar. 1988 91 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Japanese 

articles 

(JPRS-JST-88-001) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

Topics addressed include: civil aviation, aerospace engineering, 
advanced materials, computers. bk>techrK>logy, defer^se irxkistries, 
scier>oe arxJ techr>ok)gy polk^y, nuclear devek)pments, arKJ 
mk:ro6lectronk^. 

N88-22228# Joint Publk^atbns Research Servee, Ariington, VA. 
JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. JAPAN 

27 OcL 1 987 1 28 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Japanese 

articles 

(JPRS-JST-87-029) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

Topk^s addressed include: computers; advar^ced materials; civil 
aviation; aerospace engineering; energy technok>gy; defense 
industries; laser applrcations; optics; and science and techn<Hogy 
polkry. 

N88-22446*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 
STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS BRANCH RESEARCH AND 
ACCCHIPUSHMENTS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1987 

May 1988 34 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00279; E-3920: NAS 1.15:100279) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 20K 

This put>lk)ation contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 
research highlights from the Structural Dynamk:s Branch at NASA 
Lewis Research Center. Highlights from tt>e t^anch's four major 
work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamk: Systems, 
and Computational Stnjctural Methods, are included in the report 
as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publk^tions. 

Auttw 

N88-22515*# Lockheed Engineering and Mar^gement Servces 

Co., Inc.. Washington, DC. 

USSR SPACE UFE SCIENCES DIGEST, ISSUE 16 

LYDIA RAZRAN HOOKE. ed.. RONALD TEETER, ed., BETTE 

SIEGEL. ed., P. LYNN DONALDSON, ed.. LAUREN B. LEVETON. 

ed., and JOSEPH ROWE, ed. (Library of Congress. Washington. 

D. C.) Apr. 1988 124 p 

(Contract NASW-4292) 

(NASA-CR-3922(19); NAS 1.26:3922(19)) Avail: NTIS HC 

A06/MF A01 CSCL 06C 

This is ttie sixteenth issue of NASA*s USSR Life Sciences 
Digest It contains abstracts of 57 papers published in Russian 
language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 2 new 
Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures 
and tables from the original An additional feature is ttie review of 
a t)ook concerried with metatwlk; response to the stress of space 
flight. The abstracts included in this issue are relevant to 33 areas 
of space bk>logy and medk^ne. These areas are: adaptation, 
biological rhythms, bionics, biospherics. t>ody ftukds, t>otany, 
cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental bk)logy. 



77 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, 
genetics, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental 
effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support 
systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, 

metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neuro- 
physiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, 
personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, 
and space biology. Author 

N88-22830*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington, DC. 

NASA SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS: A 

CATALOG OF SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS, REFERENCE 

PUBLICATIONS, CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS, AND 

TECHNICAL PAPERS, 1987 

Mar. 1988 69 p 

(NASA-SP-7063(02); NAS 1.21:7063(02)) Avail: NTIS HC free as 

PR-828; NASA Scientific and Technical Information Facility, P.O. 

Box 8757, BWI Airport, Md. 21240 HC free CSCL 058 

This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, 
NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and 
NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific 
and technical information database during accession year 1987. 
The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject 
terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided. 

Author 

N88-22851*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY Annual Report, 1987 

1987 103 p 

(NASA-TM-100172; E-3740; NAS 1.15:100172) Avail: NTIS HC 

A06/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The NASA Lewis Research Center's research and technology 
accomplishments for fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It comprises 
approximately 100 short articles submitted by staff members of 
the technical directorates and is organized into four sections: 
aeronautics, aerospace technology (which includes space 
communications), space station systems, and computational 
support. A table of contents by subject was developed to assist 
the reader in finding articles of special interest. Author 

N88-22852*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 1960-1985: 25TH 
ANNIVERSARY REPORT 

Jul. 1985 98 p Original contains color illustrations 
(NASA-TM-1 00328; NAS 1.15:100328) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 
A01; also available SOD HC $6.00 as 033-000-00965-8 CSCL 
05D 

The Marshall Space Flight Center marks its 25th aniversary 
with a record of notable achievements. These accomplishments 
are the essence of the Marshall Center's history. Behind the scenes 
of the space launches and missions, however, lies the story of 
challenges faced and problems solved. The highlights of that story 
are presented. The story is organized not as a straight chronology 
but as three parallel reviews of the major assignments: propulsion 
systems and launch vehicles, space science research and 
technology, and manned space systems. The general goals were 
to reach space, to know and understand the space environment, 
and to inhabit and utilize space for the benefit of mankind. Also 
included is a chronology of major events, presented as a fold-out 
chart for ready reference. Author 

N88-22853*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 
LANGLEY AEROSPACE TEST HIGHLIGHTS, 1987 

May 1988 114 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00595; NAS 1.15:100595) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL 05D 

The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic 
and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics 
and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the 



accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research 
advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA 
installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of 
the significant tests which were performed during the calender 
year 1987 in Langley test facilites are illustrated. Both the broad 
range of the research and technology activities at Langley and 
the contributions of this work toward maintaining the U.S. leadership 
in aeronautic and space research are illustrated. Author 

N88-22854*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 
SPACE DIRECTORATE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1987 

DON E. AVERY May 1988 164 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00607; NAS 1.15:100607) Avail: NTIS HC A08/MF 

A01 CSCL 05D 

The major accomplishments and test highlights of the Space 
Directorate of NASA Langley Research Center for FY87 are 
presented. Accomplishments and test highlights are listed by 
Division and Branch. This information should be useful in 
coordinating programs with government organizations, universities, 
and industry in areas of mutual interest. Author 

N88-23715*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton. VA. 

JOINT UNIVERSITY PROGRAM FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION 
RESEARCH, 1986 

FREDERICK R. MORRELL, comp. Apr. 1988 115 p Meeting 
held in Hampton, Va., 8-9 Jan. 1987; sponsored by NASA, Langley 
Research Cetner, Hampton, Va. and FAA, Washington, D.C. 
Sponsored by NASA, Washington 

(NASA-CP-2502; L-16406: NAS 1.55:2502) Avail: NTIS HC 
A06/MFA01 CSCL 01 B 

The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint 
University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. 
The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants 
sponsored by NASA and the FAA. one each with the Mass. Inst, 
of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status 
reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which 
Include computer science, guidance and control theory and 
practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied 
experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented. 

N88-23814# European Space Agency, Paris (France). 
PREPARING FOR THE NEW PROGRAMS. THE ESA 
TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
PROGRAM 1988-1990 

NORMAN LONGDON, ed. Dec. 1987 209 p Original contains 
color illustrations 

(ESA-SP-1095; TD(88)1; ETN-88-92557) Avail: NTIS HC 
A10/MF A01 

The European Space Agency's R and D activities in Earth-space 
telematics; space communications infrastructure; global Earth 
monitoring; deep space and observatory facilities; microgravity 
utillzatk>n; manned systems and platforms; in-oHbit operations and 
servicing; launcher and reentry technology; and common and 
genetic technology are outlined. ESA 

N88-24000*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 

STRUCTURES AND DYNAMICS DIVISION RESEARCH AND 

TECHNOLOGY PLANS FOR FY 1988 AND 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR FY 1987 

KAYS. BALES May 1988 94 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00585; NAS 1.15:100585) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 

A01 CSCL 20K 

Presented are the Objectives, FY 1988 Plans, Approach, and 
FY 1988 Milestones for the Structures and Dynamics Division 
(Langley Research Center) research programs. FY 1987 
Accomplishments are presented where applicable. This information 
is useful in program coordination with other governmental 
organizations in areas of mutual interest. Author 



78 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



N8a-24108# Science Applications tntemational Corp.. McLeaa 

VA. 

SOVIET REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 

P. N. SLATER. R. R. P. CHASE. R. S. FRASER. F. E. HOGE. J. 
C. PRICE, and G. J. 2ISSIS Feb. 1988 226 p 
(FASAC-TAR.3130) Avail: NTIS HC A11/MF A01 

This review of Soviet civilian remote sensing research and 
technology is based mainly on literature published by Soviet 
sctentists and to a much smaller extent on information contained 
in Soviet press releases and elsewhere. An overall assessment of 
Soviet research and technology in remote sensing is provided. 
The sensors, methodologies, and results of the Soviet remote 
sensing program in the solar reflective, thermal infrared. ar>d 
microwave regions of the electrom^>etic spectrum are examined. 
Also discussed is the Soviet work in data handUng and ffiformation 
extraction. The general conclusion is that the Ur^ted States leads 
the Soviet Union by about five years in most areas of remote 
sensing research and technology. This lead is mairHy the result of 
the superior microelectronics technology and computing capability 
of the United States, particularly with regard to the ^emetry and 
processing of large quantities of high-quality. sateime-accMred. 
digital image data-the starting point for most Western research 
and application studies in remote sensing. Author 

N88-24155* Lockheed Engineering and Management Senmses 

Co., Inc.. Washington, DC. 

USSR SPACE LIFE SCIENCES DIGEST, ISSUE 17 

LYDIA RAZRAN HCX)KE, ed.. RONALD TEETER, ed.. VICTORIA 

GARSHNEK. ed., and JOSEPH ROWE. ed. (Library of Congress. 

Washington. D. C.) Washington NASA Jun. 1988 126 p 

(Contract NASW-4292) 

(NASA-CR-3922(20); NAS 1-26:3922(20)) Avail: Issuing Activity 

CSCL06C 

This is the seventeenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life 
Sciences Digest. It contwns abstracts of 62 papers published in 
Russian language perioc^cals or presented at conferences and of 
3 r>ew Soviet monographs. Selected distracts are illustrated with 
figures and tables from the ori^nal. The abstracts included in tNs 
issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biok)gy 
and medk:ine. These areas are: adaptatkm, t>k>k>gical rfiythms. 
biospherics, body ftukte. txitany. cardiovascular and respiratory 
systems, cytology, cosmonaut training. devek)pmental biology, 
endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentatk>n. 
exotHOlogy. gastrointestinal system, genetics, habitability and 
environmental effects, hematotogy, human performarK^e. 
immunology, life support systems, mar>-machir>e systems, 
mathematical modeling, metabolism. microt»ok>gy. musculoskeletal 
system, neurophysiology. nutritk>n. operational mecfidne. 
perception, personnel selection, psychology, radk>biok>gy. arvj 
reproductive biology. Author 

N88-24254# New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept of Chemical 
and Nuclear Er>gineering. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE FOURTH SYMPOSIUM ON SPACE 
NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEMS 

MOHAMED S. EL-GENK. ed. and MARK D. HOOVER, ed. 
(Lovelace Inhalatkm To)QCok>gy Research Inst. AltHiquerc^. N. 
Mex.) 1987 513 p Synposium heM in Albuquerque, N. Mex.. 
12-16 Jan. 1987; co-sponsored by American Inst of Chemk^l 
Engineers, ASTM. GE Co.. LANL. Sandia Natk)nal Labs.. ^STC. 
and American Nuclear Society 

(DE88-006164; CONF-e70102-SUMM) Avail: NTIS HC A22/MF 
A01 

The preceedings of the 4th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power 
Systems are presented. Research and process on the SP-1(X) 
Space Power Reactor and Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power 
Programs are detailed. The transactk>ns are divkled into several 
headings including: Future space statk>n power options; Space 
nuclear missions and applk»tk>ns; Reactors and shiekfing; Nuclear 
electric and nuclear propulsion; Refractory alloys and high 
temperature materials; Testing; Reactors and ShieKting II; Nuclear 
electric and nuclear propulsk>n II; Radk)tsotope power systems; 
lnstrumentatk>n and control; Energy conversk>n and storage; 



Radiatk>n, thermal and environmental effects; Energy conversion 
and storage II; Space nuteear fuels; Thermal management; Energy 
conversion and storage III; Thermal management II; Multimegawatt 
system concepts; Simulatk>n and modeling; and Nuclear safety 

N8S-24374# New Mexkx) Univ.. Albuquerque. Dept of Chemical 
and Nuclear Engineering. 

TRANSACTfOI^ OF THE FIFTH SYMPOSIUM ON SPACE 
NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEMS 

MOHAMED S. EL-GENK, ed. and MARK D. HOOVER, ed. 
(Lovelace lnhalatk>n Toxkx>k>gy Research Inst, Albuquerque. N. 
Mex.) 1988 611 p Symposium hekJ in Albuquerque. N. Mex.. 
11-14 Jan. 1988; co-sponsored by American Inst of Chemical 
Engineers. American Society of Mechank^al Engineers. GE Co.. 
LANL. Sancto National Labs.. AFSTC. American Nuclear Society 
and ASTM 

(DE88-006165; CONF-880122-SUMM) Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF 
A01 

The Fifth Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems took 
place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on January 11 to 14, 1986. 
It was the fifth in an annual series of symposia sponsored prindpaMy 
by the University of New Mexico and the New Mexico technical 
community, and included Federal government, inAistrial. national 
laboratory, and university participants. The past year had seen 
continued technical and programnmtic successes in the SP-100 
Space Power Reactor and Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power 
programs. With the Space Shuttle to fly again in 1968. more 
attention can be devoted to developing the technology needed 
for future long duration space travel. Safe, reliable space nuclear 
power systems are essential for tt>e success of these missions. 
Reports of symposium participants follow. 

N88-24572*# Engineering and Economics Research. Inc.. Vienna. 

VA. 

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 1987, GODDARD SPACE 

FLIGHT CENTER 

GENE GUERNY. ed.. KAREN MOE. ed.. STEVEN PADDACK. ed.. 
GERALD SOFFEN. ed.. WALTER SULLIVAN, ed. and JAN 
BALLARD, ed. (Science Systems and Applications. Inc.. (sreenbelt. 
Md.) 1987 255 p Prepared in cooperation witti Science 
Systems and Applications, Inc., Greenbett, Md. Sponsored by 
NASA Original document contains color illustrations 
(NAS 1.15:101097; NASA-TM-1 01 097) Avail: NTIS HC A12/MF 
A01 CSCL 05D 

Research at Goddard Space Flight Center during 1987 is 
summarized. Topics addressed incttKle space arxJ earth sciences, 
technology, flight projects and mission definition studies, and 
irtstitutior^al technology. B.G. 

N88-24598*# National Aeronautics and Space Admir^stration. 

Langley Research Center, Hampton. VA. 

AIIK^RAFT AEROELASTICITY AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 

RESEARCH AT THE NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER: 

SOME ILLUSTRATIVE RESULTS 

ROBERT V. DOGGETT. JR. and F. W. CAZIER. JR. May 1988 

13 p Proposed for presentation at the 16th Congress of the 

International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), 

Jerusalem. Israel. 28 Aug. • 2 Sep. 1988 

(NASA-TM-1 00627; NAS 1.15:100627) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 

A01 CSCL 01 A 

Highlights of nine different research studies are descrtoed. Five 
of these topics relate directly to fixed-wing aircraft and rarige from 
flutter studies using relatively simple and inexpensive wind-tunnel 
rTKxiels to buffet studies of the vertical tails of an advanced hi^ 
performance configuration. The other four topics relate directly to 
rotary-wing aircraft arnJ range from studies of the performance 
and vibration characteristics of an advanced rotor design to 
optimization of airframe structures for vit>ration attenuation. 

Author 

N88-24730# Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center. La 

Jolla,CA. 

SOVIET COMBUSTION RESEARCH 



79 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



W. J. MCLEAN. C. A. AMANN, C. T. BOWMAN. P. A. LIBBY, and 

R. E. PALMER Mar. 1987 299 p 

(PB88-182324; FASAC.TAR-3120) Avail: NTIS HC A13/MF A01 

CSCL21B 

The report is an assessment of Soviet basic and applied 
combustion research, prepared by a panel of seven U.S. 
combustion scientists and engineers who evaluated a large body 
of published Soviet scientific literature. The panel examined a broad 
selection of topics in Soviet combustion research, spanning the 
range from very applied to very fundamental. Soviet research 
related to combustion of energetic materials (e.g., propellants and 
explosives) was intentionally omitted from the assessment. Chapter 
headings include the following: Assessments, Solid fuels 
combustion; Heat-engine combustion; Practical combustion of 
gaseous and liquid fuels-Combustion and explosion safety; Theory 
of laminar and turbulent reacting flows; Combustion chemistry; 
Advanced combustion diagnostics and instrumentation. GRA 



N88-24950# Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC. 
Directorate for Scientific and Technical Intelligence. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOVIET LASER DEVELOPMENTS, 
NUMBER 83, MAY - JUNE 1986 

Sep. 1987 133 p 

(AD-A1 90969; DIA-DST-2700Z-007-87) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF 

A01 CSCL 09C 

This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1986, and 
is No. 83 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. 
The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas. 
and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy 
of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects 
of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications 
are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam 
propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; 
taser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser 
parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical 
effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma 
generation and diagnostics. GRA 



N68-25327*# Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Chemical 

Engineering. 

NASA RESEARCH PROGRAM: THE ROLES OF FLUID MOTION 

AND OTHER TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN THE 

MORPHOLOGY OF MATERIALS Final Report, Jul. 1983 - Oct. 

1987 

D. A. SAVILLE May 1988 208 p 

(Contract NAG3-447) 

(NASA-CR-1 82801; NAS 1.26:182801) Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF 

A01 CSCL 20L 

The influence of transport phenomena on the morphology of 
crystalline materials was investigated. Two problems were studied: 
the effects of convection on the crystallization of pure materials, 
and the crystallization of proteins from solution. 



N88-25428*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

NASA HISTORY DATA BOOK. VOLUME 1: NASA RESOURCES 

1958-1968 

JANE VANNtMMEN, LEONARD C. BRUNO, and ROBERT L 

ROSHOLT 1988 639 p 

(Contract NASW-3597) 

(NASA-SP-4012-VOL-1; NAS 1.21:4012-VOL-1; LC-74-600126) 

Avail: NTIS MF A01; SOD HC $57.00 in set of 3 as 

033-000-01017-6 CSCL 05D 

This is Volume 1 , NASA Resources 1 958-1 968, of a 
three-volume series providing a 20-year compilation of summary 
statistical and other data descriptive of NASA's programs in 
aeronautics and manned and unmanned spaceflight. This series 
is an important component of NASA published historical reference 
works, used by NASA personnel, managers, external researchers, 
and other government agencies. Author 



N88-25429*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK. VOLUME 2: PROGRAMS 
AND PROJECTS 1958-1968 

LINDA NEUMAN EZELL 1988 652 p 

(Contract NASW.3597) 

(NASA-SP-4012-VOL-2; NAS 1.21:401 2- VOL-2; LC-74-600126) 

Avail: NT!S MF AOI; SOD HC $57.00 in set of 3 as 

033-000-01017-6 CSCL 05D 

This is Volume 2, Programs and Projects 1958-1968, of a 
three-volume series providing a 20-year compilation of summary 
statistical and other data descriptive of NASA's programs in 
aeronautics and manned and unmanned spaceflight. This series 
is an important component of NASA published historical reference 
works, used by NASA personnel, managers, external researchers, 
and other government agencies. Author 

N88-25430*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK. VOLUME 3: PROGRAMS 
AND PROJECTS 1969-1978 

LINDA NEUMAN EZELL 1988 492 p 

(Contract NASW-3597) 

(NASA.SP-4012-VOL-3; NAS 1.21:401 2- VOL-3; LC-74-600126) 

Avail: NTIS MF AOI; SOD HC $57.00 in set of 3 as 

033-000-01 01 7-6 CSCL 05D 

This is Volume 3, Programs and Projects 1969-1978, of a 
three-volume series providing a 20-year compilation of summary 
statistical and other data descriptive of NASA's programs in 
aeronautics and manned and unmanned spaceflight. This series 
is an important component of NASA published historical reference 
works, used by NASA personnel, managers, external researchers, 
and other government agencies. Author 

N88-25680*# Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst, of Tech., 

Pasadena 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE MOBILE SATELLITE CONFERENCE 

WILLIAM RAFFERTY May 1988 536 p Conference held in 

Pasadena, Calif., 3-5 May 1988 Sponsored by NASA, 

Washington 

(Contract NAS7-91 8) 

(NASA-CR-1 82964; NAS 1.26:182964; JPL-PUBL-88-9) Avail: 

NTIS HC A23/MF AOI CSCL 17B 

A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice 
and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic 
area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite 
systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the 
current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major 
emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the 
following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, 
networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel 
characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. 
Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government 
agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them. 

N88-26031# Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN. Research 

and Development Dept. 

THE US SPACE PROGRAMME 

SPACEWALK/EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY EXPERIENCE: 

PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 

THOMAS P. MOORE In ESA, Proceedings of the Colloquium on 

Space and Sea p 115-120 Mar. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A15/MF AOI 

The history and prospects of extravehicular activity (EVA) in 
NASA space programs are reviewed. The first EVA in the United 
States program took place on Gemini 4 in 1 965. Lunar exploration 
was accomplished by 1 4 two-crewmember EVAs during the Apollo 
program which began in 1 968. The United States' only long duration 
space flight experience took place in 1 973 to 1 974 aboard Skylab, 
with 1 EVAs being performed. Since the beginning of the Space 
Shuttle program in 1981, there have been 13 two-crewmember 
EVAs. Space Station is planned for component construction during 



80 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



EVAs for initial operation dicing the mid 1 990s. Physiolo^cal effects 
on crews, particularfy metabolic rate, are mentioned. ESA 

N88-26096*# Lockheed En^neering and Management Services 

Ck)., Inc., Washington. IXJ. 

USSR SPACE UFE SCfENCES DIGEST. ISSW 18 

LYDIA RA2RAN HOOKE, ed.. P. LYNN DONALDSON, ed.. 

RONALD TEETER, ed.. VICTORIA GARSHNEK. ed.. and JOSEPH 

ROWE. ed. (Lit>raiy of Congress, WasNngton, D. C.) 

Washington NASA Jul. 1988 140 p 

(Contract NASW-4292) 

(NASA-CR-3922(21); NAS 1.26:3922(21)) Avail: NTIS HC 

A07/MF A01 CSCL 06B 

This is the 18th issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest 
It contains abstracts of 50 papers pubtehed in Russian language 
periodicais or presented at conferences and of 8 new Soviet 
monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and 
tables from the original. A review of a recent Aviation Medicine 
Hancttx>ok is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been 
identified as relevant to 37 areas of space bicrfogy and medicine. 
These areas are: adaptation, aviation n»edicine, biological rtiythms. 
biospherics, body fliAds. cardiovascular and respiratory systems, 
cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology. 
equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, 
genetics, gravitational biology, group dynamics, habitability and 
environmental effects, hematology, human performance, 
immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, 
mathematical modelirig. metabolism, microt»ology. muscutoskeletai 
system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, 
perception, personnel selection, psychology, ra<«obiology, 
reproductive biology, space biology and medicine, and space 
industrialization. Author 

N88-26268# Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM. 
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, SANDIA NATIONAL 
LABORATORIES Annual Report, fiscal year 1967 

Apr. 1988 33 p 

(Contract DE.AC04-76DP-00789) 

(DE88-009790; SAND-87-0749) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

Sandia National Laboratories, a national security engineering 
and science laboratory, strives to make its new techncrfogy easily 
accessible to U.S. private industry, local and state govemn>ents, 
universities, and other Federal laboratories. This goal of extending 
technological advancements beyond our national defense priorities 
is consistent with the wider concept that our security is 
strengtfiened by energy stability, economic competitiveness, 
environmental preservation, and otfier areas that maintain our 
national vitality. In addition, the Technology Transfer Program 
selectively targets recipients of information and enhances 
information control aspects of rtational security. This report reflects 
examples of technology trartsfer from Vt\e past year arxJ summarizes 
some of our activities and concerns. DOE 

N88-26279*# National Aeronautk5s and Space Administration. 
Washington. DC. 

PLANETARY GEOLOGY: GOALS, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS Final Report 

Aug. 1988 23 p Woricshop held in Tempe, Ariz.. Jan. 1987 
(NASA-CP-3005; NAS 1.55:3005) Avail: NTIS HC AC^/MF A01 
CSCL03B 

Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of (tiscoveries and 
a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded 
view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which 
the differences and similarities amortg planetary objects are 
assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from 
an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and 
focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key 
role in this transition, espectaity as attention is focused on such 
exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how 
the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals 
of solar system exploration, a woricshop was held at Arizona State 
University in January 1987. The partic^jants discussed previous 
acconrplishments of the planetary geology pro-am. assessed the 



current studies in planetary geology, and considered the 
requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals. 

Author 

N88-26397*# Bionetics Corp.. Hampton. VA. 
SOME OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF A ROTATING 
ADVANCED-TECHNOLOGY SPACE STATION FOR THE YEAR 
2025 Contractor Report, May - Nov. 1987 

M. J. QUEUO. A. J. BUTTERFIELD. W. F. CUDDIHY, C. B. KING. 

R. W. STONE, J. R. WROBEL. and P. A. (aARN Jun, 1988 

313 p 

(Contract NASI -18267) 

(NASA-CR-181617; NAS 1.26:181617) Avail: NTIS HC A14/MF 

A01 CSCL 22B 

The study of an Advanced Technology Space Station which 
would utilize the capabilities of subsystems projected for the time 
frame of the years 2000 to 2025 is discussed. The study includes 
tradeoffs of nuclear versus solar dynamic power systems that 
produce power outputs of 2.5 megawatts and analyses of the 
dynamics of the spacecraft of which portions are rotated for artificial 
gravity. The design considerations for the support of a manned 
Mars mission from low Earth ort>it are addressed. The studies 
extend to on-board manufacturir^g. internal gas composition effects, 
and locomotion and material transfer under artificial gravity forces. 
The report concludes with an assessrr^nt of technology 
requirements for the Advanced Technology Space Station. 

Author 

N88-27119*# Sverdnjp Technology. Inc.. Cleveland. OH. 
RESOURCES: NASA FOR ENTREPRENEURS 

MARY ANN JANNAZO May 1988 44 p Sponsored by NASA, 
Washington. D. C. Original contains color illustrations 
(NASA-CR-1 821 52; f4AS 1 .26:1 821 52) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 
A01 CSCL 05A 

The services of NASA's Technology Utiliration Program are 
detailed and highlights of spinoff products in various stages of 
completion are described. Areas discussed include: Sliding engines 
for automotive applications, klystron tubes used to reduce power 
costs at UHF television stations, sports applications of ribrfet film 
(e.g., boat racing), reinforced plastic for Wgh-temperature 
applications, coating technology appropriate for such applications 
similar to the renovation of the Statue of Ltt>erty. and medical 
uses of fuel pump technology (e.g., heart pumps). J.P.B. 

N88-27820# California Inst, of Tech.. Pasadena. Dept. of Applied 

Mathematics. 

RESEARCH IN APPUED MATHEMATICS Final Report 

G. B. WHITHAM 14 Mar. 1988 5 p 

(Contract N00014-85-K-0403) 

(AD-A1 92385; REPT-57) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01 CSCL 

20A 

Most of the wori( has been on shock dynamics, a term we 
use of problems of the focusing of arved shocks, the diffraction 
of shocks by bodies or density layers, the propagation of shocks 
down cun/ed tubes and channels, and the stab^ of converge 
shocks. Our eariier theoretk^al wortc is descr^sed in the book Unear 
and Nonlinear by G.B. WWtham. and references given there. This 
theoretfcal wori^ on shock dynarrwcs had been found by experiments 
to be extremely useful in practwal situations. However, the analytrc 
results had t>een limited to fairly simple situatkwis. The numerical 
scheme originally proposed was again limited and could not hope 
to handle some of the interesting practical situatkins. GRA 

N88-27881*# National Aeronautk» and Space Administration. 
Langley Research Center. Hampton, VA. 
PUBUCAT10NS ON ACOUSTICS RESEARCH AT THE 
LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER DURING 1980-1986 

LINDA W. SUTHERLAND, comp. Jul, 1988 67 p 
(NASA-TM-1 00590; NAS 1.15:100590) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 
A01 CSCL 20A 

This report is a compilatkMi of puWkjatrons from acoustics 
research at the Langley Research Center. The r^jorts are listed 
in chronok)gteal order and summarize the written output of the 



81 



06 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 



Acoustics Division and its predecessor, The Acoustics and Noise 
Reduction Division, for the period 1980 through 1986. The 
information assembled has been extracted from the 1980 through 
1986 issues for the Technical Memorandum entitled, Scientific 
and Technical Information Output of the Langley Research Center 
for the Calendar Year. Author 

N88-27929# Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Lexington. Lincoln 

Lab. 

SOLID STATE RESEARCH Quarterly Technical Report, 1 May 

- 31 Jul 1987 

ALAN L MCWHORTER 15 Aug. 1987 94 p 

(Contract F49620-85-C-0002) 

(AD-A1 92837; REPT-1987; REPT-3; ESD-TR-87-073) Avail: 

NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 20L 

The topics covered are solid state device research, quantum 
electronics, materials research, microelectronics, and analog device 
technology. GRA 

N88-27977# Oak Ridge National Lab.. TN. 
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR DOE'S OFFICE OF 
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS: ASSESSMENT AND 
STRATEGIES 

S. A. SNELL, M. A. BROWN, and A. M. ZEREGA Apr, 1988 

105 p 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21 400) 

(DE88-010760; ORNL/CON-244) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

This report reviews and assesses the technology transfer effort 
of the DOE'S Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) and offers 
recommendations for future technology transfer activities. The OTS 
technology transfer strategy calls for maximum industry involvement 
in both the identification and solution of R and D problems. This 
strategy is supported not only by utilizing industry as the research 
contractor, but also through a variety of other technology transfer 
activities. After reviewing the technical accomplishments of the 
Office, the report describes some of the barriers that Inhibit 
commercialization of these accomplishments. Primary, secondary, 
and spin-off audiences for OTS R and D are then characterized. 
An inventory of recent OTS technology transfer activities follows 
and is supplemented by nine detailed case studies of technology 
transfer. These case studies represent five distinct approaches to 
technology transfer and a wide array of mechanisms including: 
contracting to industry, licensing, demonstration projects, user 
facilities, and financial incentives. The report ends with a list of 
recommended future technology transfer activities. DOE 

N88-28138# Oak Ridge National Lab.. TN. 
THE HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS LABORATORY: A 
NEW RESEARCH AND USER FACILITY AT THE OAK RIDGE 
NATIONAL LABORATORY 

Feb. 1988 40 p 

{Contract DE-AC05-84OR-21400) 

(DE88-010792: ORNL/M-363/R1) Avail: NTIS HC A03 

The High Temperature Materials Lat)oratory (HTML) is a new 
$19 million facility that senses as the focal point for 
high-temperature ceramics research at the Oak Ridge National 
Lat>oratory (ORNL). It is also a major user facility, providing 
members of the industrial and university research communities 
access to the extensive array of special research equipment needed 
to characterize the microstructure and microchemistry of materials 
and to investigate the effect of these parameters on the physical 
and mechanical properties of the materials. User research 
equipment Is divided among four User Centers: Materials Analysis, 
High Temperature X-ray Diffraction, Physical Properties, and 
Mechanical Properties. This brochure provides brief descriptions 
of each of the major pieces of research equipment in the User 
Centers. Hands-on operation of this equipment by qualified users 
is encouraged. A User Center staff is available with special 
responsibility of maintaining the User Center equipment and for 
interacting with users. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research 
may be performed by users in the HTML, with no charge for 
nonproprietary research. Proprietary research, however, is done 
on a full cost recovery basis. DOE 



N88-2817r# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

MICROGRAVITY SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS 
BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1987 REVISION 

Sep. 1988 55 p 

(NASA-TM-4067; NAS 1.15:4067) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

CSCL 12A 

This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) 
Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor 
reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with 
flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate 
and control various processes or with ground based activities that 
provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published 
but not cited in the 1984 Revision and literature which has been 
published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include 
six major categories: Electronic Materials; Metals, Alloys, and 
Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transport; Biotechnology; Glass 
and Ceramics; and Combustion. Also included are publications 
from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In 
addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a 
compilation of an anonymously authored collection of reports and 
a cross reference index. Author 

N88-28511# European Space Agency, Paris (France). 

THE WORLD'S WATER RESOURCES: A MAJOR NEGLECT. A 

STUDY IN REMOTE SENSING IN HYDROLOGY AND WATER 

MANAGEMENT 

R. W. HERSCHY, E. C. BARRETT, J. N. ROOZEKRANS, and J. 

HUNT, ed. Mar. 1988 41 p Original contains color 

illustrations 

(ESA-BR-40; ISSN-0250-1589; ETN-88-92778) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 

Satellite remote sensing for water management is discussed. 
The anticipated advantages of satellite remote sensing for 
hydrology are not likely to accrue unless specific consideration 
continues to be given to its peculiar demands both for satellite 
and/or sensor systems, and for Its own supporting programs of 
research, information sharing, education, and training. The chief 
and most distinctive needs for hydrological sensors are for dual 
polarized, scanning multichannel microwave radiometers (primarily 
for rainfall, ice and snow, and soil moisture evaluation and 
monitoring) and steerable synthetic aperture radars (primarily for 
more local snow, surface, and sub-surface water evaluation, and 
mapping). Hydrological user requirements are especially demanding 
because many hydrological parameters vary rapidly through both 
space and time, thus calling for data with the highest possible 
spatial and temporal resolutions. The operational usage of satellite 
data in hydrology and water management calls mainly for near-real 
time access to data, the integration of remotely sensed and 
collateral data sets, and a disseminated networi< of relatively 
low-cost, user-friendly, interactive data processing systems. ESA 

N88-28832*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lewis Research Center. Cleveland, OH. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER TECHNICAL 
PUBLICATIONS ANNOUNCED IN 1987 

Jun. 1988 362 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00910; E-4162; NAS 1.15:100910) Avail: NTIS HC 

A16/MFA01 CSCL 058 

This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the 
technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering 
work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 
1987. All the publications were announced in the 1987 issues of 
STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or lAA 
(International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, 
journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent 
applications, and theses. Author 

N88-29832*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. 
NASA MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER SOLAR 
OBSERVATORY Report, Jan. - Mar. 1988 



82 



JAMES E. SMITH Aug. 1988 82 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00339: NAS 1.15:100339) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 

A01 CSCL 14B 

A description \s provided of the NASA Marshall Space Right 
Center's Solar Vector Ma^ietograph Factlrty and a sunmiaiy is 
given of its observations and data reduction during Jan. to Mar. 
1988. The systems that make up the fadlfty are a magnetograph 
telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a 
computer center. The data are represented bf longitudinal contours 
with azimuth plots. Author 



N88-29859*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington. DC. 

THE NASA ELECTRIC PROPULSION PROGRAM 

JAMES R. STONE. DAVID C. BYERS. and DAVID Q. KING (Jet 
Propulsion Lab.. California Inst of Tech.. Pasadena.) 1988 20 
p Presented at the 20th International Electric Propulsion 
Conference. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Fed. RepuWk: of Germany. 
3-6 Oct. 1988; sponsored by DGLR. AIAA and JSASS 
(NASA-TM-1 01 324; E-4330; NAS 1.15:101324; IEPC-88-002) 
Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 21 H 

The NASA OAST Propulsion. Power, and Energy Division 
supports an electric propulsion program ain>ed at provkfing benefits 
to a broad dass of misskHis. Concepts whk:h have the potentiat 
to enable or sigrufk»ntty benefit space expkxatkxi and expkxtatkm 
are klentified and advanced toward applicatkm in the near and 
far term. This paper summarizes recent program progress in 
missk>n/system analysis; in electrothermal, electrostatrc. and 
electromagnetic propulsion technologies; and in propulsion/ 
spacecraft integration. Author 



N88-30447# European Space Agency. Paris (France). 
WITH AN EYE TO THE RITURE: ESA GENERAL STUDIES 
Pf^GRiUli 1908 

NORMAN LONDDON, ed. and BRIGITTE KALDEICH. ed. Apr. 
1988 38 p Original contains color illustratkjr^ 
(ESA-SP-1100; ISSN-0250-1589;ETN-88-93047) Avail: NTIS 
HC A03/MF A01 

The ESA programs concemirig end-to-end telematk:s 
architecture; long-term evolutk)n of telecommuNcations services 
and systems; long-term evolutkm of Earth observatkm; mrcroyavity 
utilization; autonomous orbital capability architecture; in-ort)it 
assembly, servrcing, and teixfing; long-term evohjtkw of space 
transportation systems; and European ground infrastructwe are 
presented. ESA 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



N88-30581*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington. DC. 

SCIENCE AT NASA FIELD CENTERS: FINDINGS AND 

RECOMMENDATK)!^ ON THE SCOPE, STRENGTH AND 

INTERACnOI^ OF SCIENCE AND SCIENCE-RELATED 

TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS 

May 1988 92 p 

(Contract NAGW-1090) 

(NASA-TM-1 01 188; NAS 1.15:101188) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

Great achievements by NASA and other space agencies have 
shown us what opportunities lie in tt>e opening of the space frontier. 
A broad and vigorous science program in NASA is vital to full 
U.S. exploftation of these new opportunities. Today, science in 
NASA Centers is characterized by its breadth, relevance, and 
excellence. The NASA in-house science progpram and its links to 
university programs constitute a vitally important national resource. 
Maintaining exoeltence as a foundation for the future is a 
fundamental responsibiiity of NASA, one that requires constant 
attention and effort This report by the NASA Center Science 
Assessment Team documents the cun^ent state of science within 
NASA and recommends actions to maintain a healthy program. 
NASA scientists have always played key roles in planning, gukiing. 
ar>d conducting national programs in space science. The review 
of Center science programs is intended to ensure ttiat both NASA 
and the nation can depend on theff continuing contribution in 
these roles. Author 

N88-30583*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Houston, TX. 
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE LYNDON B. 
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Armual Report, 1987 

Feb. 1988 98 p 

(NASA-TM-1 00463; S-575; NAS 1.15:100463) Avail: NTIS HC 

A05/MF A01 CSCL 05D 

Johnson Space Center accomplishments in new and advanced 
concepts during 1987 are highlighted. Included are research 
projects funded by the Office of Aeronautics and Space 
Technotogy. Solar System Exptoration and Life Sciences research 
funded by the CMce of Space Sciences and Applications, and 
advanced Programs tasks funded by the Offkse of Space Flight. 
Summary sections describing the role of the Johr^on Space Center 
in each program are foltowed by descrptions of signifrcant projects. 
Descriptions are suitable for external consumption, free of technk^al 
jargon, and iDusti^ted to increase ease of comprehensk>n. 

Author 



07 



N88-30554*# Jet Propulsion Lab.. California Inst of Tech.. 

Pasadena. 

THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK: AN INSTRUI»fT FOR RADIO 

ASTRONOMY RESEARCH 

N. A. REN2ETTI. G. S. LEVY. T. B. H. KUIPER. P. R. WALKEN. 
and R. C. CHANDLEE 1 Sep. 1988 63 p Sponsored by 
NASA. WasNngton, D.C. 

(NASA-CR-183219; JPL-PUBL^2-68-REV-1; NAS 1,26:183219) 
Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 03A 

The NASA Deep Space Network operates and nuwitains the 
Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft 
expkxing the solar system. It is NASA's poHcy to also make the 
Network's facilities available for radk>as&onomy observatkxis. The 
Network's microwave communication systems and fadlities are 
being continually upgraded. This revised document, frst putfished 
in 1 982. describes the Network's a^rent radk>astronomy 
capabttities and futile capabHities that wtti be made available by 
the ongoing Network upgrade. The Biblk>graphy. whfch includes 
published papers and artrcles resulting from radkukstronomy 
observations conducted with Network facHities. has been updated 
to inchjde papers to May 1987. Mhor 



ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 

Includes Costs and Cost Analysis. Cost Control and Cost 
Effectiveness. Productivity and Efficiency. Econom^s and Trade. 
Financial Management and Finance. Investments, Value arxJ Risk 
(Monetary), Budgets and Budgeting, Marketing and Market 
Research. Consumerism, Purchasing, Sales. Commercialization, 
Competition, Accounting. 



A68-10850 

HAS MANNED SPACE FUGHT A FUTURE? 

M. H. HARRISON Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340), vol. 29, Sept 
1987, p. 325-328. 

The need for manned space flights in the future is argued. 
The functions humans can perform in space, such as respond to 
emergeroces, improve equipment, and monitor in real time, and 
the benefits human presence in space will provkje are described. 
Current and proposed uses for space, such as telecommunk^ations, 
remote sensing, military, and materials processing, are discussed. 

I.F 



83 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



A88-13451# 

BUSINESS ISSUES OF MATERIALS PROCESSING IN SPACE 

JOHN J. EGAN {Coopers and Lybrand, Washington, DC) IN: 
The commercial use of space stations: The legal framework of 
trans-Atlantic cooperation; International Cotloquium, Hanover. 
Federal Republic of Germany. June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. Bonn, 
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt. 1986, p. 
175-180. 

The complementary roles of government and business in 
developing commercial materials processing in space (MPS) are 
discussed. The potentially long duration, high cost, and risk of the 
development phase of a typical MPS venture are emphasized, 
and the political implications are indicated. A number of ways in 
which the U.S. government could act to encourage commercial 
MPS programs (a NASA policy goal) are considered, including 
elimination of tax and import/export barriers, construction and 
maintenance of a space infrastructure (the Space Station) with 
some support from user fees, opportunity for proof-of-concept 
experiments on MPS technologies, and clear and fair regulation 
of space-laboratory management questions. T.K. 



A88-14363 

LOW-COST COMMERCIAL LAUNCH VEHICLE - LIBERTY 

GARY 0. HUDSON (Pacific American Launch Systems, Inc., 
Redwood City. CA) SAE, Aerospace Vehicle Conference, 
Washington, DC, June 8-10, 1987. 12 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 871334) 

The design features of a low cost booster capable of inserting 
Space Shuttle-sized loads into low earth orbit are presented, and 
the commercial prospects for such a launch vehicle are assessed. 
Such ELVs are expected to be capable of furnishing highly reliable 
launch services on the basis of technology established as far 
back as the 1960s, foregoing all attempts to incorporate Al and 
robotics. Attention is given to the conclusions of studies into the 
commercial viability of ELVs that have been conducted by both 
NASA and independent researchers. Detailed specifications for 
the Liberty II launch vehicle are tabulated. O.C. 



ASS- 14368 

USSR EXPORT POSSIBILITIES IN THE FIELD OF SPACE 

HARDWARE 

VLADIMIR PODSADNIK (Glavkosmos, USSR) SAE, Aerospace 
Vehicle Conference, Washington, DC, June 8-10, 1987. 7 p. 
(SAE PAPER 871342) 

After presenting the pertinent performance capabilities of the 
Soviet Proton space launch vehicle, attention is given to such 
additional Soviet spacecraft systems possessing commercial value 
to Western business and government concerns as the Meteor 
earth resources satellite, the Mir orbiting space station, and various 
satellite launching and communication satellite leasing services. 
Also discussed are the parameters to be observed by foreign 
space experiment designers who wish to make use of the laboratory 
facilities aboard both unmanned Cosmos satellites and the Salyut 
manned space station for materials science-related researches. 

O.C. 



A88-16218# 

THE GEOSTAR APPROACH TO SPACE BUSINESS 

MARTIN A. ROTHBLATT (Geostar Corp.. Washington, DC) lAF, 
International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton. England. Oct. 
10-17, 1987. 3 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-627) 

The Geostar applications, technology implementation, and 
business statistics are briefly reviewed. The Geostar satellite 
communications applications include automatic vehicle monitoring, 
railway control and signalling, aeronautical/maritime 
communications, navigation, surveillance, personal communi- 
cations, law inforcement, and environmental monitoring 
Geostar technology implementation is summarized for the space, 
user, and control segments. V.L. 



A88-16221# 

SPACEHAB'S COMMERCIALIZATION OF MICROGRAVITY 

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 

THOMAS C. TAYLOR (SPACEHAB. Inc.. Washington. DC) lAF, 
International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton, England. Oct. 
10-17, 1987. 10 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-629) 

Spacehab, a module in the Space Shuttle offering a man-tended 
research capability, is discussed. The commercial market in space 
and Spacehab's possible role in speeding up its slow development 
are addressed. The lower costs of Spacehab in comparison with 
other alternatives are pointed out. The reduction of risks involved 
in the development of the Space Station is considered, and a 
proposed development scenario involving Spacehab is described. 
The basic design of Spacehab is briefly presented. CD. 

A88-16223# 

STATION PRICING - NOT JUST A QUESTION OF HOW MUCH 

DOES IT COST?' 

JOHN J. EGAN (The Egan Group, Washington, DC) lAF, 
International Astronautical Congress, 38th. Brighton, England, Oct. 
10-17. 1987. 6 p. 
(lAF PAPER 87-631) 

Aspects of Space Station pricing policy are discussed. The 
purpose of pricing is reviewed, and the use of pricing to influence 
customer behavior is discussed. Pricing methodology is addressed, 
and the issue of who pays is examined. CD. 

A88-16250# 

BENEFIT FROM SPACE TECHNOLOGY - A VIEW FROM A 

DEVELOPING COUNTRY 

Y. S. RAJAN and JACOB NINAN (Indian Space Research 
Organization, Bangalore, India) lAF, International Astronautical 
Congress. 38th, Brighton, England. Oct. 10-17, 1987. 37 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-679) 

The benefits of space technology for developing countries, 
including the potential to spur economic and social development, 
are discussed. Space technological applications for communi- 
cations, meteorology, and remote sensing are considered. 
It is noted that a national approach of education and experience 
is necessary to make space technology a part of the cultural 
system. Indian technological programs such as the satellite 
instructional television experiment are discussed, and the impact 
of space technology on Indian industry is considered. Parameters 
for determining the best possible uses of space technology for 
the cases of specific developing countries are outlined. R.R. 

A88-17923 

COST ESTIMATOR'S REFERENCE MANUAL 

RODNEY D. STEWART (Mobile Data Services, Huntsville, AL) and 
RICHARD M. WYSKIDA (Alabama, University, Huntsville, AL) New 
York, Wiley-lnterscience, 1987, 643 p. refs 

This manual offers proven techniques for cost estimating in a 
format that makes it useful to both novices and experts for a 
variety of purposes. It describes how to develop a credible and 
accurate cost estimate, where to get supporting information and 
data, what tools and techniques are available, and whom to contact 
about becoming certified, obtaining publications and information, 
and gaining education and training in the profession. In-depth 
discussions of estimating techniques are presented, including cost 
allocation, discounted cash flow analysis, learning curves, 
parametric estimating, risk analysis, and the use of microcomputers 
in cost estimating. Estimating in specialized situations, such as 
high-technology projects, construction, and government 
procurements and software development, is addressed. The 
emergence of cost estimating as an established profession and 
the use of aritificial intelligence in cost estimating are examined. 

CD. 

A88-21329 

SPACEPLANES - KEY TO THE FUTURE 

E. HOEGENAUER Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340), vol. 29, Dec. 
1987, p. 409-412. 



84 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



The requirements for third generation space-transportation 
systems are discussed. It is noted that the cost-damping effect 
hoped for in the Hermes program will be outweighed t>y factors 
such as expensive new technology. It is recommended that specific 
payload costs for space transportation should amount to at most 
20 percent of the costs for the same mission with Ariane arKt 
Hermes, and that development costs be kept to a minimum. Ottier 
guidelines include comparable safety and reliability to that of airlines 
ar>d tf>e use of manned flight only when necessary. R.R. 

A88-21532 
GOING MOBIL£ 

ERIC BRUS Microwaves & RF (ISSN 0745-2993), vol. 26. Dec. 
1987, p. 41-45. 47. 

By 1990. all rDetropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas 
close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular 
telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular senrtce. 
To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated 
rural areas, a mobile satellite sen^ice (MSS) is now being developed. 
In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are 
discussed, including a possitnlity that a piggyback-MSS payk>ad 
be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch 
in 1 988 or 1 989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted 
direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of 
building a new MSS satellite with large servrcing capacity. Canada 
is planning to launch its own mobile satellite. MSAT, in the early 
1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only 
people on land but maritime and aeronautk:al users as well. It will 
also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making 
it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistar>ce 
from locations beyond the range of cellular systems. I.S. 

A88-21571 

COMMERCIAL UTiUSATION IN U.K. EARTH OBSERVATION 

F. W. JACKSON {Marconi Space Systems. Ltd.. Portsmouth. 
England) (Columbus II; Proceedings of the Second Workshop. 
Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany. June 9-11, 1986) Space 
Technology - Industrial and Commercial Applications (ISSN 
0277-4488), vol. 7, no. 1-2. 1987, p. 161-164. 

Technological and management aspects of the commercial 
utilization of satellite remote sensing data are discussed, with a 
focus on the implications for the ESA Columbus program, 
summarizing results obtained by the Value Added Industry Panel 
of the UK Columbus Utilization Study Program. Toprcs addressed 
include applications and market identification and development, 
sensors and payloads, and data handling. The types of government 
and nongovernment customers interested in geologk:al. 
hydrological, coastal, marine, atmospheric, polar, land-use. 
agricultural, and forestry data are identified; the need for more 
generalized methods of data analysis is indicated; and the 
importance of data security and reliable sennce is stressed. A 
number of pilot projects to enhance the usability of remote-sensing 
data and inform potential users are recommended. T.K. 

A88-21652 

LAUNCHING A COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY 

VERNON L GROSE (Omega Systems Group, Ariington. VA) IN: 
Space Statbn automaton II; Proceedings of the Meeting, 
Cambridge, MA, Oct. 28-30, 1986. Bellingham. WA. Society of 
Photo-Optrcal Instrumentation Engineers, 1987, p. 190-200. 

Issues irwotved in the commercialization of space are discussed. 
The most important constraints on such commercialization are 
identified. The importance of expendable launch vehk:les and the 
effects of SDI are among the topics addressed. CD. 

A88-23866 

PLANNING OF RISK IN DEFENCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 

D. K. HOPKINS (Hunting Engineering, Ltd., Bedford, England) IN: 
Development time scales: Their estimatton and control; 
Proceedings of the Symposium. London. England, Feb. 12, 1987. 
London. Royal Aeronautical Society. 1987, p. 76-104. 

An examination is undertaken of the consequences of the 
current trend towards transferring the financial risks involved in 



the development of defense-related systems from the governmental 
customer to the contractor. The present fonnns of competitive 
fixed-price or incentive tender make it prot>able that the lowest 
bidder will not have covered all possible risks in the absence of 
an agreed-upon understanding and discipline for the assessment 
of such risks. Funding authorities must understand the approach 
to risk used by industry, as well as the meaning of propositions 
based on that approach. o.C. 

A88-23925# 

THE CIVIL SPACE PROGRAM: AN INVESTMENT IN AMERICA 

- REPORT OF AN AIAA WORKSHOP 

Washington, DC. American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautk:s. 1987. 64 p. refs 

In the interest of formulating a strategic view of U.S. civil space 
systems' development, the AIAA convened a wori^shop to review 
current arKl prospective commitrrients of NASA and other 
competent agencies. Such goals as the creatbn of space-based 
global information systems and the agressive development of 
space-processed industrial products require the intensive funding 
of space infrastructure resources. These resources will encompass 
space stations and platforms, lunar/planetary bases, and larger 
space transportation systems employing more advanced 
technology than the current Space Shuttle. O.C. 

A88-24452 

CHINESE LAUNCH VEHICLES AIM FOR THE COMMERCIAL 

MARKET 

PHILUP S. CLARK (Commercial Space Technologies. Ltd., London. 
England) Space Martlets (ISSN 0258-4212), Winter 1987, p. 
178-187. 

While the Chinese space program appears, in light of information 
t>eing made available to the West, to be on the verge of substantial 
expansion, its directron is presently judged to be substantially 
governed by the international response to China's offers of 
commercial satellite-launch sendees. This criterion wilt be especially 
relevant to the development of the next-generatk)n of the CZ-2/4L 
and CZ-3A/4L launch vehicles, each of which empkjys four strap-on 
lk:|uki rocket booster units for payload performance enhancement. 
Attention is presently given to Chinese satellite launch history thus 
far. and prospective development schedules and performance 
targets. o.C. 

A8a-27582# 

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CHOICES - ROI IMPLICATIONS 

CAROLE GAELICK and JOEL S. GREENBERG (Princeton 
Synergetics, Inc., NJ) IN: AIAA International Communication 
Satellite Systems Conference. 12th, Ariington. VA, Mar. 13-17, 
1988, Technical Papers. Washington, DC, American Institute of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988. p. 477-484. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0840) 

The selection of a space transportatbn system for a particular 
mission is a complex process that requires the conskteration of 
many factors including avaitat>ility. cost, paytoad delivery capability, 
payload placement accuracy, reliability of launch operations, 
failure/recovery rtKKles. and cost and availability of insurance. The 
importance of conskJering the multiple attributes of attemative 
transportatk>n systems in transportatbn selectwn is demonstrated 
in terms of financial impacts (profit, cash flow, return on investment, 
and risk) on a typical communications satellite business venture. 
The DOMSAT 111 stochastic communications satellite financial 
planning model used in the analyses is described, as are other 
applrcations of the model. Author 

A88-27584*# Ford Aerospace and Communications Corp., Palo 

Alto, CA. 

THE ECONOMICS OF SATELLITE RETRIEVAL 

KENT M. PRICE (Ford Aerospace and Communications Corp., 
Space Systems Div.. Palo Alto, CA) and JOEL S. GREENBERG 
(Princeton Synergetics, Inc., NJ) IN: AIAA Intematronal 

Communication Satellite Systems Conference, 12th, Ariington, VA, 
Mar. 13-17. 1988, Technical Papers. Washington, DC, American 



85 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988, p. 496-510. 
(Contract NAS3-24253) 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0843) 

The economics of space operations with and without the Space 
Station have been studied in terms of the financial performance 
of a typical communications-satellite business venture. A stochastic 
Monte-Carlo communications-satellite business model is employed 
which includes factors such as satellite configuration, random and 
wearout failures, reliability of launch and space operations, 
stand-down time resulting from failures, and insurance by operation. 
Financial performance impacts have been evaluated in terms of 
the magnitude of investment, net present value, and return on 
investment. R.R. 

A88-27954 

U.S. SPACE PLATFORM FIRMS AIM FOR 1991 SERVICE 

START 

THERESA M. FOLEY Aviation Week and Space Technology 
(ISSN 0005-2175), vol. 128, Feb. 29, 1988, p. 36-38,41. 

Two private firms must close deals in the first half of 1988 
with their respective investors, and begin constructing hardware 
shortly thereafter, if space operations of their pressurized space 
modules are to begin on schedule in the early 1990s. One of the 
two firms will construct an industrial Space Facility, at an estimated 
cost of $700 million; the other will produce 'Spacehab', a 
pressurized module small enough to fly in the Space Shuttle Cargo 
Bay. The projected cost of building and testing the first two 
Spacehab modules and associated ground facilities is $65-70 
million. O.C. 

A88-28537 

COMPETING FOR A FUTURE IN SPACE - NASA AND THE 

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 

ERASMUS H. KLOMAN Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4. 
Feb. 1988, p. 7-11. 

The distribution of financial support between the U.S. civilian 
and military space programs is discussed. The competition in such 
areas as launch systems, communication satellites, and remote 
sensing is examined, and consideration is given to the production 
of new pharmaceutical materials and new chemical or mineral 
compounds that cannot be made in the earth's gravity-bound 
environment. The U.S. military space program. Including intelligence 
gathering, arms control monitoring, war planning, crisis 
management, and early warning of attack, is described. A.S. 

A88-28541 

ASIA IN SPACE - THE AWAKENING OF CHINA AND JAPAN 

ALAIN DUPAS (Paris, Unlversite; ONES, Paris, France) Space 
Policy (ISSN 0265-9646). vol. 4, Feb. 1988, p. 31-40. 

Progress made by China and Japan in space is reviewed with 
particular attention given to the ways in which the increasingly 
important role of these countries can be seen as a threat to the 
U.S. and Europe. It is noted that China is already a competitor on 
the satellite launch market, and will soon be able to market satellites 
which are simpler and cheaper than those offered by Western 
industry. Moreover, Japan is moving toward autonomy in all fields 
of space technology. It is anticipated that both of these countries 
will have a strong presence in space by the year 2000. K.K. 

A88-33602 

AN ECONOMIC MODEL FOR VENDOR SELECTION 

KWEI TANG (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) Journal 
of Quality Technology (ISSN 0022-4065), vol. 20, April 1988, p. 
81-89. refs 

An economic model for vendor selection is presented. There 
are two decision factors to be considered in the model: price and 
material quality. In developing the model, material quality is 
expressed in terms of monetary units, then combined with price 
to establish a cost-effective decision criterion for vendor selection. 
In addition, the interaction between material quality and the 
vendee's quality control function is discussed. It is shown that 
this interaction may affect vendor selection. Author 



A88-33743 
SPACE FOR RENT 

DAVID MACLENNAN (New Zealand Spaceflight Association) 
Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340), vol. 30, April 1988, p. 138-140. 

Two private-sector space projects that could provide important 
research and commercial manufacturing facilities in space In the 
early 1990s are discussed. The Spacehab module will be mounted 
in the Space Shuttle cargo bay to provide more experimental space, 
while the Industrial Space Facility will have two modules, one 
used for housing basic utilities needed for production and the 
other used to transport raw materials and to resupply equipment 
and finished products. The building and deployment schedules for 
these two projects are reviewed and their applications are 
discussed. C.D. 



A88-33781# 

MANAGING TEST PROGRAM RISKS 

ALFRED M. FEILER and ROBERT GEMINGER IN: Aerospace 
Testing Seminar, 10th, Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 10-12, 1987. 
Proceedings. Mount Prospect, IL, Institute of Environmental 
Sciences, 1987, p. 35-47. refs 

This paper describes the program risk management 
methodology that is currently in use on DoD system development 
programs. The risk analysis methodology employs probabilistic 
critical path networking, to account for and correlate the project 
risk factors. When applied to system test planning, testing, and 
evaluation, the risk analysis encompasses all test and test support 
activities. Input data includes variable activity durations, resource 
(labor, facilities, equipment) requirements, and cost factors. 
Typically, the risk analysis results are used to establish realistic 
schedules compatible with acceptable levels of technical, cost 
and schedule risks. Author 



A88-35084 

CONCEPT FOR PRIVATE FINANCING AND OPERATION OF 

THE SPACE STATION 

PETER M. STARK (Stark and Strobel Associates. Reston, VA) 

IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space missions and policy; Proceedings 

of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference. Boulder, 

CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA. Unlvelt, Inc.. 1987. p. 

507-511. 

(AAS PAPER 86-453) 

The paper considers a possible future in which the Space 
Station is operated by an international partnership of private sector 
firms. It considers the desirability of this scenario by examining its 
effects on the various players. It then suggests a series of steps 
by which such an arrangement might be brought about, including 
the agreements which would be necessary between the involved 
governments and the private sector, and the activities each would 
have to undertake to carry out its part of the bargain. Finally, it 
addresses whether NASA's baseline Space Station Operations 
Management Concept offers an indication that the Agency might 
be more willing to consider a private alternative than might 
othenwise be thought. Author 

A88-35155 

SPOT 1 - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF 

REMOTE SENSING 

PIERRE BESCOND (Spotimage, Reston. VA) IN: Aerospace 
century XXt: Space sciences, applications, and commercial 
developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS 
International Conference, Boulder, CO. Oct. 26-29, 1986. San 
Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc., 1987, p. 1631-1636. 
(AAS PAPER 86-299) 

The role of the Spot satellite in the French and in the 
international remote sensing effort is considered. The Spot satellite 
system and its ground segment are described, showing the 
functioning of the satellite as a remote sensor and the role of the 
ground segment in market distribution. Further innovations being 
made on Spot are addressed, and Spot's impact on the remote 
sensing industry is assessed. C.D. 



86 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



A88-35M5 

INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL OF MICROGRAVITY 

H. U. WALTER (ESA. Paris, France), C. BELOUET (Con^iagnie 
Generale d'Electricite, Centre de Recherches, Marcoussis, France), 
and Y. MALMEJAC (CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 
France) IN: Fluid sciences and materials science in space: A 
European perspective. Beriin and New Yoric, Springer-Veriag, 1987, 
p. 681-730. refs 

The current status of microgravtty research activities and 
materials processing in space (MPS) is reviewed with reference 
to work carried out in the U.S.. USSR, Japan, and Europe. In 
particular, attention is given to economic considerations for MPS, 
production of glasses, crystal growth from the melt, crystal growth 
from the vapor phase, crystallization of ir>organic materials from 
solutions, protein crystallization, and microgravity-adapted 
processes. Ftnaliy. recommendations for a European policy in the 
field of MPS are made. V.L 

AS8-41281 

THE ROL£ OF COMMERCIAL SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEMS 

COURTNEY A. STADD (DOT. Office of Commercial Space 
Transportation, Washington, DC) IN: Visions of tomorrow: A 
focus on national space transportation issues; Proceedings of the 
Twenty-fifth Goddard Memorial Symposium, Greenbelt, MD, Mar. 
18-20, 1987. San I^iego, CA, Univelt, Inc., 1987. p. 111-116. 
(AAS PAPER 87-116) 

In the years that have passed since the 1984 passage of the 
Commercial Space Launch Act. when the U.S. Corigress gave the 
Department of Transportation legislative authority to develop a 
regulatory program encouraging private-sector investment in 
commercial launch vehicles, successful development has t>een 
seen for a commercial spinoff of the DOD's Medium Laur^ch 
Vehicle, in the guise of the Delta II launcher. The DOD is noted 
to have made the commercial adaptatMtity of this ELV one of the 
primary criteria for selection of a contract winner. O.C. 

A88-42901# 

SPACE TRANSPORTATION - THE COMMERCIAL USER'S 

PERSPECTIVE 

A. SIMANIS and ROBIN GUBBY (Telesat Canada, Ottawa) AIAA, 
Space Pro-ams and Technologies Conference, Houston, TX, June 
21-24. 1988. 8 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3492) 

The methodology used by the Canadian fimi Telesat for realizing 
a cost-effective launch is discussed. The determination of 
acquisition cost through analysis of satellite, launch, risk 
marwgement. finar>cir>g and management costs is examined. 
Factors affecting launch vehicle selection include reliability, payload 
compatitMlity, performance. contractual terms. program 
management arKi price. The goats in acquirir>g taur)ch services in 
the ELV nnarket are studied, focusing on the forthcoming Anik E 
satellite launches. Future launch needs are also examir>ed. R.B. 

A88-43963# 

THE FUTURE OF COMMERCIAL SPACE MANUFACTURING - 

RESULTS OF A DELPHI SURVEY 

TODD B. HAWLEY IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nontenestrial 
resources, bioscier)ces. arx^ space engineering; Proceedings of 
the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference, Princeton, NJ, May 
6-9. 1987. WasNngton, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987, p. 137-139. 

Prospective commercialization lifetimes have been projected 
for 12 proposed space commercialization products and processes, 
using the 'Delphi' method for obtaining a convergence of opink>n 
on a given line of speculation from a body of experts in the fieWs 
pertinent to such projections. Fifty experts participated in a 
two-round Delphi survey concerning the commercially feasible 
autonomous spacebome manufacturing of pharmaceuticals (1993). 
weapons systems (1996), semiconductors (1997). optics (2000), 
metallurgy (2002). tourism (2002). large-scale space stnictures 
(2005). lunar mining (2007). genetic engineering (2008), solar power 
satellites (2008), asteroid mining (2014), and self-replicating 
machtfies (2014). O.C. 



A88-43965# 

LADY BASE ONE CORPORATION AND THE MARKET FOR 

SPACE DEVELOPMENT 

W. F. MITCHELL, JR. (Udy Base One Corp.. Friendswood. TX) 
IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nonten^estrial resources, biosciences, 
and space engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth 
Princeton/AIAA/SSI (Conference, Princeton, NJ. May 6-9, 1987. 
Washington. DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987, p. 153-157. refs 

A proprietary commercialization scheme is presented for the 
development of market opportunities for lunar manufacturing and 
mining products, identifytng the technology development 
requirements for which tl>e launch vehicle, satellite industry, space 
research rrianagement, defense, and scientific communities will 
be responsible. The lunar t>ase*s construction should proceed 
concurrently with that of the NASA Space Station project; the 
base shouki be operational ar>d profitable by 1994. While it costs 
$3000 to deliver LOX from the earth to orbit it may cost as tittie 
as $136 to deliver it to earth ort>ft from the moon. O.C. 

A88-44003*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center. Cleveland, OH. 

SPACE COMMERCIAUZATION AND POWER SYSTEM 

TECHNOLOGY 

H. BRANDHORST, JR. and K. A. FAYMON (NASA, Lewis Research 
Center, Cleveland, OH) IN: Advanced topk» in manufacturing 
technology: Product design. t>k>er)gir>eering; Proceedings of the 
Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting. Boston, MA, Dec. 
13-18, 1987. New Yort(. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
1987. p. 61-72. 

The development and application of power and energy 
technologies important to the commercialization of space is 
discussed, stressing the signifk^ance of these technok»gies to space 
transportation systems. on-ort)it servk;es and on-ort)it commercial 
production and processing ventures. Energy conversk>n systems 
examined include solar photovoltak; systems, solar thermal dynamk; 
power systems, and nuclear power systems. Energy storage 
systems include electi'ochemk:al systems, inertial storage systems, 
and magnetic energy storage systems. In addition, power 
management ar>d distribution systems used in space 
commercialization and NASA programs for the commercial 
development of space are discussed. R.B. 

A88-44065 
SOCIETY IN ORBIT 

W. PAUL BLASE (DCS Corp., Alexandria, VA) and JOHN CAMP 
(USAF, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH) Space Worid (ISSN 

0038-6332). vol. Y-7-295. July 1988. p. 16-19. 

It is argued that, if cok>nfzatk>n of space is to be a smooth 
transition, the political, social, and ecorK>mic aspects of indtvkiual 
societies ar>d interactions between societies must be addressed 
well in advance. One important aspect of uriderstanding and 
plannir>g any space community wilt t>e its infrastructure: the physbal 
shell and life support systems that facilitate life in a vacuum. 
Cost structural inflexibility, and the extreme danger inherent in 
space life will influence the social structure and the government 
of the people that inhatHt the structure. It is suggested that the 
best method of fur>ding a space community is the corporate method, 
in which ttie colonists form their own corporation. K.K. 

A88-44718# 

21ST CENTURY HIGH SPEED TRANSPORT PROPULSION 

MARTIN G. SMITH, JR. (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford. CT) 
AIAA. ASME, SAE, and ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference, 24tii, 
Boston, MA, July 11-13, 1988. 9 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2987) 

The NASA-sponsored High Speed Commercial Transport 
(HSCT) program's marketing studies have given attention to 
300-passenger 6(X)0-n. mi. rar>ge supersonic transports operatir^g 
in the Mach 2-5 range. A key factor in the feasibility of such 
aircraft is the propulsion system chosen, which in addition to being 
fuel effk^nt must be reliable and environmentally acceptable. 
These studies have recently progressed to the point where the 



87 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



speed regime for the HSCT has been narrowed to Mach 2-plus 
to Mach 3-plus, using a kerosene-type fuel. A subsequent, more 
advanced vehicle may use liquid natural gas to cruise at speeds 
of up to Mach 5. O.C. 

A88-44805# 

FUNDING - A UNIFIED APPROACH 

TOM WARWICK (United Technologies Corp.. Pratt and Whitney, 

West Palm Beach, FL) AIAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE. Joint 

Propulsion Conference, 24th, Boston, MA, July 11-13, 1988. 7 p. 

refs 

(AIAA PAPER 88-3247) 

Relationships are presented to balance, allocate and reduce 
cost. These relationships are applied separately or together to 
assess life cycle cost (LCC) and its cost elements such as research 
and development (R & D), acquisition, and operating and support 
(O & S). The relationships are described using a unified approach 
to better determine preferred funding and total cost alternatives. 

Author 

A88-45603 

SPACE RESOURCES - BREAKING THE BONDS OF EARTH 

JOHN S. LEWIS (Arizona. University, Tucson) and RUTH A. 
LEWIS New York, Columbia University Press, 1987, 428 p. 

It is shown how space resources can be used to make a 
prospective space program affordable. Ways of reducing costs 
through the use of new technologies based on space resources 
are suggested. It is maintained that space activities can provide a 
net economic as well as scientific and technological gain for earth. 
The space races before and after 1968 are discussed together 
with lunar resource exploitation, the emergence of near-earth 
asteroids, current plans and goals for space development, and a 
proposal for a renewed space program. K.K. 

A88-48000# 

TITAN III - COMMERCIAL ACCESS TO SPACE 

STEPHEN J. GIZINSKI, III and DOUGLAS B. HERRINGTON (Martin 
Marietta Commercial Titan, Inc., Denver, CO) AIAA, Space 
Programs and Technologies Conference, Houston, TX, June 21-24, 
1988 9 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3476) 

The commercial Titan III launch vehicle is discussed, reviewing 
the history of the Titan program, the technical aspects of the 
launcher, and the market outlook. The solid rocket motors of the 
boost vehicle, core, attitude control system, and payload carrier 
are described. The vehicle can carry one or two payloads taking 
up a space of up to 3.65 m in diameter and 10.7 m in length. 
The avionics, communications, and electrical power systems of 
the vehicle are examined and the range of perigree stages with 
which the vehicle is compatible is given. An overview of the mission 
and the launch facilities is presented and future markets for 
commercial satellites are considered. R.B. 

A88-51826 

ECONOMICS OF SPACE AND THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT 

CHORLEY (House of Lords; Coopers and Lybrand Associates, 
London, England) Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4, Aug. 
1988, p. 180-186. refs 

The industrial and technical case presented to a UK government 
committee to determine space policy is examined. The arguments 
concerning the role of government in space development and 
economic analysis of the benefits from research and analysis are 
discussed. It is suggested that quantified analysis is usually 
misleading except in the case of space applications. The question 
of what commercial and technological benefits a government 
recieves from a space program is considered. R.B. 

A88-52317 

SPACE CONGRESS, 25TH, COCOA BEACH, FL, APR. 26-29, 

1988, PROCEEDINGS 

Congress sponsored by the Canaveral Council of Technical 
Societies. Cape Canaveral, FL, Canaveral Council of Technical 



Societies, 1988, 592 p. For Individual items see A88-52318 to 
A88-52373. 

Papers are presented dealing with commercial aspects of 
space, space business, robotics, space station technologies, 
artificial intelligence applications in space, lunar and Mars 
exploration concepts, launch vehicles, and systems automation. 
Topics covered include ground processing of experiments 
conducted in space, the development of a commercial expendable 
launch vehicle industry, a small LEO satellite bus, epitaxial thin 
film growth in space, development of space enterprise, negotiating 
governmental contracts, robots in Shuttle hardware, telerobotic 
Space Station applications, simulation of an articulated 
transporter/manipulator system, welding the Space Station 
common module prototype, modeling the environment of the Man 
Tended Free Flyer, and Space Station rapid sample return. Ground 
operations support by Al, expert system prototype developments. 
Mars mission profile options and opportunities, launch vehicle 
operations analyses, space launch systems resiliency, model-based 
reasoning for knowledge-based software project management, 
technology advances for Space Shuttle processing, real-time fault 
management for large-scale systems, information systems for 
Shuttle processing, orbiter maneuvering vehicle support to the 
Space Station, and hydrogen-air-steam combustion regimes in large 
volumes are also discussed. R-B. 

A88- 53696 

ANALYSIS OF R&D PORTFOLIO STRATEGIES FOR 

CONTRACT COMPETITION 

ARI P. J. VEPSALAINEN (Pennsylvania, University. Philadelphia) 
and GEORGE L LAURO (General Electric Co., Pittsfield, MA) 
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management (ISSN 0018-9391), 
vol. 35, Aug. 1988, p. 181-186. refs 

The authors extend eariier technology assessment methods in 
two ways. First, multiple attributes of product quality and firm's 
innovative strength In the respective technologies are viewed in 
aggregate, so as to balance the R&D portfolio and to maximize 
the expected returns on the discretionary funds. Second, rational 
competitor strategies are obtained through simulation based on 
relative technological capabilities and R&D budgets. Both discrete 
project portfolios and continuous capabilities and effort levels can 
be considered. These extensions are illustrated with an example 
drawn from defense contracting. I.E. 

A88-55445*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF COMMERCIAL SPACE ACTIVITIES 

BARBARA A. STONE (NASA, Office of Commercial Programs. 
Washington, DC) lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 39th, 
Bangalore, India, Oct 8-15, 1988. 6 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-566) 

This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the 
economy of selected private sector space activities including 
materials processing in space and satellite communications. 
Spacehab. a commercially developed and manufactured 
pressurized metal cylinder which fits in the Shuttle payload bay 
and connects to the crew compartment is examined along with 
potential uses of the Shuttle external tank. Private sector upper 
stage development, the privatization of expendable launch vehicles, 
and the transfer of NASA technology are discussed. CD. 

A88-55449*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

NEW INITIATIVES IN THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF 

SPACE 

JAMES T. ROSE and BARBARA A. STONE (NASA, Office of 
Commercial Programs, Washington, DC) lAF, International 
Astronautical Congress, 39th. Bangalore. India. Oct. 8-15, 
1988. 8 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-581) 

This paper provides a status report on aggressive new initiatives 
by the NASA Office of Commercial Programs to implement new 
commercial space policy. The promotion of a strong U.S. 
commercial presence in space via Spacehab, the Space Shuttle 



88 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



external tanks, privatization of the Space Station, and the 
development of commercial remote sensing systems is addressed. 
The privatization of launch services and the devetopment of a 
talent t>ase for commercial space efforts are considered. Groups. 
policies, and plans involved in these developments are discussed. 

CO. 

N88-10695# RAND Ck>rp., Santa Monica. CA. 

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: AN 

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 

STANLEY M. BESEN May 1987 81 p 
(Contract NSF IST-84-15297) 
(N-^01-NSF) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

A greater understanc^ was developed of how new information 
artd communications technologies may affect the economic system 
in which krK>wledge t>ased pro(^iCts and services are created, 
produced, packaged, distritxjted. and used. Examined are: (1) the 
economic basis for the systems of private property rights m 
intellectual property, copyrigtits. patents, and trade secrets; (2) 
the economic behavior of producers of intellectual property; (3) 
the effects of new technologies on that behavior; (4) the effects 
of the legal treatment of authors. put>tishers. padcagers. (fistrttxjtors, 
and users; (5) the issues involved in estimating the harm to 
producers of intetlectuat property that results from the introckiction 
of new technologies; and (6) various types of government 
intervention that may be used to promote the supply of intellectua] 
property. Author 

N88-13087# Office of Technology Assessment Washington. 

DC 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO CHINA 

Jul. 1987 249 p 

(PB87-223418; OTA-ISC-340; LC-87-619823) Avail: NTIS HC 

A11/MFA01 CSCL05A 

The Chinese context for technology transfer The Economic 
Issues; The Chinese context for tecfmology transfer Strate^es 
and issues for technotogy imports; The role of the United Stales 
in technology transfer to CNna; Policies of other supplier cowvtries: 
Japan, France, West Germany, and Britain; Ctiina's economic and 
political trends; Strategic implications of a modernizing China; aixi 
US policy choices are discussed. GRA 

N88-19381# National Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg. MD. 
STATUS OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: AN 
ECONOMIC/TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TO THE YEAR 
2000 Final Report 

E. AMBLER Jun. 1987 33 p 

(PB88-1 55775; NBSIR-87/3671) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL 05A 

The Department of Comn>eroe fias concluded, in a review of 
emergir>g techrK>logies and tfieir future impacts on the ecor>omy. 
that American businesses lag behind many of their foreign 
competitors especially the Japar>ese. m exploiting technological 
breakthroughs. The review was ordered k>y Deputy Secretary 
Clarence J. Brown in April 1986 to kientify the new technok)gies 
that will lead to new products or processes, analyze their 
commercializatk>n. and recommend mearis of reducing the fc>arriers. 
It is base6 on assessment t>y technk»l experts and agency heads 
within the Department They sbidied sdentifk; and industrial plans 
and the commerciatizatkKi process here and abroad. Remvks by 
Deputy Secretary Brown in releasing the report are ir»cluded. 

AutfKX 

N88-19477*# Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.. Huntsville. AL 

Engineering Center. 

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS 

SYSTEM FOR OSSA PAYLOADS Final Contractor Report 15 

Sep, 1086 - 15 Apr, 1087 

T. PALGUTA. W. BRADLEY, and T. STOCKTON Feb. 1988 

104 p 

(Contract NAS8-32697) 

{NASA-CR-4114; NAS 1.26:4114; LMSC-HEC-TR-D06601 5) 

Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22A 



The results of studies of the Office of Space Science and 
Applications* (OSSA) need for an integrated logistics system to 
support OSSA paytoads. wtiether attached to the Space Station 
or free-flying are detailed. An executive summary, tfte integrated 
logistics st4>port strategy, preparation of planning documents and 
a supportafc)ility analysis of the 1.8 meter centrifuge are 
discussed. 

N88-19478*# Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.. Huntsville. AL 

Engineerir>g Center. 

PREUMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS 

SYSTEM FOR OSSA PAYLOADS. VOLUME 1: EXECUTIVE 

SUMMARY 

T. PALGUTA. W. BRADLEY, and T. STOCKTON fn /is PfBliminary 

Analysts of an Integrated Lo^stics System for OSSA Payloads p 

1-23 Feb. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

The ptrpose is to descrit)e the logistics study background and 
approach to providing estimates of of k)gistics support requirements 
for Offk:e of Space Science and Applicatbns' payloads in Itie 
Space StatkKi era. A cor)cise summary is given of the study results. 
Future k>gistk:s support analysis tasks are identified. Author 

N88-19480*# Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.. Huntsville. AL 

Engir)eerir)g Center. 

PREUMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS 

SYSTEM FOR OSSA PAYLOADS. VOLUME 3: OSSA 

INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT PLANNING DOCUMENT 

T. PALGUTA. W. BRADLEY, and T. STOCKTON fn its Preliminary 

Analysis of an Integrated Logistk^s System for OSSA Payk>ads p 

63-83 Feb. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

Guidance in preparing and updatir>g an integrated k)gistk» 
si^pport plan (ILSP) is ^ven. Clear, concise, and detailed 
ir>structk>ns are provkjed on the preparatk>n and content of an 
ILSP in order to ensure a quality ckxnjment that reflects total 
program requirements. Author 

N8a-1948r# Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.. Huntsville. AL 

Engineering Center. 

PREUMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS 

SYSTEM FOR OSSA PAYLOADS. VOLUME 4: 

SUPPORTABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE 1,8M CENTRIFUGE 

T. PALGUTA. W. BRADLEY, and T. STOCKTON fn its Preliminary 

Analyst of an Integrated Logtstk:s System for OSSA Payloads p 

85-100 Feb. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

SupportabiKty issues for tt)e 1.8 meter centrifuge in ttie Life 
Science Research Facility are addressed. The analysis focuses 
on reliability and maintainability and the potential impact on 
supportability and affordability. Standard logistics engineering 
methodok>^es that will be applied to all Offk^ of Space Science 
and Applk^atior^s* (OSSA) payk>ad programs are outlined. These 
mettiodok>gies are applied to ttie 1.8 meter centrifuge. Author 

N88-20221*# Kansas Univ.. Lawrence. 

A COST ANALYSIS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF 

COMMONALITY IN THE FAMILY OF COMMUTER AIRPLANES, 

REVISED 

TOM CREIGHTON. RAFAEL HADDAD. LOUIS HENDRICH. DOUG 

HENSLEY, LOUISE MORGAN. MARK RUSSELL, and JERRY 

SWIFT Apr. 1987 111 p 

(Contract NGT-21 -002-080) 

(NASA-CR-182569; NAS 1.26:182569) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL05C 

The acquisition costs determined for the NASA family of 
commute airplanes are presented. The costs of the baseline 
designs are presented ak>ng with the calculated savings due to 
the commonality in the family. A sensitiyrty study is also presented 
to show the major drivers in the acquisitk>n cost calcutatkMis. The 
baseline costs are cateulated with the Nkx>lai method. A conrparison 
is presented of the estimated costs for the commuter family with 
the Bs^xxaX price for existing commuters. The cost cateulatwns for 



89 



07 ECONOMICS, COSTS AND MARKETS 



the engines and counter-rotating propellers are reported. The 
effects of commonality on acquisition costs are calculated. The 
sensitivity calculations of the cost to various costing parameters 
are shown. The calculations for the direct operating costs, with 
and without commonality are presented. Author 

N88-21085# Edgerton. Qermeshausen and Grier, Inc., Idaho 
Falls, ID. 

SPIN OFF BUSINESSES AS MECHANISMS FOR 
TRANSFERRING TECHNOLOGIES 

J. M. WELCH 1987 7 p Presented at the FLC Semi Annual 
Meeting: Headed for the Future, Sacramento. Calif., 3 Nov. 1987 
(Contract DE-ACO7-76ID-0157O) 

(DE88-005640; EGG-M-39887; CONF-871 1 1 53-1 ) Avail: NTIS 
HC A02/MF A01 

Federal Laboratories, especially those in rural settings, have 
the opportunity to participate in local economic development 
through spin off businesses based on laboratory technologies. Quite 
often, it is a laboratory employee who is one of the principals in 
the spin off business. Transferring technology to an employee 
can add a degree of complexity that is not normally faced in a 
transfer to an external requestor. Procedures followed at the Idaho 
National Engineering Laboratory by one of the prime contractors 
there, EG and G Idaho Inc.. are discussed in this article. DOE 

N88-21158# Analytic Sciences Corp., Fairborn, OH. 
ADVANCED AVIONICS SYSTEM ANALYSIS. MODULAR 
AVIONICS COST BENEFIT STUDY FORMULATION Final 
Report, Sep. 1983 - Jan. 1986 

WILLIAM L BEDZYK, DONALD R. CZECH, THOMAS J. DICKMAN, 
FRANK S. GRUBER. and JOHN F. MYERS Feb. 1987 77 p 
(Contract F33615-83-C-1053) 

(AD-A189019; TASC-J-5043; AFWAL-TR-87-1138) Avail: NTIS 
HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 09A 

This is a technical baseline for a cost benefit analysis of optional 
features of an advanced modular avionics architecture for the 
mid-1990s. It provides an outline of a projected life cycle cost for 
alternate configurations for future avionics (including cost for 
implementation and supportability). GRA 

N88-22219# Joint Publications Research Service, Ariington, VA. 
SPACE UTILIZATION PLANS 

TETSUHISA SHIRAKAWA in its JPRS Report: Science and 
Technology. Japan p 1-5 3 Mar, 1988 Transl. into ENGLISH 
from Ceramics Japan (Tokyo, Japan), Apr. 1987 p 262-268 
Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

Space utilization used to be an issue in fields such as 
communications, broadcasting, and meteorology. Such space 
utilization counts on the high altitudes of artificial satellites. 
Recently, the additional interest was shown in the utilization of 
such aspects of the space environment as microgravity and high 
vacuum. More concretely, interest is present regarding the 
possibility of material development, e.g., crystal growth, in a 
microgravitational environment where there is little difference in 
gravity between different materials and where no thermal 
convection is caused. Movements in that direction are already 
active in the United States and Europe. In Japan, space 
environment utilization is being tackled, regarding it as a field of 
space utilization, coming after rockets and artificial satellites. The 
present status of the Japanese space utilization programs is 
discussed. Author 

N88-22676*# Colorado Univ., Boulder. Center for Space and 
Geosciences Policy. 

NASA AND THE CHALLENGE OF ISDN: THE ROLE OF 
SATELLITES IN AN ISDN WORLD Final Report 

RADFORD BYERLY. FRANK BARNES, GEORGE CODDING, and 

JEFFERSON HOFGARD 25 May 1988 67 p 

(Contract NAGW-1 105) 

(NASA-CR-1 82749; NAS 1.26:182749) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 

A01 CSCL 12B 

To understand what role satellites may play in Integrated 
Services Digital Network (ISDN), it is necessary to understand the 



concept of ISDN, including key organizations involved, the current 
status of key standards recommendations, and domestic and 
international progress implementation of ISDN. Each of these areas 
are explained. A summary of the technical performance criteria 
for ISDN, current standards for satellites in ISDN, key players in 
the ISDN environment, and what steps can be taken to encourage 
application of satellites in ISDN are also covered. Author 

N88-22831# Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. CA. 
A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING AND CONTROLLING THE 
COST OF EXTENDING TECHNOLOGY Final Report 

WILLIS R. GREER. JR. 10 Mar. 1988 116 p 
(AD-A190717; NPS54-88-002) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 
CSCL 05C 

Both the theoretical and practical aspects of costing extensions 
of technology are addressed. A method for measuring the level 
of technology emt>odied in a system is developed. The increment 
in technology represented by a development project is found to 
be highly correlated with development time. Development time Is 
then broken down into normal and abnormal components, which 
are found to be con^elated with development cost. Cost control 
methods are developed. GRA 

N88-25690*# Freibaum (Jerry), Bethesda, MD. 
INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC MOBILE SATELLITE 
REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS: A COMPARISON OF 
OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION OF IMPLICATIONS 

JERRY FREIBAUM in Jet Propulsion Lab.. Proceedings of the 
Mobile Satellite Conference p 71(a)-71(f) May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 17B 

It is argued that we are on the threshold of a new multibillion 
dollar industry that can enhance economic development, 
dramatically improve disaster assessment and relief operations, 
improve rural health care and solve many safety and security 
concerns of the transportation industry. Further delays in resolving 
conflicts between vested interests will be extremely costly to users, 
providers and equipment manufacturers. Conference participants 
are urged to move quickly and decisively towards solving 
outstanding problems. Author 

N88-25691*# International Maritime Satellite Organization, 
London (England). 

MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICES: INTERNATIONAL 
CO-ORDINATION. CO-OPERATION AND COMPETITION 

OLOF LUNDBERG in Jet Propulsion Lab., Proceedings of the 
Mobile Satellite Conference p 71-78 May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 17B 

In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, 
coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it 
is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite 
service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile 
satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly 
protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are 
desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is 
in short supply. Author 

N88-25758*# Transit Communications, Inc., Pasadena. CA. 
MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES 

CARSON E. AGNEW, JAI BHAGAT. EDWIN A. HOPPER. JOHN 
D. KIESLING, MICHAEL L EXNER. LAWRENCE MELILLO, GARY 
K. NOREEN, and BILLY J. PARROTT (Satellite Mobile Telephone 
Co.) in Jet Propulsion Lab.. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite 
Conference p 539-544 May 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A23/MF A01 CSCL 17B 

Mobile satellite sen/ice (MSS) has been under development in 
the United States for more than two decades. The service will 
soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight 
U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium 
(AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will 
offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for 
organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The 
development and operation of MSS in North America is being 
coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA 



90 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first 
AMSC satellrte for MSAT-X activities and for government 
demonstrations. Author 

N88-26382# Los Alamos National Lab.. NM. Earth and Space 
Science Div. 

A BASIS OF SETTLEMENT: ECONOMIC FOUNDATIONS OF 
PERMANENT PIONEER COMMUNITIES 

ERIC M. JONES 1988 17 p Presented at the NASA Symposium 

on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Houston. 

Tex., 5 Apr. 1988 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-36) 

(DE88-010907; LA-UR-88-1110-REV; CONF-e8041 04-1 -REV; 

PAPER-LBS-88-016) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar 
development Dwng the earliest phases, when lunar facilities 
consist of a research and resource development complex with 
staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage 
local production of food, fuel, arxi building materials. Once tt>ese 
capat>ilities are in place and the rHjrT4>6r of persorv)el grows to a 
few hundred, staff rotation might well ck>minate transport txidgets. 
At that point it would make economic sense to erKXHjrage some 
memt>ers of staff to t>ecome permanent residents. By analogy 
with early British settlemerrt in Australia, a vigorous private sector 
economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided 
quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major 
employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By 
providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar 
organization would not only provkle a means whereby permanent 
residents would support themselves but coukj also accelerate the 
process of replacing imported goocte with local manufactures, 
thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent 
Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started 
makir^g money from sales to ort>ital customers, severance taxes 
and or royalty payments couM also provkte means by whk;h a 
lunar community coukj st4>port itself. DOE 

N88-29638# Los Alamos National Lab., NM. 

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CAPITAL COST ESTIMATING 

R. A. STUTZ and M. A. ZOCHER 1988 7 p Presented at the 

32nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Cost 

Engineers and the 10th International Cost Engineering Congress, 

New York, N.Y., 10 Jul. 1988 

(Contract W-7405-ENG-36) 

(DE88-005392; LA-UR-88-1 94; CONF-880728-1) Avail: NTIS HC 

A02/MF A01 

The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the 
at}ility to capture information that in the past could not be 
automated. The purpose of automation is rK>t to elimir^ate the 
expert cost er)gif>eer. The goal is to use available technok)gy to 
have more information available to the professionals in tt>e cost 
engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases 
in order to produce the hi^iest quality estimate arid project possible 
from all levels of cost engir>eers. We cannot overenriF^tasize the 
importance of using a ^>od source of expert irtformation in bulking 
these types of programs. Gart>age in, garbage out still applies. 
Expert systems technok>gy will become commonplace in many 
vertical markets; it is important to understand what can and cannot 
be accomplished in the fiekj. ar)d where this technok>gy will lead 
in the future. DOE 

N88-30460# Congressk>nal Research Servk:e, Washington, DC. 

Science Polk^ Research Div. 

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC BARRIERS TO INFORMATION 

TRANSFER 

JANE BORTNICK //? AGARD, Banriers to Infonnation Transfer 
and Approaches Toward Their Reduction 4 p Mar. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 

As international computer/communk>ations networtcs proliferate, 
the issue of limits to information trar^er t>ecomes more critical. 
Individual businesses and even entire industries depend upon the 
at)ility to transfer information on a gk»bal t>asis in a timely and 
cost-effective basis. Additionally, international cooperation in 



science and technology involves greater international collaboration 
and joint efforts. Barriers that threaten this capability ultimately 
reduce the growth of markets and limit innovation. For this reason, 
efforts are underway in t)ilateral and multinational negotiations to 
reduce barriers and establish consensus gukjelines in areas ranging 
from privacy to trade. Some of the spedfk; limitations to information 
transfer, including privacy, trade restrictions, national security, and 
telecommunk^ations regulations are focused on. It also highligtits 
international efforts to reduce these barriers and establish common 
approaches to facilitate information transfer. Author 

NB8-30469# Martin Marietta Corp., Denver, CO. Astronautics 

Group. 

SPACE SYSTEMS COST STUDY Final Report, Sep. 1987 - Feb. 

1988 

DOUG DILTS and CRAIG MOGENSEN Mar. 1988 195 p 

(Contract MDA972-87-C-0005) 

(AD-A1 96024; MCR-88-511) Avail: NTIS HC A09/MF A01 

CSCL22B 

The objective was to develop a metfKxk>logy and automated 
database/model that would enable DARPA to evaluate low cost 
satellite programs and appropriate cost reduction approaches. The 
methodology ar>d results are based on a point conceptual design. 
For the government to see the appropriate time phased impact, 
the parametric group recommends that when LIGHTSAT is 
awarded, an actual characterization be generated and the 
characterization live with tiie design and build life cyde. Real-time 
adjustnr>ents and decisions (cost and schedule) can be implemented 
from DARPASS data to arrive at the lowest possible program 
cost. GRA 



08 



LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 

Includes Inventory Management and Spare Parts, Materials 
Management and Handling, Resources Management, Resource 
Allocation, Procurement Management, Leasing, Contracting and 
Subcontracting, Maintenance and Repair. Transportation, Air Traffic 
Conti-ol. Fuel Conservation, Operations, Operational Programs. 



A88-11880# 

POWER AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SCHEDUUNG FOR 

SCIENTIFIC SPACE PLATFORM APPLICATIONS 

AMY L GEOFFROY, DANIEL L BRITT. ELLEN A. BAILEY, and 
JOHN GOHRING (Martin Marietta Corp.. Martin Marietta Data 
Systems Group, Bethesda, MD) IN: lECEC *87: Proceedings of 
the Twenty-second Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering 
Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Aug. 10-14, 1987. Volume 2. New 
York, American Institute of Aeror^utics and Astronautics. 1987, p. 
660-664. 

The MAESTRO scheduling system designed to handle 
resource-constrained scheduling problems is descrft>ed. The 
MAESTRO system uses activity nxxlels, a scheduling period, 
resource availability profiles, conditions profiles, arxi an activity 
list as inputs and a time line of scheduled activities, updated 
resource availability profiles, evaluations of the computed 
schedules, and a listing of activities t>y success level as outputs. 
The operations of the system are: activity selection, activity 
placement, resource profile updates, and contingency handlirtg. 
The user interactions and interface of the system are examined. 
The effects of sti^ategy selection on the schedule output are 
investigated, and n>ethods for handling power efficiency under 
different scheduling scenarios are proposed. I.F. 

A88-15286 

A MODEL FOR ENVELOPING SPACE STATION LOGISTICS 

REQUIREMENTS 

K. M. SEISER and R. E. GIUNTINI (Wyle Laboratories, El Segundo, 



91 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



CA) IN: Space Congress, 24th, Cocoa Beach. FL, Apr. 21-24, 
1987, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL, Canaveral Council of 
Technical Societies, 1987, 9 p. 

Since the inception of the Space Station Customer Logistics 
Study, it became apparent that a modeling process was needed 
to provide insight into the many sensitivities and relationships which 
exist among the numerous variables which impact Space Station 
customer accommodations and logistics support requirements with 
regard to their associated design requirements. This paper 
addresses the current design and operations of the Space Station, 
with emphasis on the Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory 
(MTL) which is the primary focus of the study and the model. 
Typical experiments planned for the MTL are addressed as well 
as their on-orbit operational and logistical requirements. A detailed 
description of the model developed under the study along with 
some of its many applications for scoping Space Station logistics 
requirements is presented. Author 

A88-15585 

UTILITIES SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT - FLYING 

DEMONSTRATOR 

I, MOIR and P. H. CAPENER (Smiths Industries Aerospace and 
Defence Systems, Ltd., London, England) IN: Aerospace Avionics 
Equipment and Integration Conference and Exhibit, Phoenix, AZ, 
Apr. 23, 24, 1986, Proceedings. Warrendale, PA, Society of 
Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1986, p. 77-87. 
(SAE PAPER 860851) 

The design and operation of the utilities systems management 
(USM) hardware developed for the UK Experimental Aircraft 
Program (EAP) demonstrator are presented In extensive drawings 
and diagrams and briefly characterized. The USM links the basic 
aircraft systems (fuel, engine, environmental control, secondary 
power, hydraulics, etc.) to the avionics or mission bus. It comprises 
a dedicated MIL-STD-1553B bus, distributed data-acquisition units 
with local processing and control, an integrated power control, 
and interfaces with the multifunction displays of the digital cockpit. 
The overall operation of the USM is outlined; and the system 
implementation and packaging are discussed. Particular attention 
is given to the use of relays (rather than solid-state devices) for 
discrete power switching. When compared to conventional utilities 
control systems, the USM is shown to provide weight and 
operating-cost savings of over 50 percent and an eightfold 
improvement in availability. T.K. 

A88-17941 

SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS • 1980-1985 

NICHOLAS L. JOHNSON San Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc. (Science 
and Technology Series. Volume 66), 1987, 297 p. refs 

A comprehensive overview is given of Soviet space activities 
and planning during the period 1980-1985, compiling and analyzing 
information derived from Soviet media releases, Soviet domestic 
and international technical papers, unclassified satellite tracking 
data, and Western publications. Chapters are devoted to support 
systems (launch vehicles and facilities and space surveillance), 
the major manned and unmanned programs, a chronological record 
of launches, and the main satellite constellations; each section 
concludes with a status description as of the end of 1 985. Extensive 
diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical 
data are provided. T.K. 

A88-20785*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

RESULTS OF NASA'S ENERGY EFFICIENT ENGINE 

PROGRAM 

CARL C. CIEPLUCH (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, 
OH), DONALD Y. DAVIS (General Electric Co., Evendale, OH), 
and DAVID E. GRAY (United Technologies Corp., Pratt and Whitney 
Div., East Hartford, CT) Journal of Propulsion and Power (ISSN 
0748-4658), vol. 3. Nov.-Dec. 1987, p. 560-568. refs 

The major activity undertaken in the NASA Energy Efficient 
Engine Program has been completed. This paper reports on the 
progress made toward achieving the program goal of developing 
advanced technology to significantly reduce fuel consumption and 



operating costs of future subsonic transport-type propulsion 
systems. An additional goal was that the advanced concepts be 
compatible with future environmental regulations. Along with the 
results obtained, a brief overview of the design details of both the 
General Electric and Pratt and Whitney energy efficient engines 
and the overall program scope are presented. Overall, this program 
has been highly successful; the technology developed during its 
course is, and will continue to be, effectively employed in both 
current and future advance transport aircraft engine designs. 

Author 

A88-22793 

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS 

PROGRAM 

JAMES A. RAY (U.S. Army, Aviation Systems Command, Saint 
Louis, MO) IN: AHS, Annual Forum, 43rd, Saint Louis, MO, May 
18-20, 1987, Proceedings. Volume 2. Alexandria, VA, American 
Helicopter Society, 1987, p. 915-924. 

The U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command has been 
implementing a Flight Safety Parts Program in conjunction with all 
Army prime helicopter manufacturers during this past year. This 
program is designed to provide for improved life cycle management 
of aircraft parts whose integrity is essential to flight safety. As 
such, a new approach to enhance quality assurance of the parts 
has been implemented to cover all phases including manufacturing, 
transportation, storage, maintenance, operational usage, and 
overhaul /repair. In addition, the overall safety and functional 
relibility is being enhanced by direct surveillance analyses and 
testing of new/ used parts on a recurring basis. The purpose of 
this paper is to define the overall program and to describe the 
specific details/status of its implementation. Author 

A88-23264 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS IN FUTURE ADVANCED AIR TRAFFIC 

MANAGEMENT 

G. C. HOWELL (Civil Aviation Authority, London, England) IN: 
Computer applications in aircraft design and operation; Proceedings 
of the First International Conference on Computer Aided Design, 
Manufacture and Operation in the Aeronautics and Space 
Industries, Paris, France, June 1 6-1 8, 1 987. Billerica, MA, 
Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987, p. 65-84. 

Some typical current ATC systems and existing areas of 
computer assistance to controllers are described. The role of 
automation and its relationship with human controllers is discussed, 
and a possible evolutionary route to the extensive use of automation 
compatible with flight safety is considered. The use of intelligent 
knowledge-based systems in future ATC computer systems is 
discussed, including plans for a U.K. research program in this 
area. CD. 

A88-23266 

COMPUTER-ASSISTED AIRCRAFT ARRIVALS MANAGEMENT 

USING SPEED CONTROL 

A. C. F. TYLER (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Air Traffic 
Control Research Div., Malvern, England) IN: Computer 

applications in aircraft design and operation; Proceedings of the 
First International Conference on Computer Aided Design, 
Manufacture and Operation in the Aeronautics and Space 
Industries, Paris, France, June 16-18, 1987. Billerica, MA, 
Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987, p. 95-105. refs 

This paper introduces the idea of computer assistance in ATC 
by describing a simple advisory aid which uses control of aircraft 
speed to produce an orderly flow of aircraft arriving in the terminal 
area. This results in delays being absorbed more efficiently. An 
indication is given of the potential use of computer prediction of 
aircraft trajectories to help controllers handle the arrivals 
management task in a scenario with increasing traffic flows. 

CD. 

A88-30775 

UTILITIES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON THE EAP 

DEMONSTRATOR - AIRCRAFT POWER SYSTEM 

INTEGRATION 



92 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



1. MOIR (Smith Industries, PLC, Cheltenham, England), A. G. 
SEABRIDGE. and J. M. LOWERY (British Aerospace, PLC. Preton, 
England) SAE, Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, 
Long Beach. CA, Oct 5-8, 1987. 12 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 871780) 

An integrated Lftilities Managenr>ent System (UMS) has t>een 
developed for the Experimental Aircraft Program demonstrator 
aircraft. Attention is presently given to the methodology used in 
the integration of the aircraft power systems into the UMS 
configuration. The reduction of the number of LRUs associated 
with the control of utility systems furnishes weight savings for the 
system as a whole; fault tolerance and access to aircraft systems 
data are also improved. Installed weight is reduced by 50 percent, 
operating costs by the same, and availability shows an eightfold 
improvement. O.C. 

A88-32191# 

THE EVOLUTION OF FORCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY 

T. F. CHRISTIAN, JR.. D. O. HAMMOND, R. S. MESSER (USAF, 
Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins AFB, GA), and J. B. 
COCHRAN (Lockheed Aeronautics Systems Co., Marietta, GA) IN: 
Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 29th. 
Williamsburg, VA, Apr. 18-20. 1988, Technical Papers. Part 1. 
Washington, DC. American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics. 1988. p. 133-137. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2228) 

USAF initiatives throughout the years have produced 
increasingly more effective methods of force managennent for 
individual aircraft and weapon systems. Present emphases are on 
automation, integration of data from the several Air Force data 
systems, and display of overall weapon system management 
information, i.e., functional systems, support, and production 
maintenance data as well as structural programs data. A 
computerized Automated Readiness Integrated Engineering System 
(ARIES) is toeing developed to provide tNs function. ARIES accepts 
data from the Air Force data systems, combines and performs 
simple operations as desired by the user, and displays the data in 
formats desired for use at the command level, and the operational 
level. Author 

A88-35094 

SPACE STATION PROPULSION (UTILIZATION OF EFFLUENTS 

FOR OPTIMIZED FLIGHT PROFILES AND STS LOGISTICS 

CAPABILITIES) 

S. M. BRENNAN (Boeing Aerospace Co.. Huntsville. AL) IN: 
Aerospace century XXI: Space flight technologies; Proceedings of 
the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, 
Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego. CA, Univelt, Inc.. 1987, p. 627-640. 
Research supported by the Boeing Aerospace Co. 
(AAS PAPER 86-260) 

Logistics-related features are the major contributors to operation 
costs in the NASA Space Station as a whole and in its propulsion 
system specifically; attention has accordingly been given to the 
reduction of the numt>er and weights of such factors, while 
improving the effectiveness of each Space Shuttle logistic flight 
to the Space Station in orbit. An economically attractive course 
involves the use of excess and waste fluids ger>erated aboard 
both the Shuttle and the Station in a combined 02/H2 water 
electrolysis and resistojet propulsion system. These fluids can be 
used to fly an optimized, variable-altitude profile that increases 
Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capabilities. O.C. 

A88-38753# 

MAINTAINABILITY - A DESIGN PARAMETER 

JAMES E. HOFF (BDM Corp., Albuquerque. NM) IN: AIAA Flight 
Test Conference, 4th, San Diego, CA, May 18-20, 1988, Technical 
Papers. Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1988, p. 463-468. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2184) 

This paper discusses maintainability as a design parameter. 
The discussion is slanted to provide the design engineer with the 
user prospective of maintainability. It presents the various 



maintainability factors that are evaluated by the users operational 
test and evaluation agency. Author 

A88-42333 

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM FOR THE PREPARATION OF 
AEROSPACE MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL FOR INSPECTION 
AND REPAIR OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 

JOHN B. GODWIN, JR. (San Jose State University, CA) IN: 
Materials - Pathway to the future; Proceedings of the Thirty-third 
International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition. Anaheim, CA, Mar. 
7-10. 1988. Covina, CA, Society for the Advancement of Material 
and Process Engineering. 1988, p. 116-123. 

An economical method is presented for the manufacture of 
aerospace composite material test articles used in preparing 
maintenarrce personnel for the inspection and repair of structures. 
Also given is a simple and innovative approach to the solution of 
problems involving the acquisition of samples of the composite 
structural elements used in demonstrating repair and inspection 
techniques. O.C. 

A88-42435 

INVENTORY BEHAVIOR AT REMOTE SITES 

WILLIAM C. LEWIS (Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Ml) 
IN: Materials - Pathway to the future: Proceedings of the Thirty-third 
International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Anaheim. CA, Mar. 
7-10, 1988. Covina, CA. Society for the Advancement of Material 
and Process Engineering, 1988, p. 1672-1684. 

Historical data obtained from NASA Space Shuttle operations 
are used as the t>asls of a study concerning prospective inventory 
behavior aboard the Space Station. The results obtained indicate 
the likelihood of a high logistics burden for the case in which 
Space Shuttle technology reliability criteria are applied without 
suitable modification to the Space Station's design. This 
techfKjIogy-carryover will not, in any event, be attempted. Attention 
is given to the effects of onboard repair capabilities and of 
extended-length missions on inventory management. O.C. 

A88-42912*# Flight Mechanics and Control, Inc., Hampton. VA. 
ADVANCED SATELLITE SERVICING FACILITY STUDIES 

GARRY D. QUAILS (Flight Mechanics and Control, Inc., Hampton. 
VA) and MELVIN J. FEREBEE, JR. (NASA. Ungley Research 
Center, Hampton. VA) AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies 
Conference. Houston, TX, June 21-24, 1988. 12 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4200) 

A NASA-Sponsored systems analysis designed to identify and 
recommend advanced subsystems and technologies specifically 
for a manned Sun-synchronous platform for satellite management 
is discussed. An overview of system design, manned and unmanned 
servicing facilities, and representative mission scenarios are given. 
Mission areas discussed include facility based satellite assembly, 
checkout, deployment, refueling, repair, and systems upgrade. The 
fenying of materials and consumables to and from manufacturing 
platforms, deorbit, removal, repositioning, or salvage of satellites 
and debris, and crew rescue of any other manned vehicles are 
also examined. Impacted subsytems discussed include guidance 
navigation and control, propulsion, data management, power, 
thennal control, structures, life support, and radiation management 
In addition, technology issues which would have significant impacts 
on the system design are discussed. R.B. 

A88-43300# 

DESIGNING FOR OPERATIONS PRODUCTIVITY ON THE 

SPACE STATION PROGRAM 

G. R. BENNETT and S. G. PADDOCK (McDonnell Douglas 
Astronautics Co., Space Station Div., Houston, TX) AIAA, Space 
Programs and Technologies Conference, Houston, TX, June 21-24, 
1988. 8 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3502) 

A systematic approach to operation analysis and the 
development of an automated Operations Management System 
(OMS) to enhance productivity and help minimize operation costs 
for tf>e Space Station are examined. The operation analysis process 
works with design engineering to derive requirements based on 



93 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



operational need, to enhance on-orbit crew productivity, improve 
flexibility of systems to respond to contingencies with less ground 
support workarounds, and to integrate all the funtions of operation 
planning and execution. The OMS is a software system which will 
take care of routine operations both on board and at ground 
facilities. The OMS will develop, manage, update and execute the 
Short-Term Plan, monitor the status of space station systems and 
payloads, manage inter-system and payload testing, maintain and 
log the station's global configuration, activity and state information, 
detect and manage resource conflicts, manage the global base 
caution and warning, perform global base fault management and 
reconfiguration, support the management of commands and the 
uplink and downlink of data, provide a global base inventory and 
maintenance management system and support on-board training 
and simulations. R.6. 

A88-43355 

A SIMULATION PROGRAM TO MODEL EFFECTS OF 

LOGISTICS ON R&M OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS 

OFELIA GONZALEZ-VEGA, JOSEPH W. FOSTER, III, and GARY 
L. HOGG (Texas A & M University. College Station) IN: Annual 
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 
26-28, 1988, Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical and 
Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1988, p. 306-313. refs 

A simulation program (SIMULAV) is presented that is capable 
of modeling large-scale reliability systems. The program can model 
the effect of such logistics characteristics as inventory, 
transportation, and facilities on the reliability and availability of the 
system. The program is written in Pascal and it consists of three 
main elements: a process-oriented simulation language, a minimal 
cut-sets algorithm, and a simulation model to estimate the 
availability of a complex system. The model is implemented using 
the process-oriented simulation language and it uses the minimal 
cut-sets to determine system failure. It assumes that the system 
can be represented by a reliability block diagram. Examples are 
modeled to show how SIMULAV can be used to assess the effect 
of some logistic parameters on the availability of the system. 

I.E. 

A88-43372* Boeing Co., Seattle, WA. 

SPACE STATION SYNERGETIC RAM-LOGISTICS ANALYSIS 

EDMUND T. DEJULIO (Boeing Co., Seattle, WA) and JOEL H. 
LEET (NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL) IN: 
Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, 
Jan. 26-28, 1988. Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical 
and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1988, p. 410-415. 

NASA's Space Station Maintenance Planning and Analysis 
(MP&A) Study iG a step in the overall Space Station Program to 
define optimum approaches for on-orbit maintenance planning and 
logistics support. The approach used in the MP&A study and the 
analysis process used are presented. Emphasis is on maintenance 
activities and processes that can be accomplished on orbit within 
the known design and support constraints of the Space 
Station. From these analyses, recommendations for main- 
tainability/maintenance requirements are established. The 
ultimate goal of the study is to reduce on-orbit maintenance 
requirements to a practical and safe minimum, thereby conserving 
crew time for productive endeavors. The reliability, availability, and 
maintainability (RAM) and operations performance evaluation 
models used were assembled and developed as part of the MP&A 
study and are described. A representative space station system 
design is presented to illustrate the analysis process. I.E. 

A88-43967# 

SPACE STATION TOOL KIT 

WILLIAM LEWIS (Washington, University. Seattle), DWtGHT 
WAHLBERG (California. University, La Jolla). and ARCHIE 
BREEDEN IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial resources, 
biosciences, and space engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth 
Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference. Princeton, NJ. May 6-9, 1987. 
Washington. DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987. p. 167-170. 

Since a module-replacement strategy cannot furnish complete 



coverage of all possible system failures on the NASA Space Station, 
an attempt is presently made to identify those tools that may be 
most efficiently and with the minimum possible mass employed to 
undertake component-level repairs and maintenance improvisation. 
This speculative 'tool kit' is intended to demonstrate the possibility 
of very general purpose tools, as well as to adumbrate the character 
of prospective on-orbit repairs. Electrical, electronic, piping, 
structural, and informational components would be encompassed 
by the kit. O.C. 

A88-50192# 

COMPONENT MODEL REDUCTION BY COMPONENT COST 

ANALYSIS 

R. E. SKELTON (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN), R. SINGH, 
and J. RAMAKRISHNAN (DYNACS Engineering Co., Inc.. 
Cleanwater, FL) IN: AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control 
Conference, Minneapolis, MN, Aug. 15-17, 1988, Technical Papers. 
Part 1. Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1988, p. 264-274. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-4086) 

Large scale mechanical systems are composed of 
interconnected dynamic components. This paper seeks to simplify 
the model of each dynamic component so that the overall system 
is a manageable size. Models of components are reduced so as 
to approximate the response of all components and the nonworking 
constraint forces acting on all components. The technique is an 
extension of component cost analysis which decompose the norm 
of the response vector (in this case the response and the vector 
of nonworking constraint forces) into contributions of each 
coordinate of each component. In this way the coordinates can 
be ranked according to their contribution and deleted accordingly. 

Author 

A88-53148# 

VEHICLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - THE LOGICAL 

EVOLUTION OF INTEGRATION 

STEVE W. JACOBS (McDonnell Aircraft Co., Saint Louis. MO) 
and CHARLES A. SKIRA (USAF, Aero Propulsion Laboratory, 
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH) AIAA, ASME. SAE, and ASEE, Joint 
Propulsion Conference, 24th, Boston, MA, July 11-13, 1988. 9 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3175) 

Vehicle management is the integrated control of the flight, 
propulsion, and aircraft utility systems. The implementation of this 
concept into a control architecture forms a Vehicle Management 
System (VMS). A practical VMS design can provide significant 
performance and supportability benefits to military aircraft. 
Performance enhancements are achieved by integrated control to 
optimize previously independent systems. Supportability is 
increased through the comprehensive diagnostics, component 
commonality, and reduced complexity provided by integrated digital 
systems. This paper reviews the concept of a VMS and addresses 
the issues of functional and physical integration. A generic approach 
to VMS design is outlined and illustrated. Key elements for future 
VMS bench and flight demonstration are also identified. Author 

A88-54333# 

RECENT ADVANCES IN ENGINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT 

KENNETH PIPE and CELIA FISHER (Stewart Hughes. Ltd.. 

Southampton, England) ASME, Gas Turbine and Aeroengine 

Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 6-9, 1988. 

6 p. Research supported by the Ministry of Defence Procurement 

Executive. 

(ASME PAPER 88-GT-257) 

New measurement capabilities developed in the last five years 
have greatly enhanced the ability of monitoring systems to produce 
acceptable engine distress and maintenance information to pilots. 
The more recent advances are particularly useful for military and 
helicopter engines. This paper describes three new techniques, 
with descriptions of their application. These include direct 
aerodynamic thrust measurement, gas path distress analysis and 
analysis of the dynamic behavior of gas turbines. The paper 
concludes by suggesting the impact of these techniques on systems 
design for future engines. Author 



94 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



A8a-54852*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington, DC. 

HOW THE STATION WILL OPERATE 

JOHN T, COX (NASA, Space Station Program Office, Washington. 
DC) Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X), vol. 26. Sept 1988, 
p. 20-22. 27. 

Aspects of the upcoming operational phase of the Space Station 
(SS) are examined. What the crew members will do with their 
time in their specialized roles is addressed. SS maintenance and 
senrtcing and the interaction of the SS Control Center with Johnson 
Space Center is discussed. The planning of payload operations 
and strategic planning for the SS are examined. CD. 

AM-55041 

COST BENEFITS OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING IN 

AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

DONALD J. HAGEMAIER (Douglas Aircraft Co.. Long Beach. CA) 
Materials Evaluation (ISSN 0025-5327). vol. 46. Sept 1988, p. 
1272. 1274. 1275 (7 ff,). refs 

Some specific benefits and cost savings resulting from the 
effective impementation of nondestructive inspection in conjunction 
with aircraft maintenar>ce are identified. It is r>oted ttiat specrftc 
costs associated with a given nondestructive test or inspection 
should be considered in relation to consequential upstreaun 
manufacturing costs associated with nondestructive evaluation 
(e.g.. the reduced yield because of the parts that fail tests) and 
consequentiat downstream cost savirtgs (e.g., decreased premature 
removal rate, reduced failure rate, and reduced liability costs). In 
most situations, these indirect costs are much larger than the 
direct costs associated with nondestructive testing. The need for 
developing the engineering ar>d ecofK>mic methodology to optimize 
tradeoffs between downstream cost savings and inspection and 
manufacturing costs is emphasized. V.L 

N88-10782# Transportation Research Board. Washington. DC. 
ISSUES IN AIR TRANSPORT AND AIRPORT MANAGEMENT 

J. P. SCHWIETERMAN. F. A. SPENCER, M. GHAFOURI. T. N. 
LAM, and J. R. G. BRANDER 1986 58 p 
(PB87-204509; TRB/TRR-1094; ISBN-0-309-04114-7; 
LC-87-7628) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

The six papers in this report deal with the following: alternatives 
to the hub; a survey of nonstop air service opportunities; 
accessibility in the deregulated domestic alriine networic; atr 
transport deregulation and airport congestion; the search for 
efficient solutions; methodology for planning arxj operations 
management of airport terminal facilities; a prescription for efficient 
management of the Canadian Government's civilian aircraft fleet; 
and analyzing the firtancial impact on airports of remote airport 
ground transportation. GRA 

N88-12342*# Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Paric. 

NC. 

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS AND 

OPERATIONS RESEARCH TO SPACE STATION LOGISTICS 

FUNCTIONS 

THOMAS F. LIPPIATT and DONAIX) WATERMAN Jun. 1985 

73 p 

(Contract NAS10-10438) 

(NASA-CR-1 80473; NAS 1.26:180473; N-2315-NASA) Avail: 

NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 12B 

The applicat>ility of operations research, artificial intelligertce. 
ar>d expert systenrts to logistics problems for the space station 
were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for 
space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a 
specific course of action in each area is suggested. B.G. 

N88-12970# Eurocontrol Experimental Cemre, Bretigny 

(France). 

EXPERIMENTAL USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR 

(FUTURE) ATC SYSTEMS 

F-KRELLA 15 Sep. 1986 52 p 

(PB87-1 06449; EEC/NOTE-15/86) Avail: NTIS HC E04/MF E04 

CSCL09B 



An expert system shell and an expert system were implemented 
on an IBM compatible mainframe computer. The expert system 
ref^^esents a planning position of an air traffic controller suite, 
where aircraft conflicts are resolved prior to entry in a control 
zone by height separation. The expert system's findings are 
represented on a graphical screen. The planning position 
corresponds to an implementation made for a real time simulation. 
CAPE, the computer aided planning experiment. GRA 

N88-14990# Computer Resource Management, Inc.. Vienna, 

VA. 

CHICAGO'S O'HARE RUNWAY CONFIGURATION 

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ROMS). VOLUME 1: DESCRIPTION 

OF THE OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE 

ANTHONY BRADLEY. HELEN MONK, and EDWARD JAGGARD 

Jul. 1987 94 p 

(Contract DTFA03-85.C-00046) 

(AD-A185886; DOT/FAA/CT-86/15-1) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF 

A01 CSCL 01 E 

Volume I of this report describes the proposed Runway 
Configuration Management System (RCMS) operational software 
for review by the facility personnel. It also serves as an input to 
RCMS functional specifications for the Traffic Management System 
(TMS) program. Using interactive computer logic, RCMS helps 
supervisors select runway configurations wtiich reduce aircraft 
delays by optimizing throughput capacity in dynamic operational 
environments. Author (GRA) 

N8&-15783# Computer Resource Management, Inc.. Vienna, 

VA. 

CHICAGO'S O'HARE RUNWAY CONFIGURATION 

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RCMS). VOLUME 2: USERS GUIDE 

ANTHONY BRADLEY, HELEN MONK, and EDWARD JAGGARD 

Jul. 1987 113 p 

(Contract DTFA03-85-C-00046) 

(AD-A186222; DOT/FAA/CT-86/15-2) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF 

A01 CSCL 01 E 

Volume I of this report describes the proposed Runway 
Configuration Management System (RCMS) operational software 
for review by the facility personnel. It also serves as an input to 
RCMS functional specifications for the Traffic Management System 
(TMS) program. Using interactive computer logic, RCMS helps 
supervisors select mnway configurations which reduce aircraft 
delays by optimizing throughpxjt capacity in dynamic operational 
environments. Volume II of this report is the User's Guide to the 
RCMS. Author (GRA) 

N88-16427*# Computer Sciences Corp.. Beltsville, MD. System 
Sciences Div 

THE RESOURCE ENVELOPE AS A BASIS FOR SPACE 
STATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SCHEDULING 

JOY BUSH and ANNA CRITCHFIELD in NASA. Marshall Space 

Flight Center. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space 

Applications, Part 1 p 377-381 Nov. 1987 

(Contract NAS5-28620) 

Avail: NTIS HC A18/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

The Platform Management System (RMS) Resource Envelope 
Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system prototype developed 
for space station scheduling is descrit)ed. The purpose of 
developir)g the prototype was too investigate the resource erwelope 
concept in a practical scheduling application, usir>g a commercially 
available expert system shell. PRESS is being developed on an 
IBM PC/AT using Teknowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell. 

Author 

N88-16699*# National Aeronautics and Space Administi-ation. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. 

LEWIS MATERIALS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY: AN 

OVERVIEW 

SALVATORE J. GRISAFFE In its Aeropropulsion '87. Session 1: 
AerofM^opulsion Materials Research 8 p Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a 



95 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



long record of contributions to both materials and process 
technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature 
phenomena. An overview of the division staff, facilities, past history, 
recent progress, and future interests is presented. Author 

N88-18598# Army Construction Engineering Research Lab.. 
Champaign, IL 

MICRO PAVER CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT AIRPORT 
PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Final Report 

MOHAMED Y. SHAHIN. KATHRYN A. CATION, and MARGARET 

R. BROTEN Jul. 1987 43 p 

(Contract DTFA01-86-Z-02040) 

(AD-A1 87360; CERL-TR-M-87/12; DOT/FAA/PM-87/8) Avail: 

NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

Micro PAVER is a microcomputer version of the PAVER 
Pavement Maintenance Management System. PAVER is a 
field-tested, validated pavement maintenance management for 
airports, cities, counties, and military installations which is designed 
to optimize the funds allocated for pavement maintenance and 
rehabilitation (M and R). This report discusses the development 
of the Micro PAVER program and its capabilities in the areas of 
pavement network inventory, project prioritization, inspection 
scheduling, determining present and future network condition, 
determining maintenance and rehabilitation needs, budget planning, 
and economic analysis. The Micro PAVER technology is based 
on the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) survey and rating procedure 
developed at USA-CERL, The PCI. which is a numerical index 
from to 100, is a measure of the pavement's structural integrity 
and operational condition and is computed as a function of distress 
type, severity, and quantity. The PCI provides an objective and 
consistent measure of pavement condition. Micro PAVER provides 
data and procedures for practical decisionmaking to identify 
cost-effective maintenance and rehabilitation needs for roads, 
streets, parking lots, and airfield pavements. GRA 

N88-19479*# Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Huntsville, AL. 

Engineering Center. 

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS 

SYSTEM FOR OSSA PAYLOADS. VOLUME 2: OSSA 

INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT STRATEGY 

T. PALGUTA, W. BRADLEY, and T. STOCKTON In its Preliminary 

Analysis of an Integrated Logistics System for OSSA Payloads p 

25-61 Feb. 1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22A 

The purpose is to outline an Office of Space Science and 
Applications (OSSA) integrated logistics support strategy that will 
ensure effective logistics support of OSSA payloads at an 
affordable life-cycle cost. Program objectives, organizational 
relationships, and implementation of the logistics strategy are 
discussed. Author 

N88-20202*# National Academy of Engineering, Washington, 

DC. Committee on Shuttle Criticality Review and Hazard Analysis 

Audit. 

POST-CHALLENGER EVALUATION OF SPACE SHUTTLE RISK 

ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT 

Jan. 1988 150 p 

(Contract NASW-4003) 

(NASA-CR-1 82461; NAS 1.26:182461; PB88-1 90624) Avail' 

NTIS HC A07/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

As the shock of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident began 
to subside, NASA initiated a wide range of actions designed to 
ensure greater safety in various aspects of the Shuttle system 
and an improved focus on safety throughout the National Space 
Transportation System (NSTS) Program. Certain specific features 
of the NASA safety process are examined: the Critical Items List 
(CIL) and the NASA review of the Shuttle primary and backup 
units whose failure might result in the loss of life, the Shuttle 
vehicle, or the mission; the failure modes and effects analyses 
(FMEA); and the hazard analysis and their review. The conception 
of modern risk management, including the essential element of 
objective risk assessment is described and it is contrasted with 
NASA's safety process in general terms. The discussion, findings. 



and recommendations regarding particular aspects of the NASA 
STS safety assurance process are reported. The 1 1 subsections 
each deal with a different aspect of the process. The main lessons 
learned by SCRHAAC in the course of the audit are summarized. 

B.G. 

N88-24576# Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ. 

Office of Aviation Policy and Plans. 

FAA AVIATION FORECASTS FISCAL YEARS 1988-1999 

Feb. 1988 195 p 

(AD-A191711; FAA-APO-88-1) Avail: NTIS HC A09/MF A01 

CSCL 01 A 

This report contains Fiscal Years 1988-1999 FAA forecasts 
of aviation activity at FAA facilities. These include airports with 
FAA control towers, air route traffic control centers, and flight 
service stations. Detailed forecasts were made for the four major 
users of the National Aviation System: air carriers, air 
taxi/commuters, general aviation and the military. The forecasts 
have been prepared to meet the budget and planning needs of 
the constituent units of the FAA and to provide information that 
can be used by state and local authorities, by the aviation industry, 
and by the general public. The overall outlook for the forecast 
period is for continued economic growth, rising real fuel prices, 
and moderate inflation. Based upon these assumptions, aviation 
activity by fiscal year 1 999 is forecast to increase by 33.4 percent 
at towered airports, 33.5% at air route traffic control centers, and 
1 1 .7% in flight sen/ices performed. Hours flown by general aviation 
are forecast to increase 6.1% and helicopter hours flown, 33.3%. 
Scheduled domestic revenue passenger miles (RPMs) are forecast 
to increase by 81.3%, and regionals/commuters by 16.9%. percent. 
Scheduled domestic revenue passenger miles (RPM's) are forecast 
to increase 75.8 percent, with scheduled international RPM's 
forecast to increase by 81.3 percent, and regionals/commuters 
RPM's forecast to increase by 16.9 percent. GRA 

N88-25453*# Systems Control Technology, Inc., Ariington. VA. 
ZERO/ZERO ROTORCRAFT CERTIFICATION ISSUES. 
VOLUME 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Final Report 

RICHARD J. ADAMS Jul. 1988 33 p 

(Contract NAS2-1 2478) 

(NASA-CR-1 77483-VOL-1; NAS 1.26:177483-VOL-1; 

DOT/FAA/PS-88/8-VOL-1; DOT/FAA/DS-88/2-VOL-1) Avail: 

NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification 
Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, 
researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis 
is the zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft 
operations are feasible today from both a technological and an 
operational standpoint. The questions and issues that need to be 
resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to ensure 
safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the 
performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft. Will 
exptremely low visibility operations be economically feasible. This 
is Volume 1 of three. It provides an overview of the Certification 
Issues Forum held in Phoenix, Arizona in August of 1 987. It presents 
a consensus of 48 experts from government, manufacturer, and 
research communities on 50 specify Certification Issues. The topics 
of Operational Requirements, Procedures. Airworthiness, and 
Engineering Capabilities are discussed. Author 

N88-25454*# Systems Control Technology, Inc.. Ariington, VA. 
ZERO/ZERO ROTORCRAFT CERTIFICATION ISSUES. 
VOLUME 2: PLENARY SESSION PRESENTATIONS Final 
Report 

RICHARD J. ADAMS Jul. 1988 84 p 

(Contract NAS2-12478) 

(NASA-CR-1 77483-VOL-2; NAS 1.26:177483-VOL-2; 

DOT/FAA/DS-88/2-VOL-2; DOT/FAA/PS-88/8-VOL-2) Avail: 

NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 01 C 

This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification 
Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, 
researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis 
is that zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft 



96 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



operations are f eastote today from both a techrK>logical arxl an 
operational standpoint The (^lestions and issues that need to be 
resolved are: What certification requflnements do we need to ensure 
safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the 
performance and maneuvering capat)ilities unique to rotofcrafL WHI 
extremely low vistoiKty operations l>e economicaWy feasible. Ttws 
is Volume 2 of ttvee. It presents the operator perspectives (system 
needs), applicable tedmlogy and zero/zero concepts developed 
in the first 12 months of research of this protect Author 

N88-25455*# Systems Control Technology. Inc.. Artington, VA. 
ZERO/ZERO ROTORCRAFT CERTIFtCATION ISSUES. 
VOLUME 3: WORKING GROW RESULTS Final Report 

RICHARD J. ADAMS M. 1988 62 p 

(Contract NAS2-1 2478) 

(NASA-CR-177483-VOL-3; NAS 1^:177483-VOL-3; 

DOT/FAA/DS-e8/2-VCM..3; DOT/FAA/PS-88/8-VOL-3) AvaH: 

HT\S HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 01C 

This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification 
Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, 
researchers and the FAA. The basic premise beNnd this analysis 
is that zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft 
operations are feasible today from both a technological and an 
operational stanc^KWrt. The c^iestions and issues that need to be 
resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to enswe 
safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the 
performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft m\ 
extremely low vistoiWy operations be economically feasible. This 
is Volume 3 of three. It provides the issue-by-issue deliberations 
of the experts involved in the Working Groi4>s assigned to deal 
with them in the Issues Forum. Author 

N88-25470*# National Aeronautics and Space AiMnistration. 
Lewis Research Cerfter. Cleveland. OH. 
WEIGHT SAVINGS M AEROSPACE VEHICLES THROUGH 
PROPELLANT SCAVENGING 

STEVEN J. SCHNEIDER and BRIAN D. REED 1988 25 p 
Presented at the 47th Anrwal Conference on Mass Properties 
Engineering. Plymouth. Mich.. 23-25 May 1988; sponsored by the 
Society of Allied Wei^ Engineers, Inc. 
(NASA-TM-100900; E-4079; NAS 1.15:100900; SAWE-1818) 
Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

Vehicle payload benefits of scavengfftg hydrogen and oxygen 
propellants are addressed. The approach used is to select a veNde 
and a mission and then select a scavenging system for detailed 
weight analysis. The Shuttle 2 vehicle on a Space Station 
rendezvous mission was chosen for study. The prtH)ellant 
scavenging system scavenges liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen 
from the launch propulsion tankage during orbital maneuvers and 
stores them in well insulated liquid accumulators for use ffi a 
cryogenic auxiliary propulsion system. The fraction of auxiliary 
propulsion propellent which may be scavenged for propid^ 
purposes is estimated to be 45.1 percent The auxiliary propidsion 
sirt)^fstem *y mass. induciKng the proposed scavenging system, 
an additional 20 percent for secondary structure, an additional 5 
percent for electrical service, a 10 percent wei^ growth ma[S^ 
and 15.4 percent propellant resenres and residuals is estimated 
to be 6331 kg. TWs study shows that the fractton of the on-orbrt 
vehicle mass requred by the auxiliary propulsion system of tWs 
Shuttle 2 vehkde using this technotogy is estimated to be 12.0 
percent compared to 19.9 percent for a veNcle with an 
earth-storable bipropetlant system. This results in a vehfcle with 
the capability of delivering an wJditional 7820 kg to the Space 
Station. Author 

N88-28002# British Ainways. Heathrow (England). 

ENGINE CONDITION IIONITORING CIVIL REQUIREMENTS: A 
BRITISH AIRWAYS VIEW 

A. W. TICHBON fn DFVLR. Proceedings of the 14th Symposium 
on Aircraft Integrated Monitoring Systems p 9-26 Jan, 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF A01; DFVU^. VB-PL-DO, 90 60 58. 5000 
Cotogne. Fed. Repi^ic of Gennany 160 Deutsche mart© 

Engine conditk>n monitoring activities are reviewed. The size 



and complexity in handling the turbine engine operation together 
with the magnitude of costs involved are presented. Monitoring 
technk^ues are listed. Monitoring oil wetted components, gas path 
analysis, and vibratk>n trending are discussed. Areas where efforts 
shouW be concentrated to improve the overall effectiveness of 
engine condition irwnitoring are indk^ated. ESA 



N88-28005# Stewart Hughes Ltd., Southhampton (England). 
RECENT ADVANCES IN ENGINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT 

K. PIPE fn DFVUR, Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on 
Aircraft IntefflBted Monitoring Systems p 73-97 Jan. 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF A01; DFVLR, VB-PL-DO. 90 60 58, 5000 
Cologne, Fed. Republic of Germany 160 Deutsche merits 

The problem of extracting an accurate prognosis for the data 
available in aircraft engine health management, and establishing 
a practical management system for tfie types of monitoring system 
required to support the analysis techniques are reviewed. Computer 
and statistical techniques for solving these problems are outiined. 
The use of representational models in pattern matching approaches 
is emphasized. The advantages of using an expert system to fully 
exploit all the monitoring infonnation available are undertined. The 
need to translate data into a form meaningful to maintenance and 
plant engineers is stressed. ^^^ 



N88-29187# Integrated Support Systems, Inc., Clemson, SC. 
RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (R AND M) Interim 
Report, Mar. - May 1986 

ROBERT J. HANKINS May 1988 62 p 

(Contract F33615-84-C-0061) 

(AD-A193857; AFHRL-TP-87-37) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

CSCL 15E 

This paper details an Air Force Reliability and Maintainability 
(R and M) study which investigated the degree to which R and M 
logistics analyses requirements are satisfied by the Unified Data 
Base (UDB) for Logistics Information, a fully automated on-line 
interactive logistic Support Analysis Record system. The R and M 
study consisted of three sequential tasks: (1) investigation and 
definition of requirements, (2) definition of the frequency and 
method of specific R and M data collection, and (3) performance 
of comparability analyses of data elements defined in the first 
task and currentiy in the UDB. This paper includes a detailed 
description of the procedures followed and results of each task 
and DTOvkies recommendations for incorporation into the UDB. 

GRA 



N8a-29383*# Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO. 

A SCHEDUUNG AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

FOR SPACE APPLICATION^ 

DANIEL L BRITT, AMY L GEOFFROY, and JOHN R. GOHRING 

/n NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Second Conference on 

Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 303-310 Aug. 

1988 

Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 05A 

Every spacecraft, whether in ort>it around the earth or an a 
deep space flight, has at its disposal limited amounts of the 
resources for it to accomplish its mission. Activity scheduling is 
cunwTtly a costiy, human intensive task which requires a great 
deal of expertise. It l>elongs to a class of problems whose 
complexity increases exponentially with the number of operations. 
NASA has in the past accomplished tiiis task by using a great 
deal of manpower, a large number of negotiating sessions, 
interminable bouts of phone tag. and mountains of paperwork. 
Lately the situation has improved with the introduction of automated 
scheduling techniques, but these to date still require expert 
involvement and fall short in some important ways. A prototype 
activity scheduler. MAESTRO, is introduced whteh is capable of 



97 



08 LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 



meeting the needs of many NASA missions, eventually to include 
the Space Station. The approach to resource constrained 
scheduling is first discussed, then the intended domain for 
MAESTRO is described along with its design and current 
capabilities. A description of planned enhancements and revisions 
to the systems is also presented. Author 



N88-29407*# Boeing Aerospace Co., Huntsville, AL. Space 

Station. 

A ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATION OF LOGISTICS 

FUNCTIONS ON THE SPACE STATION 

J. C. MARTIN, R. B, PURVES, R. N. HOSIER, and B. A. KREIN 
(Westinghouse Mfg. Systems and Technology Center, Columbia, 
Md.) In NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Second Conference 
on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications p 503-51 1 Aua 
1988 ^' 

Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 09B 

Spacecraft inventory management is currently performed by 
the crew and as systems become more complex, increased crew 
time will be required to perform routine logistics activities. If future 
spacecraft are to function effectively as research labs and 
production facilities, the efficient use of crew time as a limited 
resource for performing mission functions must be employed. The 
use of automation and robotics technology, such as automated 
warehouse and materials handling functions, can free the crew 
from many logistics tasks and provide more efficient use of crew 
time. Design criteria for a Space Station Automated Logistics 
Inventory Management System is focused on through the design 
and demonstration of a mobile two armed terrestrial robot. The 
system functionally represents a gravity automated inventory 
management system and the problems associated with operating 
in such an environment. Features of the system include automated 
storage and retrieval, item recognition, two armed robotic 
manipulation, and software control of all inventory item transitions 
and queries. Author 



N88-30342*# Ford Aerospace and Communications Corp 
College Park, MD. 

INTEGRATED RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN A DISTRIBUTED 
SCHEDULING ENVIRONMENT 

DAVID ZOCH and GARDINER HALL (n NASA, Goddard Space 
Flight Center, The 1 988 Goddard Conference on Space 
Applications of Artificial Intelligence p 155-172 Aug 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A19/MF A01 CSCL 09B 

The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission 
planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly 
distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, 
customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling 
requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located 
customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a 
NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, 
is described. This notation. Flexible Envelope-Request Notatiori 
(FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling 
requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and 
scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains 
mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability 
information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency 
resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can 
accept these requests, process them, generate schedules and 
return schedule and resource availability information to the 
requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was 
designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a 
scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a 
network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and 
resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN 
notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between 
schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing 
the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristicallv 
guided search strategy. Author 



09 
RELIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 

Includes Fault Tolerance, Failure and Error Analysis. Reliability 
Engineering. Quality Assurance, Wear. Safety Management and 
Safety, Standards and Measurement, Tests and Testing 
Inspections, Specifications, Performance Tests, Certification. 



A88-11783*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

NASA AEROSPACE BATTERY SYSTEM PROGRAM 

INITIATION 

NORMAN R. SCHULZE (NASA. Washington. DC) IN: lECEC 
'87; Proceedings of the Twenty-second Intersociety Energy 
Conversion Engineering Conference. Philadelphia, PA, Aug. 10-14, 
1987. Volume 1. New York. American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987, p. 48-51. 

Preflight and flight battery system problems in flight programs 
at NASA created high-level concern and interest in the current 
battery technology status. As a result. NASA conducted an in-house 
review of problems experienced both internally and by other 
government users. The derived issues which encompassed the 
programmatic scope from cell manufacturing to in-flight operations 
of the system are discussed. From the identified deficiencies, a 
modestly scaled battery program was established to alleviate or 
minimize the risks of future occurrences. Author 

A88-13376 

SAFE ASSOCIATION, ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM, 24TH, SAN 

ANTONIO, TX, DEC. 11-13, 1986, PROCEEDINGS 

Newhall, CA. SAFE Association, 1987. 310 p. For individual items 
see A88-13377 to A88-13413. 
(AD-A1 99275) 

Various papers on safety systems are presented. The topics 
addressed include: limb flail injuries in USAF ejections, 
decompression tests of personal flight equipment, simulation of a 
highly dynamic G-time profile, computer simulation of manikin 
head-neck system, CREST system design, CREST restraint system 
development program, CREST seat structure development, CREST 
windblast protection system design, development of the true human 
analog ADAM. Koch emergency egress lighting systems, Space 
Shuttle Orbiter ejection seat survey. Mk15 ejection seat, aircraft 
passenger protection from smoke and fire, CREST flight controller, 
and NACES program and seat. Also discussed are: RU-36/P HELO 
emergency egress device, H-46 helicopter emergency flotation 
system. ADAM data acquisition system, emergency command 
recognizer for voiced system control, decompression sickness and 
venous gas emboli, mechanical analog of the human dynamic 
spin/viscera, delayed ejection, biodynamics data bank, laser fiber 
optic initiation system, inductively coupled initiator, and mental and 
physical performance at low core temperatures. CD. 

A88-16189# 

EARTH SAFETY AND DISASTER RESPONSE EMPLOYING 

SPACE-BORNE SYSTEMS - A REVIEW 

U, R. RAO, J. P. SINGH, and Y. S. RAJAN (Indian Space Research 
Organization, Bangalore, India) lAF, International Astronautical 
Congress. 38th. Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17, 1987. 20 p 
(lAF PAPER 87-578) 

Space service applications relevant to disaster and distress 
management are discussed. Disaster warning and disaster relief 
are defined, and the roles in these areas of Inmarsat, 
Cospas-Sarsat, and other satellites are described. A detailed 
description of satellite-based disaster warning and relief support 
in India is given. q ^ 

A88-18582 

RELIABILITY ENGINEERING 

P. D. T. O'CONNOR, ED. (British Aerospace, PLC, Army Weapons 
Div., Stevenage. England) Washington, DC, Hemisphere Publishing 



98 



09 RELIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 



Corp., 1988, 319 p. No irKlrvidual items are abstracted in this 
volume. 

Reliability is formally defined as the probability that an item 
will survive without failure for a stated period of time, under stated 
conditions of use; probability and statistics accordingly fumish the 
basis for much of reliability theory. The present conference gives 
attention to mathematical techniques, system reliability modeling 
arKJ design, reliability in mechanical arKi electronic components 
and systems, reliability assessments for microelectronics, process 
plant reliatwlity. the reliability analysis of distributed systems, a 
case history of weapon reliability, and the management of 
reliability. O.C. 



A88-18658# 

RAMJET DEVELOPMENT TESTING - ARE WE DOING IT 

RIGHT? 

FRANK F. WEBSTER (Martin Marietta Corp., Oriando, FL) AIAA, 
SAE, ASME, and ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference, 23rd, San 
Diego. CA, June 29-July 2, 1987. 17 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 87-2185) 

Ramjet propulsion systems evolved into a modem era starting 
in the mid 1960's with the advent of the Integral Rocket/Ramjet 
concept. At least ten different liquid fueled ramjet propulsion 
arrangements for missiles have been development tested during 
this period with three concepts having proceeded through flight 
testing. This paper identifies the prot)lems and pitfalls discovered 
during those development programs. An overview is given of tfie 
various ramjet propulsion systems which have been evaluated in 
test programs. The various testing techniques are summarized 
along with the major difficulties that were encountered. 
Recommendations are made for essentia! test procedures and 
hardware arrangements. A comparison is made of the different 
types of propulsion arrangements and how required testing 
programs may vary among configurations. Author 



A88-22405*# Wyle Labs., Inc., Huntsville, AL 
EXPERIMENTS TO ENSURE SPACE STATION FIRE SAFETY - 
A CHALLENGE 

W. W. YOUNGBLOOD and K. M. SEISER (Wyle Laboratories, 
Inc., Huntsville. AL) AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 26th, 
Reno, NV, Jan. 11-14, 1988. 10 p. refs 
(Contract NAS3-25067) 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0540) 

Three experiments have been formulated in order to address 
prominent fire safety requirements at>oard the NASA Space Shuttle; 
these experiments are to be conducted as part of a Space 
Statiorvbased Technology Development Mission for the growth 
phase of Space Station construction arnj operation. The 
experiments are: (1) an investigation of the flame-spread rate and 
combustiofvproduct evolution in the burning of typical spacecraft 
materials in low gravity; (2) an evaluation of the interaction of 
fires arKJ candidate fire extinguisf^ers in low gravity; and (3) an 
investigation of the persistence and propagation of snrK>ldering 
and deep-seated comt>ustion in low gravity. O.C. 



A88-26175* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. 
EUROPEAN/U.S. COOPERATIVE FUGHT TESTING - SOME 
FOOD FOR THOUGHT 

RONALD M. GERDES (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett 
Field, CA) Cockpit (ISSN 0742-1508), July-Sept. 1987, p. 4-9. 

Increasing numt)ers of flight test teams are participating in 
cooperative European/U.S. flight test programs due to the growtti 
in international aircraft R&D. Preparing for and participating in th^e 
overseas assignments can be complicated by such factors as 
language barriers, unfamiliar flight test procedures, lack of adequate 
flight experience and unexpected weather tremls. A visiting test 
pilot's checklist is presented which outlines the tasks of the various 
phases (i.e., concept plannir^, preparation, execution, analysis, 
and data presentatbn). K.K. 



A88*30975* National Aeronautics and Space Administratton. 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. 
NASA SMALL CIVIL AIRPLANE RESEARCH 

H. PAUL STOUGH, 111 and BRUCE J. NOLMES (NASA. Langley 
Research Center. Hampton. VA) SAE, Intemattonal Pacific Ah* 
and Space Technical Conference, Melbourne, Australia. Nov. 13-17. 
1987. 17 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 872404) 

NASA-Langley*s ongoing research programs on behalf of 
performance, safety, and utility enhancements for small civil aircraft 
have over the last decade introduced important advancements In 
natural laminar flow inducement arKl stall/spin recovery and 
preventkm. The achievability and maintainability of natural laminar 
fk)w has led to performance improvements of as much as 25 
percent Recent research has improved pre(*ctive technk^ues for 
aircraft stall/spin characteristk^s, and also led to the devek)pnDent 
of a wing leading edge design for enhar^oed spin resistance. 

O.C. 

A88-31083 

DESIGN FEATURES OF EXCIMER LASERS FOR SAFE 

OPERATION IN INDUSTRY AND MEDICINE 

2. M. ALVl (Northrop Corp., Hawthorne. CA) IN: Lasers '86; 
Proceedings of tf>e Ninth lntematk>nal Conference on Lasers and 
Applicatrons, Oriando. FL, Nov. 3-7, 1986. McLean, VA, STS Press. 
1987, p. 646-553. refs 

The tHjilt-in safety aspects of high-energy excimer lasers 
designed for use in the aerospace industry are discussed as well 
as those of low-energy excimer lasers applied in surgery and 
medicine. High-energy lasers require isolated enck)sed facilities 
such as a properly shielded remote room having a variety of 
interiocks. Moreover, excimers require the use of dangerous gas 
mixtures, a prek>nization subsystem, and a Raman cell for frequer>cy 
down-shifting. The use of a shielded cone or a collimator wouM 
reduce the ionizing radiatron exposure within the nominal hazard 
zor« regk>n surrounding the laser head. K.K. 

A88-38701 

AIAA FLIGHT TEST CONFERENCE, 4TH. SAN DIEGO, CA, 

MAY 18-20, 1988, TECHNICAL PAPERS 

Conference sponsored by AIAA. Washington, DC, American 
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautk;s. 1988, 563 p. For indivkiual 
items see A88-38702 to A88-38763. 

The present conference discusses NASA Ames-Dryden Flight 
Research Facility aircraft flight flutter testing, the Radart)et expert 
system-based multiple trajectory estimator, numerteal filtering 
technk^ues for noise reductk>n in digital telemetry, 'skunk works' 
prototyping, the NASA Integrated Test Facility and its impact on 
flight research, a flight test approach to pilot workload assessment, 
AFTI/F-111 Missk)n Adaptive Wing flight research, the European 
Fighter Aircraft program, and a real-time aerodynamk: analysis 
system for use in flight. Also discussed are stability flight test 
verification by modal separation, air-to-air combat development of 
the AH-64A Apache, a Space Shuttle crew escape tube study, a 
real-time flight performance analysis technk^ue for the X-29A, a 
Natk>nal Space Test Range, diagnostics design requirements for 
integrated avionics subsystems, maintainability as a design 
parameter, the tactical signifk:ance of helkx)pter aerobatk», and 
tfie devetopnrrent of a mobile flight test support facility. O.C. 

A88-38711*# Natk}nal Aeronautk:s and Space Administratbn. 
Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA. 

THE NASA INTEGRATED TEST FACILITY AND ITS IMPACT 
ON FLIGHT RESEARCH 

D. A. MACKALL, M. D. PICKETT, L J. SCHILLING, and C. A. 
WAGNER (NASA. Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) IN: 
AIAA Flight Test Conference, 4th. San Diego, CA, May 18-20. 
1988, Technical Papers. Washington, DC, American Institute of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988. p. 85-97. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2095) 

NASA-Ames' Integrated Test Facility (ITF), when completed, 
will provide ground test facilities for the safe and efficient testing 
of advanced research aircraft with fully integrated flight control. 



99 



09 RELIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 



propulsion systems, structures, and aerodynamic configurations. 
Flight test risk will be minimized through the reduction of differences 
between flight and ground test environments; the latter will involve 
the interfacing of real-time flight simulation with the actual aircraft 
through a simulation-interface device. The test process and the 
collection and management of test data will be automated. Attention 
is given to preliminary ITF results for the X-29 aircraft. O.C. 

A88-40250# 

COMPUTER AIDED REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

(CARMS) AND FLIGHT TEST 

K. M. MORGER (McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co., Mesa, AZ) 
AIAA, Flight Test Conference, 4th, San Diego, CA. May 18-20 
1988. 6 p. 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2091) 

The CARMS approach to managing requirements can be used 
for flight testing as well as the rest of an aircraft's life cycle. 
CARMS offers traceability of design trade-offs and decisions, 
current project status, and component interactions. CARMS can 
be used to catch problem areas before the flight testing begins 
and before many potentially costly mistakes are made on the 
production fleet. K.K. 

A86-40524 

SIMULATION - ANTIDOTE TO RISK 

LEE DAY and GRAHAM SPEED (Singer Link-Miles, Ltd., Lancing, 
England) Spaceflight (ISSN 0038-6340). vol. 30, June 1988 d 
240-243. 

The use of simulators to reduce risk in space programs is 
discussed. Simulation is used in system verification during the 
early phases of a project to substitute for missing system elements, 
allowing for verification of the overall system design, so that 
modifications can be made before hardware is manufactured. The 
new focus in developing simulators is on training analysis to provide 
a system tailored to the tasks and characteristics of trainees. 
This involves a structured progression incorporating only those 
stages of training found necessary through analysis. A number of 
simulators are networked in the final stage of training the flight 
crew, ground controllers, and the mission-related payload user 
and control personnel. In the development of the Columbus 
Attached Pressurized Module or the Japanese Experimental 
Module, software models and hardware mock-ups are linked 
together so that progressively larger simulations of the system 
can be performed. Prototype equipment is substituted for the 
models until the entire system is in place. The need for simulation 
continues after a mission launch because of the remoteness of 
support activity from the home base. r.B. 

A88-41851 

ROLE OF FRACTURE MECHANICS IN MODERN 
TECHNOLOGY; PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
CONFERENCE, FUKUOKA, JAPAN, JUNE 2-6, 1986 

GEORGE C. SIH, ED. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem. PA) 
HIRONOBU NISITANI. ED. (Kyushu University. Fukuoka, Japan) 
and TOMOO ISHIHARA, ED. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heav^J 
Industnes Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) Conference organized by 
Kyushu University and Lehigh University. Amsterdam and New 
York, North-Holland. 1987, 938 p. For individual items see 
A88-41852 to A88-41881. 

Recent advances in fracture mechanics theory, testing methods, 
and applications are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics 
addressed include microstructural effects, fatigue, creep and 
fatigue, environment effects, fracture tests, and dynamic loading. 
Consideration is given to stress and failure analysis, composite 
materials, specimen and structural integrity, numerical analysis, 
and residual stresses. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, micrographs! 
and tables of numerical data are provided. T.K.' 

A88-42907# 

APPLICATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES IN 

OPTIMIZING FUTURE SPACE MISSIONS 

K. J. CHILCOT (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington 



Beach, CA) AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies Conference, 
Houston, TX, June 21-24, 1988. 15 p. refs 
(AIAA PAPER 88-3509) 

This paper presents a risk assessment of four future space 
initiatives: Mission to Planet Earth. Exploration of the Solar System. 
Outpost on the Moon, and Humans to Mars. This assessment 
identifies the potential risk issues so as to plan corrective measures, 
identify those key technologies having the greatest potential for 
reducing both technical and programmatic risk, and aid in selecting 
the preferred low-risk mission approach to the initiatives. Risk is 
defined in terms of the ability to achieve the mission/operational 
requirements, schedule, or cost goals. The risk assessment 
approach is based on a set of risk criteria established in this 
paper. The missions are subdivided into functional components; 
each component is assessed against the criteria. The result is a 
list of potential risk areas for each mission. Also assessed are 
required space transportation and orbital facilities. Some technical 
risks have been addressed by the NASA Project Pathfinder 
technology program; however, others identififed in this paper require 
attention. Author 



A88-42917# 

FAA ROLES AND OUTLOOK FOR SAFETY 

JOHN J. SHAPLEY (FAA, Fort Worth, TX) IN: Vertical flight 
training needs and solutions; Proceedings of the AHS National 
Specialists' Meeting, Arlington, TX. Sept. 17, 18, 1987. Alexandria, 
VA, American Helicopter Society, Inc., 1987, p. 35-38. 

Rotorcraft certification and research and development 
conducted by the FAA are discussed. Certification rules and 
aspects of minimum safety standards and the development of 
power-lift standards for tilt-rotor aircraft are examined. Accident 
investigations, pilot workload scenarios, and workload requirements 
exceeding capabilities of the crew are incorporated into the 
certification process. Specific workload scenarios are presented, 
discussing their use in the development of certification 
requirements. r.b. 



A88-43341 

MTBF SPECIFICATION IN A MULTIPLE USE ENVIRONMENT 

FRANK J. MORENO (Harris Corp., Melbourne. FL) IN: Annual 
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 
26-28, 1988, Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical and 
Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1988, p. 132-135. 

A criterion, in the form of an equivalent failure rate equation, 
is developed which allows for the mean time before failure (MTBF) 
specification of a configuration item that is used in different 
environments and subject to a varying amount of operational stress. 
The degree of stress is formulated as a function of the output 
state, time spent in that state, and a corresponding duty cycle. A 
methodology is formulated which allows for the expression of failure 
rates that are associated with multiple conditions resulting from a 
complex operational scenario. The failure rate equations resulting 
from this scenario are used to generate a specification that is 
tailored for a multiple-use environment. I.E. 



A88-43360 

R&M DESIGN INFLUENCE FROM SPREADSHEET ANALYSIS 

EUGENE K. MELNICK and KENNETH D. PORAD (Boeing 
Aerospace Co., Seattle, WA) IN: Annual Reliability and 

Maintainability Symposium, Los Angeles, CA. Jan. 26-28, 1988, 
Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, Inc., 1988, p. 336-339. 

The authors describe a computer-aided analysis method using 
commercially available software to provide quick estimates needed 
to support reliability and maintainability (R&M) decisions during 
the early stages of a development program. The method is equally 
applicable to both miltary and commercial contracts. The method 
utilizes fragmentary existing data supplemented by flexible 
estimating factors to expediously derive data in spreadsheet format, 
and is a useful tool for influencing design to include R&M 
requirements and enhancements. i.e. 



100 



09 RELIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 



A88-44698*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Wa^ington. DC. .^^^^ 

PROPULSION SAFETY ALMOST EQUALS MISSION SAFETY 

GILBERT L ROTH (NASA, Washington, EX:) AIAA. ASME, SAE, 
and ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference. 24th, Boston, MA, July 
11-13, 1988. 5 p. rets 
(AIAA PAPER 88-2881) 

Propulsion system hardware and monitoring/control software 
constitute a given manned or unmanned aerospace system's 
primary risk-management issue. The present inquiry into the 
reasons for this dominance attempts to identify developnr>ent routes 
to the reduction of propulsion-related management risk issues. A 
'life management plan' for propulsion systems would give attentton 
to service life requirements, criteria for the monitoring and 
eva!uatk>n of useful life, a method for the tracking of sendee life, 
crrteria for hardware reusability and operations inspection, and 
hardware preassembly screening practices. O.C. 



A88-46253 

THE CERTIFICATION ASPECTS OF MICROWAVE LANDING 

SYSTEMS - AIRWORTHINESS C<WSIDERATIONS 

SIMON A. WITTS (Civil Aviation Authority. Design and 
Manufacturing Standards Div., Redhill, England) IN: MLS - An 
operational and technical review; Proceedings of the Symposium. 
London. England, Feb. 9, 1988. London, Royal Aeronautical 
Society, 1988, p. 16-25, 

An outline is presented of the certification requirements that 
could be applied for an MLS. The importance of a research program 
such as the joint Boeing/British Ainways/Civil Aviation Authority 
trial is demonstrated. The trial seeks to establish and incorporate 
certification requiren>ents for straight-in 3-deg MLS approaches. 

K.K. 



A88-48499# 
COST-OF-A-CASSETTE AIR SAFETY 

MASAYASU KAWAI (Kyowa Dengyo (Europe). Hoofdrorp. 
Netheriands) Aerospace America (ISSN 0740.722X), vol. 26. 
Aug. 1988, p. 32-34. 

By the end of this century, powerful and compact computers 
directly integrated with aircraft instruments and programnrod to 
analyze the complex interactions occuring over the entirety of the 
primary structure will make automated inspection part of routine 
maintenance; such checkups would then t>e conducted on site by 
mechanics, rather than in computer rooms by engineers. A single, 
property equipped portable recorder can accept data from up to 
224 sources simultaneously, recording them in separate channels 
of a video cassette for subsequent analysis. Installed recording 
equipment prompts more frequent monitoring, leading to more 
dependable and accurate advance warning of system defects, 
component deterioration, and metal fatigue. O.C. 



A88-50789 

INTERNATIONAL MODAL ANALYSIS CONFERENCE, 5TH, 

IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 

LONDON, ENGLAND, APR. 6-9, 1987, PROCEEDINGS. 

VOLUMES 1 & 2 

Conference sponsored by Unk>n College. Bethel. CT. Society for 

Experimental Mechanics. Inc., 1987. p. Vol. 1, 853 p.; vol. 2. 915 

p. For indiv idual items see A88-50790 to A88-50900. 

Various papers on modal analysis and testing are presented. 
The general topics addressed include: experimental case histories, 
analytical methods, structural dynamics modification, linking 
analysis and test, processing modal data, modal test methods, 
seismic topics, modal techniques for rotating machinery, modeling 
structures, substructuring, and noise/acoustic topics. Also 
considered are: experimental techniques, vehicular topics, space 
structures, machinery diagnostics, nonlinear stojctures. design 
methods, damping, ship-related topics, transducers and 
instrumentation topics, finite element analysis, and modal analysis 
software. ^'^' 



A88-50831*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Hugh L Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards. CA. 
AIRCRAFT GROUND VIBRATION TESTING AT NASA 
AMES-DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY 

MICHAEL W. KEHOE (NASA, Flight Research Center, Edwards. 
CA) IN: International Modal Analysis Conference, 5th, London, 
England, Apr 6-9. 1987, Proceedings. Volume 1. Bethel, CT, 
Society' for Experimental Mechanics. Inc., 1987, p. 728-736, 
Previously announced in STAR as N87-27655. refs 

At the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research 
Facility at Edwards Air Force Base, California, a variety of ground 
vibration test techniques has been applied to an assortrT>ent of 
new or modified aerospace research vehicles. This paper presents 
a summary of these techniques and the experience gained from 
various applications. The role of ground vibration testing in the 
qualification of new and modified aircraft for flight is discussed. 
Data are presented for a wide variety of aircraft and component 
tests, including comparison of sine-dwell, single-input random, and 
multiple-input random excitation methods on a JetStar airplane. 

Author 

A88-52355 

REAL-TIME FAULT MANAGEMENT FOR LARGE-SCALE 

SYSTEMS 

H. BlGLARl (Boeing Aerospace Co., Huntsville, AL), C. CHENG, 
and G, VACHTSEVANOS (Georgia Institute of Technology, 
Atlanta) IN: Space Congress. 25th, Cocoa Beach. FL, Apr. 26-29, 
1988, Proceedings. Cape Canaveral, FL. Canaveral Council of 
Technical Societies, 1988. p. 9-63 to 9-69. refs 

A priori knowledge of failure modes of a system is an 
indispensable information for design of robust decentralized 
hierarchical control schemes. In particular inclusion of system fauKs 
as part of the process under control provides greater flexibility for 
self diagnosis and maintenance of real-time systems. By assigning 
discrete states to the process under control, an 'artificial 
consciousness* can be created within the controller which allows 
the controller to exercise selective actions for each given discrete 
state. This concept has been implemented to control the utility 
systems of the Space Station Laboratory Simulator. Author 

A88-54137* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland. OH. 

TOWARD IMPROVED DURABILITY IN ADVANCED AIRCRAFT 

ENGINE HOT SECTIONS; PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

THIRTY-THIRD ASME INTERNATIONAL GAS TURBINE AND 

AEROENGINE CONGRESS AND EXPOSITION. AMSTERDAM, 

NETHERLANDS. JUNE 5-9, 1988 

DANIEL E. SOKOLOWSKI. ED. (NASA. Lewis Research Center, 

Cleveland, OH) Congress and Exposition sponsored by ASME. 

New York. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1988. 128 

p. For individual items see A88-54138 to A88-54146. 

The present conference on durability improvement methods 
for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discusses 
NASA's 'HOST' project. advanced high-temperature 
instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and 
application of combustor aerothenrial models, and the evaluation 
of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. 
Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turtHne hot 
section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot 
section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier 
coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines. O.C. 

A88-54400 

ICING TECHNOLOGY BIBLIOGRAPHY 

SAE Aerospace infonnation Report SAE AIR 4015, Nov. 1987, 
149 p. refs 
(SAE AIR 4015) 

A compendium of references from the open literature on icing 
technology is presented, including both national and foreign 
sources. The general topics addressed include: meteorology of 
icing clouds, meteorological instalments, propeller icing, induction 
system icing, gas turbine engine and inlet icing studies, wing icing, 
windshield icing, ice adhesion and mechanical properties, heat 



101 



09 RELIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 



transfer, helicopter climatic tests and icing, and helicopter rotor 
blade icing. Other general subjects considered are: engine snow 
ingestion and snow measurements, droplet trajectories and 
impingement, ice accretion modeling, icing test facilities and icing 
simulation, aircraft ice formation, runway icing, microwave sensing 
and ice protection systems, iced airfoil performance, land and sea 
ice studies, fluid and two-phase flow dyanmics, liquid evaporation 
and ice crystal formation studies, electrical modeling, and radome 
icing. ^^ 

A88-55276 

ISTFA 1987 - INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM FOR TESTING 
AND FAILURE ANALYSIS: ADVANCED MATERIALS- 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM, LOS ANGELES CA 
NOV. 9-13. 1987 

Metals Park, OH, ASM International, 1987, 358 p. For individual 
items see A88-55277 to A88-55295. 

The present conference discusses topics in the failure analysis 
of metallic materials, metal-matrix composites (MMCs) 
environmental effects on metallics materials, the failure analysis 
of polymers and ceramics and of resin-based composites, case 
histories in metal-failure analysis, failure-mechanisms in resin-based 
composites, innovations in test methodologies, and failures in 
weldments. Attention is given to fatigue cracking in Al-Li alloys 
flow and fracture in discontinuous MMCs with high ductility the 
service failure of a 7049 T73 Al alloy aircraft forging, the fracture 
behavior of electronic ceramics, microscopy of composite 
delamination, a helicopter crew-seat failure analysis, cracking in 
marine composites, quantitative fractography. and the significance 
of repair welds in service failures. O C 

A88-55435*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

*««^,iE~*^J"^"^'-'-^*'°^'' SAFETY PROGRAM - THEMES 
AND THRUSTS 

G A. RODNEY (NASA. Washington. DC) lAF, International 
Astronautical Congress, 39th. Bangalore, India, Oct. 8-15, 
1988. 7 p. 
(lAF PAPER 88-510) 

The range of managerial, technical, and procedural initiatives 
implemented by NASA's post-Challenger safety program is 
reviewed The recommendations made by the Rogers Commission 
the NASA post-Challenger review of Shuttle design, the 
Congressional investigation of the accident, the National Research 
Council, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, and NASA internal 
advisory panels and studies are summarized. NASA safety initiatives 
regarding improved organizational accountability for safety 
upgraded analytical techniques and methodologies for risk 
assessment and management, procedural initiatives in problem 
reporting and corrective-action tracking, ground processing 
maintenance documentation, and improved technologies are 
discussed. Safety issues relevant to the planned Space Station 
are examined. q ^ 

N88.10128# National Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg. MD 
Office of Standard Reference Data 

?^r Ta^ILpS''^.^^^ ^^^^ PUBLICATIONS, 1985-1986 

J. C. SAUERWEIN Jun. 1987 43 p 

(PB87-210241; NBS/SP-708-SUPPL-1) Avail- <5nn HP «9 no oo 
003-003-02802-9; NTIS MF A01 CSCL 07D ' 

r»«tl^^!^^^*''"^' ^""'f "" °.^ Standards. Office of Standard Reference 
i!f kT ^^^^^ a network of data centers that prepare evaluated 
D«t«L«« I^^^Tk ^"^ '^^"^'"^' P^°P«^'^^ ^* substances 
S^L««r^^ '." P""*®^ ^°^^' ^" "las^etic tapes. 

diskettes, and through on-line computer networks. The docurnen 
provides a comprehensive list of the products available from the 

^9lT^^oft«''''^^ ""^'^ 'y^*^^ (NSRDS) fo^heTears 

1985 to 1986. including indexes qualified by author, material and 

fS7tr"^%^^,'fr5 '"'°^"^"^'°" ^"^ curren^pr?ces Sn Se 
found at the end of the document. qP^ 



N88-10586# National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD. 
Office of Physical Measurement Services. 
NBS (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS) CALIBRATION 
SERVICES USERS GUIDE: FEE SCHEDULE 

Apr. 1987 78 p 

(PB87-210654; NBS/SP-250/A) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

CSCL 20C 

The physical measurement services of the National Bureau of 
Standards are designed to help the makers and users of precision 
instruments achieve the highest possible levels of measurement 
quality and productivity. The hundreds of individual services found 
listed in the Fee Schedule constitute the highest-order calibration 
services available in the United States. These services directly 
link a customer's precision equipment or transfer standards to 
national measurement standards. These services are offered to 
public and private organizations and individuals alike. The Fee 
Schedule is a supplement to NBS Special Publication 250, 
Calibration Services Users Guide. These documents are designed 
to make the task of selecting and ordering an appropriate calibration 
service as quick and easy as possible. gRA 

N88-15604^# Alabama Univ.. Huntsville. Dept. of Industrial 

Engineering. 

RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY SURVEY 

ROBERT G. BATSON /n NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center 
Research Reports: 1987 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship 
Program 16 p Nov. 1987 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF E03 CSCL 12A 

NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed 
on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward 
full-scale development Program risk analysis is discussed as a 
systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, 
assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These 
techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based 
simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was 
prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a 
guide for selection of the most appropriate technique. Author 

N88-15826# Hernandez Engineering G.m.b.H., Bonn (Germany, 

SAFETY PHILOSOPHY, POLICY, AND REQUIREMENTS FOR 
MANNED SPACEFLIGHT. VOLUME 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

JAMES WIGGINS Paris. France ESA 4 Mar. 1987 11 p 
(Contract ESTEC-6734/86-NL-MA(SC)) 

(HEG-0886/1036-VOL-1; ESA-CR(P)-2493-VOL-1; ETN-88-91426) 
Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

A philosophy and policy for manned space flight and upper 
level system requirements which would help program managers 
and system designers include safety considerations in all phases 
of the program life cycle were designed. The philosophy 
emphasizes the importance of human life in the space system. 

ESA 

N88-18290# Carnegie-Mellon Univ.. Pittsburgh, PA. Software 

Engineering Inst. 

A METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 

CAPABILITY OF CONTRACTORS: PRELIMINARY VERSION 

Final Report 

W. S. HUMPHREY and W. L SWEET Sep. 1987 46 p 

(Contract F19628-85-C-0003) 

(AD-A1 87230; CMU/SEI-87-TR-23; ESD-TR-87-186) Avail" NTIS 

HCA03/MFA01 CSCL 12E 

This document provides guidelines and procedures for 
assessing the ability of potential DOD contractors to develop 
software in accordance with modern software engineering methods. 
It includes specific questions and a method for evaluating the 
results. GRA 

N88-18518# National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg MD 
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL BUREAu'oF 
STANDARDS, VOLUME 92, NUMBER 5, 
SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1987 



102 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



1967 58 p 

(PB88-1 24409) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

Articles in the Journal of Research of NBS include the following: 
An automated potentiometric system for precision measurement 
of the quantized hall resistance; the NBS large-area alpha-particle 
counting system; Mossbauer imaging; International intercompari- 
sons of photometric base units. GRA 

N8a-ia519# Nationa) Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg. MD. 
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF 
STANDARDS, VOLUME 92, NUMBER 6, 
NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1987 

1967 54 p 

{PB8a-138516) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01; also available 

SOD HC $3.00 as 703-027-00019-9 CSCL 05A 

This ^sue of the NBS Jot^nal of Research contains the 
following: reports on Standard Reference data information; 
international standards for nondestructive testing; superconductivity 
- challenge for the future; transient impact response of thick circular 
plates; transient impact response of plates containing flaws; and 
a low noise cascade an^rfier. GRA 

N88-20353*# Wyle Labs.. Inc., Huntsville. AL 
SPACECRAFT FIRE-SAFETY EXPERIMENTS FOR SPACE 
STATION: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT MISSION Final 
Contractor Report 

WALLACE W. YOUNGBLOOD Apr. 1 988 1 1 1 p 
(Contract NAS3-25067) 

(NASA-CR-182114; NAS 1.26:182114; WYLE-68300-1) Avail: 
NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22B 

Three concept designs for low-gravity, fire-safety related 
experiments are presented, as selected for the purpose of 
addressing key issues of enhancing safety and yet encouraging 
access to long-dwation. manned spacecraft such as the NASA 
space station. The selected low-gravity experiments are the 
following: (1) an investigation of the flame-spread rate and 
combustion-product evolution of the bumvig of typ^ thicknesses 
of spacecraft materials in very tow-speed ftows; (2) an evaluation 
of the interaction of fres and can(«date extinguishers in vanous 
fire scenarios; and (3) an investigation of tiie persistence and 
propagation of smoWering and deep-seated combustion. Each 
experiment is expected to provWe fundamental combustion-science 
data, as well as the fire-safety applk:ations. and each requires the 
unique long-duration, low-gravity environment of the space station. 
Two generic test facilities, i.e.. the Combustion Tunnel Facility 
and the Combustion Facility, are proposed for space station 
accommodation to support the selected experiments. In addition, 
three near-term, fire-safety related experiments are descrit)ed along 
with other related precursor activities. Author 

N8a-24234# Federal Aviation Adrranistration, WasNngton. DC. 
ADVISORY CIRCULAR: NOISE CERTIFICATION HANDBOOK 

23 Mar. 1988 66 p 

(FAA-AC-36-4B) AvaH: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 

The aflm of this technical manual is to promote unifomuty of 
implementation of the noise certifk»tion requirement of Part 36 of 
the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) by presenting test analysis, 
and docunr^entration procedures for subsonic turitx>jet airplanes that 
were determined by the FAA to be technically acceptable for 
demonstrating compliance with that regulation. Where appropriate, 
FAA poltoy governing such cerlifteations is reviewed. Autiior 

N88-24977# Oak Rklge Gaseous Diffusk>n Plant. TN. 
A QUALITY PHILOSOPHY FOR RESEARCH AND 
DEVELOPMENT 

G. J- KIDD. JR. Feb. 1988 17 p 

(Contract DE-AC05-84OT-21400) 

(DE88-006512; K/QT-178) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

The applcation of traditional quality assurance technk^ues to 
research and development ( R and D) has not been successful. 
This report presents some of the features tiiat distinguish R and 
D from other industrial enterprises and suggests an approach for 
adapting existir^g standards to R and D. DOE 



N88-24983*# United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT. 
QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY DRIVE INNOVATION AND 
IMPROVEMENT AT UNITED TECHNOLOGIES AEROSPACE 
OPERATIONS, INC. 

L G. JAMAR 24 Nov. 1986 19 p Submitted for publk)atk>n 
(Contract NAS8-36300) 

(NASA-CR-1 82944; NAS 1.26:182944) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF 
A01 CSCL 14D 

Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space 
program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the 
emphasis was on meeting tf>e risks and technk^l challenges of 
space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United 
Technok>gies Aerospace Operations. Inc. (UTAO), the battle has 
devetoped akmg four primary fronts. These fronts include programs 
to nwtivate arxJ reward people, devetopment and construction of 
optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specrftoally 
tailored management systems, and the applteation of appropriate 
measurement arxl control systen^. Each of these initiatives is 
described. However, to put this quality and productivity program 
in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are 
descril>ed first B.G, 

Na8-29263# Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta. GA. 
QUALITY CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGY: CDC LAB MANUAL 

J. M. MILLER Nov. 1987 106 p 

(PB88-1 79890) Avail: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 06C 

A brief historical background is ^en for procedural technok)gy 
in the laboratory. The topte tradings are: Quality control in tiie 
mk:robk)togy laboratory; Introchiction; Establishing a quality control 
policy; Laboratory safety; Equipment; Media, Reagents, Disks, 
Strips; Products for direct antigen detection; Documentatton; 
Antisera disk/strips, Reagents-Aerobic bacteriology; Quality control 
frequency guktelines for antirracrobk; susceptibility testing: 
Media-anaerotHC bacteriok>gy; Mycobacteriotogy. Author 



10 
LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 

Includes Laws and Legality, Insurance and Liability, Patents and 
Ucensing. Legislation and Government. Regulation, Appropriations 
and Federal Budgets, Local. National, and International Poltoy. 



A88-10367# 

SPACE STATION CAREENS PAST ALL OBSTACLES 

JERRY GREY Aerospace America (ISSN 0740-722X). vol. 25. 
Sept 1987. p. 24-28. 

The diffrculties involved in planning the development of the 
Space Station, in particular federal polk:ies and financing, are 
described. Concerns about the design and operating characteristics 
of the Space Station and the support of the Station are examined. 
The roles of foreign participants (ESA, Japan, Canada) and the 
U.S. DOD in the devetopment and use of the Space Station are 
discussed. It is strongly emphasized that a firm national commitment 
to a unified Space Station poHcy is needed, and that a Space 
Station is the key element in virtually every scenario that has 
been proposed for the U.S. future in space. IF- 

A88-13443 

THE COMMERCIAL USE OF SPACE STATIONS: THE LEGAL 
FRAMEWORK OF TRANS-ATLANTIC COOPERATION; 
INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM, HANOVER. FEMRAL 
REPUBLIC OF GERMANY. JUNE 12. 13, 1986, REPORTS 
[WIRTSCHAFTUCHE NUTZUNG VON WELTRAUII^TATIONEN: 
DER RECHTLICHE RAHMEN TRANSATLANTISCHER 
ZUSAMMENARBEIT; INTERNATIONALES KOLLOQUIUM, 
HANOVER, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY. JUNE 12, 13, 
1986, BEITRAEGE] 

Colloquium supported by BMFT;. Bonn. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer 
Luft- und Raumfahrt. 1986, 227 p. In German and English. For 



103 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



individual items see A88-13444 to A88-13453. 
(Contract BMFT-SLN-86023) 
(DGLR BERICHT 86-02) 

Papers are presented on the commercial use of space stations; 
current government-to-government negotiations on the Space 
Station; an applicable legal regime for international cooperation 
on space stations; and a legal basis for activities on space stations. 
Consideration is given to legal problems related to the construction 
of the Space Stations; national jurisdiction on the Space Station; 
U.S. legislation governing technology transfer; and a legal regime 
for technology transfer. Business issues related to materials 
processing in space and proprietary rights are discussed. I.F. 

A88-13445# 

NEGOTIATING THE SPACE STATION 

MICHAEL A. G. MICHAUD (U.S. Department of State. Washington, 
DC) IN: The commercial use of space stations: The legal 
framework of trans-Atlantic cooperation; International Colloquium, 
Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. 
Bonn, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 1986, p. 
29-36. 

The diplomacy of negotiating international cooperation for a 
permamently manned Space Station is considered from an 
American perspective. The negotiations are to be conducted with 
Europe, Japan, and Canada on two levels: (1) an agency- 
agency memorandum of understanding and (2) a govern- 
ment-to-government agreement. The principles for the 
conduct of the negotiations are discussed. The rights, authority, 
and roles of the partners, and the isssue of technology transfer 
are examined. I p_ 

A88-13446# 

THE APPLICABLE LEGAL REGIME FOR INTERNATIONAL 

COOPERATION ON SPACE STATIONS 

STEPHEN GOROVE (Mississippi. University, University) IN: The 
commercial use of space stations: The legal framework of 
trans-Atlantic cooperation; International Colloquium, Hanover, 
Federal Republic of Germany, June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. Bonn, 
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 1986, p. 37-61. 
refs 

The creation of a useful legal regime governing international 
cooperation on space stations is examined. The basic 
characteristics and functions of the proposed NASA earth-orbiting 
Space Station are described. The bilateral agreements between 
the U.S. and Canada, Japan, and ESA for the proposed design 
and development of the Space Station, in particular the U.S.-ESA 
Memorandum of Understanding, are discussed. The need for 
government-to-government agreements to handle issues such as 
jurisdiction, control, and registration of the Space Station; 
proprietary rights; and technology transfer is studied. Consideration 
is given to the relevance of domestic law and general international 
regulations; telecommunication issues; the transportation of 
hazardous materials; and the use of nuclear power. I.F. 

A88-13447# 

A LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR SPACE STATION ACTIVITIES 

TADAO KURIBAYASHI (Keio University, Tokyo. Japan) IN: The 
commercial use of space stations: The legal framework of 
trans-Atlantic cooperation; International Colloquium, Hanover, 
Federal Republic of Germany, June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. Bonn, 
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 1986, p. 63-71. 

The development of laws governing Space Station activities is 
studied. The agreement between NASA and Japan regarding the 
design and development of the Japanese Experimental Module is 
examined. Current and proposed laws applicable to the registration, 
jurisdiction, and control of the Space Station, and the nature and 
purposes of specific space activities are discussed. It is suggested 
that disciplinary regulations and safety standards be uniform for 
all countries participating in the Space Station and experiments, 
manufacturing, research, and obsen^ations be conducted jointly or 
separately. Consideration is given to proprietary rights, liability for 
damages, tort laws, and the presen/ation of the space 
environment. I.F. 



A88-13448# 

THE APPLICABLE LEGAL REGIME FOR INTERNATIONAL 

COOPERATION 

I. H. PH. DIEDERIKS-VERSCHOOR (International Institute of Space 
Law, Paris, France) IN: The commercial use of space stations: 
The legal framework of trans- Atlantic cooperation; International 
Colloquium, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, June 12, 13, 
1986, Reports. Bonn. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und 
Raumfahrt, 1986, p. 73-85. refs 

The applicability of international agreements and United Nations 
space treaties to space stations operated cooperatively by more 
than one nation is examined, reviewing several recent proposals 
and opinions. Topics addressed include the interpretation of Article 
XII of the Space Treaty of 1967; the composition, duties, and 
rights of a space station management board; the Liability 
Convention of 1 972; the Convention on Registration of Objects of 
1976; and the legal questions posed by multicomponent space 
stations. t.K. 

A88-13450# 

NATIONAL JURISDICTION ON THE SPACE STATION 

RICHARD DALBELLO (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology 
Assessment, Washington, DC) IN: The commercial use of space 
stations: The legal framework of trans-Atlantic cooperation; 
International Colloquium, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany. 
June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. Bonn, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer 
Luft- und Raumfahrt. 1986, p. 119-139. refs 

Legal questions regarding jurisdiction aboard the International 
Space Station are discussed from a U.S. perspective. Topics 
examined include (1) national jurisdiction over the Space Station 
and/or its components, (2) jurisdiction of courts over specific cases 
or controversies, (3) choice-of-law questions resulting from the 
adjudication of Space Station disputes, and (4) the sharing of 
jurisdiction between the U.S. federal government and the states. 
It is suggested that international lawyers have some relevant 
experience regarding areas (2) and (3). but that some rules should 
probably be developed beforehand due to the highly visible and 
political nature of international space ventures. Resolution of the 
primarily political and technological conflicts foreseen in area (1) 
by mechanisms similar to NATO Status of Forces Agreements is 
recommended, and the need for Congressional limits on state 
legislation to prevent problems in area (4) is indicated. T.K. 

A88-13452# 

LEGAL PROBLEMS OF THE COMMERCIAL USE OF SPACE 

STATIONS INCLUDING PROPRIETARY RIGHTS 

CLAUDIO ZANGHI (Ministero di Ricerca Scientifica e Technologica. 
Rome, Italy) and LUIGI CITARELLA (Roma, Universita. Rome. 
Italy) IN: The commercial use of space stations: The legal 
framework of trans-Atlantic cooperation; International Colloquium, 
Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. 
Bonn, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 1986. p. 
181-200. 

Potential legal questions arising from commercial activities 
aboard an international space station are examined in a general 
review. The lack of clearly defined regulations governing stations 
made up of component modules belonging to different nations is 
stressed, and it is argued that simple application of national 
jurisdictions over activities on each module is unrealistic. A system 
of international regulations based on pragmatic (cost) factors is 
recommended, and possible provisions of such an agreement are 
discussed. T.K. 

A88-13453*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

PROPRIETARY RIGHTS AND COMMERCIAL USE OF SPACE 

STATIONS 

ROBERT F. KEMPF (NASA, Washington, DC) IN; The commercial 
use of space stations: The legal framework of trans-Atlantic 
cooperation; International Colloquium, Hanover. Federal Republic 
of Germany, June 12, 13, 1986, Reports. Bonn, Deutsche 
Gesellschaft fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 1986, p. 201-216. 

The treatment of proprietary rights related to commercial activity 



104 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



aboard an int^national space station is discussed, with a focus 
on the relationshp between the acqwsition (on earth or in space) 
and protection of such rights. The applicable national and 
international law is briefly characterized, and consideralion is given 
to patent, trade-secret and copyright considerations. It is concluded 
that the provisions of present commercial law can be appfied 
relatively straightfonwardly to rights acquired on earth, white the 
Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Convention on Re^stration 
of 1976 apply to rights obtained in space. T.K. 

A88-15304* National Aeronautics and Space Admtrvstration, 
Washington, DC. 

INSURANCE AND imEIOilFICATION IMPUCATIONS OF 
FUTURE SPACE PROJECTS 

JOHN E. O'BRIEN (NASA, Washington, DC) IN: Space Congress, 
24th, Cocoa Beach. PL, Apr. 2V24. 1987, Proceedings. Cape 
Canaveral, FL, Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1987, 
7 p. 

NASA options regarding insurance and indemnification polictes 
as they relate to NASA customers and contractors are described. 
The foundation for the cfiscussion is the way in which NASA is 
planning to return the Space Sfnittte fleet to safe fli^ as well as 
cun^nt U.S. policy cortceming future uses of the Shuttte fleel 
Issues discussed include: the nature of the Shuttte manifest; the 
policy regarding property damage or destruction; insurance against 
liability to third parttes; the reduction of the scope of the risk to 
be insured; NASA as the insurer a sharing arrarigmnent between 
the user and NASA; and contractors and s(A)Contractors involved 
in Shuttte operations. B.J. 

A88-15305 

CONTRACTUAL METHODS OF INCENTiVIZING IMPROVED 

SPACE FUGHT SAFETY 

JAMES R. VICKERS (Hughes Aircraft Co., Missite Systems Group. 
Canoga Parte. CA) IN: Space Congress. 24th. Cocoa Beach. FL, 
Apr. 21-24. 1987. Proceedings. Cape Canaveral. FL. Canaveral 
Council of Technical Socteties. 1987. 7 p. 

The contractual methods NASA uses to assure safety for 
manned space flights are examined in this paper. It conchxtes 
that they do littte to incentivize a contractor to improve safety and 
suggests ttiat in areas as critical as manned space fli^ safety, 
NASA adopt a Safety En^neering Incentive Program. This program 
would be similar to ttie existing Value En^neering program except 
that finartcial incentives would be paid for irT^)raving safety. The 
paper also suggests ttiat as an added trK:entive for improving 
safety, relief from liability urxler Put>iic Law 85-804 on future projects 
be conditioned by limiting it to risks that the contractor disclosed 
to NASA or risks that he coukj not have known. Author 

A88-15306* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

WasNngton. DC. 

DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSKM 

THOMAS J. WHELAN (NASA. Procurement Poficy Div.. 
Washington, DC) IN: Space Cor^pess. 24th, Cocoa Beach. FL, 
Apr. 21-24, 1987, Proceedings. C^ Canaveral. FL, Canaveral 
Cour^cil of Technkxd Socteties. 1987. 7 p. 

The chan^ng Govenvnent attitude toward contractor debarment 
arxj suspensten is exanmr^ed, with emphasis on the fact that the 
Govemn>ent is more alert to fraud, waste, and abuse. Conskteration 
is given to causes of det>arment or suspensten, procedures ax)6 
due process hearir)gs, settiement agreements, compliarice 
programs, and recent related legislation, tt is concluded that the 
change in the Government contracting environment in recent years 
should be sufficient incentive for contractors to monitor their 
operatior)s more ck>sety. B.J. 

A88-16193# 

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS THAT MIGHT 

ENCOURAGE SECRECY 

ALLEN TOUGH (Toronto. University. Canada) lAF, International 
Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton, England, Oct 10-17, 1987. 
7 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-586) 



Seven factors that may encourage a government to keep secret 
a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence are critically examirted. 
These factors are: (1) belief that peopte may panrc; (2) fear of a 
negative impact on religton, sctence, and culture; (3) 
embanassment; (4) indivkjual and national competitive urges; (5) 
avokJing a hannful premature reply; (6) a national trade or military 
advantage; and (7) fear of a Trojan horse. Steps that can be 
taken to alteviate the most significant of these factors are 
consktered. CD. 

A88-16245# 

CHANGING PATTERNS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATICHI 

IN SPACE - THE SOVIET FACTOR 

J. JOHNSOI^FREESE (Central Rorida, University. Oriando, FL) 
lAF, International Astronautical Congress, 38th, Brighton. England. 
Oct 10-17. 1987. 37 p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-672) 

Changes in the Soviet position regarding cooperation on 
international space ventures, why the changes have oocun-ed. and 
the possit>te consequences of these changes are discussed. Until 
recently, Sovtet cooperation has been limited to exchanges with 
Eastem btec countries. It is suggested that in the past few years, 
the Soviet Unten has placed more emphasis on tiie nonmUitary 
aspects of space and has increased its desire to wort( with Western 
countries on space scienoe projects. Furthermore, the Glavkosmos 
organization now offers several types of commercial space 
servbes, induing the launcNng of satellite payteacte (primarily 
with the Proton booster), vertical sounding rockets, and the sate 
of Soviet-collected earth resou-ce data. R.R. 

Aa8-16247# 

THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY OF SPACE 

ACTIVmES 

JOHN M. LOGSDON (George Washington University. Washington. 
DC) lAF, Intemational Astronautical Confess. 38th. Brighton. 
En^and. Oct 10-17, 1987. 5p. refs 
(lAF PAPER 87-674) 

The current space scene internationally can be characterized 
in terms of a number of patterns or trends. It is the totality of 
these etements. and the interactions among them, that can be 
described as the international political economy of space. White 
competition for political leadership and economic payoffs will 
continue to be a strong influerKe on the space activities of major 
countries, that competition will increasingly take ptece within a 
framework of multilateral structures ar>d cooperative undertakings. 
In ad(^tion, the continued arKl even increasing primacy of military 
space activities in most countries will present a constreunt on tt>e 
govemment resources availabte for civilian space programs. 

Author 

A88-18225 

SOVIET SPACEFLIGHT OFFERS - WILL THE U.S. BLOCK THE 

'CAPTTAUST ROAir? 

CHRIS BULLOCH Space Martlets (ISSN 0258-4212). Fall 1987, 
1987. p. 142-145. 

The recent change in Soviet pdtey concerning oonwnercial 
space-flight offers to other countries is examined. Particular 
conskteration is given to Sovtet involvement in Inmarsat tf>e rote 
of Glavkosmos, insurarx^e issues, launcher offers, experiments on 
Soviet ptetforms, and corxlitions of carriage. B.J. 

A88-18584 

OUTER SPACE: POLITICS AND LAW 

V. S. VERESHCHETIN. ED., E. VASILEVSKAIA. ED., and E. 
KAMENETSKAIA. ED. Moscow. Progress Publishers, 1987. 134 
p. Translation, refs 

Legal and political aspects of space activity are discussed, 
with a focus on the intemational regulation of military activities. 
Chapters are devoted to baning weapons from outer space, 
problems in the devetepment of intemational space law. 
intemational cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space, 
and the legal consequences of the privatization of space activity. 

T.K. 



105 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



A8a-22719 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AVIATION CASE LAW 

MICHAEL J. SEHR (Haskell and Perrin, Chicago, IL) Journal of 
Air Law and Commerce (ISSN 0021-8642), vol. 53, Fall 1987, p. 
85-188. refs 

In the present article, the concept of 'aviation case law' 
encompasses those areas of the law which most directly affect 
the concerns of attorneys practicing in the area of aviation tort 
law. The case law arising under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities 
Act is given particular attention since it may be significant to aviation 
practitioners. Recent developments are essentially those occuning 
during November 1, 1985 to February 15, 1987. A number of 
specific cases are discussed. K.K. 

A88-25829 

THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY - 

LEGAL ISSUES 

G. LAFFERRANDERIE Journal of Space Law, vol. 15, no. 2 
1987. p. 119-130. refs 

Various ways of expanding the ESA are examined. The levels 
of involvement in ESA's activities are as: (1) a member state, (2) 
an associate member, or (3) a state participating in programs. 
The procedures for admission to the agency are discussed, and 
the acceptance procedures for Austria and Norway are presented 
as examples of the admission policy. The status and rights of 
associate members are described. Associate membership is offered 
in two forms, as a preliminary step prior to full membership or as 
a form of cooperation; the implementation of the concept of 
associate membership is explained using the case of Ireland. The 
participation in ESA as a state involved in its science or optional 
programs is considered, and an example is provided. I.F. 

A88-25830 

PROTECTING SPACE ASSETS - A LEGAL ANALYSIS OF 

'KEEP-OUT ZONES' 

F. KENNETH SCHWETJE {USAF, Washington, DC) Journal of 
Space Law, vol. 15. no. 2. 1987, p. 131-146. refs 

Legal arguments and policies concerned with the establishment 
of safety zones (keep-out zones) around space objects are studied. 
The technical concept of keep-out zones is described. International 
laws and treaties which deal with safety zones in areas on earth 
are examined, and examples are provided. Soviet and U.S. views 
on the implementation of keep-out zones are discussed. Problems 
with implementing these zones, such as safety, security, and traffic 
management, are considered. It is argued that there are already 
international (land) laws that relate to safety zones and that based 
on these laws the implemenation of space keep-out zones would 
be legally posssible if it were necessary. I.F. 

A88-25831 

SPACE COMMUNICATIONS TO AIRCRAFT - A NEW 

DEVELOPMENT IN INTERNATIONAL SPACE LAW. II 

WOLF D. VON NOORDEN Journal of Space Law. vol. 15, no. 
2. 1987. p. 147-160. refs 

The use of Inmarsat satellites for maritime and aeronautical 
mobile communications is examined from a legal perspective. The 
proposed amendments to the Inmarsat Convention and Operating 
Agreement as regards aeronautical satellite telecommunications 
are discussed, and the amendments process is described. The 
relationship between Inmarsat and ICAO is analyzed. Consideration 
is given to the research of ICAO's committee on Future Air 
Navigation Systems and the WARC's establishment of frequency 
requirements for mobile satellite sen/ices. I.F. 

A88-26148 

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF THE OUTER 
SPACE ENVIRONMENT AGAINST HARMFUL 
CONTAMINATION - PRELIMINARY REMARKS 

ANDRZEJ GORBIEL (Lodz. Uniwersytet, Poland) Postepy 
Astronautyki (ISSN 0373-5982), vol. 20, no. 1 -2, 1 987, p 
109-128. refs 

Issues associated with space debris are addressed. The need 
for an international multilateral legal instrument containing detailed 



guiding principles and rules which would ensure protection of the 
outer space environment is demonstrated. The author suggests 
that the United Nations Outer Space Legal Subcommittee is best 
suited to provide this instoiment. K.K. 

A88-26197 

COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE, 28TH, 

STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, OCT. 7-12, 1985, PROCEEDINGS 

Colloquium sponsored by lAF. New York, American Institute of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1986, 317 p. No individual items 
are abstracted in this volume. 

The legal implications of recent advances in space technology 
and exploitation are explored in reviews and reports. The emphasis 
is on efforts to limit military activities in space, but consideration 
is also given to comparisons of sea law and space law governing 
exploration and exploitation, the legal problems of registering space 
objects, and particular space activities as the subjects of space 
law. Topics addressed include nuclear winter, ballistic missile 
defense, and the legal regime for outer space; space law and 
space offensive weapons: an interdisciplinary approach to the SDI 
debate; the effect of fiber-optic communication on space radio 
regulations; the registration treaty and nuclear power sources; 
protecting the security of space traffic; the problem of orbital debris; 
plans for the International Space Station; and technlcolegal and 
medicolegal aspects of manned space stations. T.K. 

A88-28539 

A FORWARD LOOKING SPACE POLICY FOR THE USA 

HANS MARK (Texas, University, Austin, TX) Space Policy (ISSN 
0265-9646), vol. 4, Feb. 1988, p. 19-23. 

The assumptions of the 1958 Space Act are reexamined with 
emphasis placed on ways in which they could be modified to 
incorporate technical and political developments since 1958. The 
question of whether or not the U.S. should continue to run separate 
civilian and military space programs is considered and the major 
goals of the U.S. space exploration program are outlined. The 
development and operation of launch vehicles is discussed In detail 
and ways in which the commercial sector could be drawn Into the 
launch vehicle business are presented. K.K. 

A88-28540 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN SPACE - A US VIEW 

HERMAN POLLACK (George Washington University, Washington. 
DC) Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4, Feb. 1988, p. 
24-30. 

A Task Force of the NASA Advisory Council was recently asked 
to assess whether the changing global context for space activities 
required any adjustments in NASA's approach to its international 
activities. This article presents the Task Force's major findings 
and conclusions. The U.S.A. must reinvigorate its civil space 
program, with responsibility clearly assigned, and long-term goals 
and directions established. Through cooperation, it must bring other 
nations to share those goals and move in the same directions. 

Author 

A88-28543 

SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING 

BHUPENDRA JASANI (Royal United Services Institute, London. 
England) and CHRISTER LARSSON (Space Media Network, 
Stockholm, Sweden) Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4. 
Feb. 1988, p. 46-59. refs 

Major technical advances in remote sensing have developed 
sophisticated systems with both extensive military and civilian 
applications. Not only the U.S.A. and USSR, but a growing number 
of other countries such as China. France, India and Japan are 
actively engaged in remote-sensing R&D. This article reviews the 
capabilities of civilian satellite technologies and programs of various 
nations, and examines the implications for national and international 
security. Many states are concerned about the commercial 
availability of data on their economic resources and national 
security-related activities. A particular problem is the possible 
misinterpretation of remotely-sensed data. Author 



106 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



A68-29199'' National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN PLANETARY 
EXPLORATION - PAST SUCCESS AND RTTURE PROSKCTS 

JEFFREY D. ROSENDHAL (NASA, Office of Space Science and 
Applications, Washington. DC) (COSPAR, lAU, lUGS, et al.. 
Plenary Meeting, 2eth. Topical Meeting C3, Workshop ill, and 
Symposium 8 on Planetary Studies, Toulouse, France. June 3(Kluly 
11, 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177). vol. 7, 
no. 12, 1987. p. 213-218. 

A review is given of tf>e ways In which the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration (NASA) has participated in international 
efforts to explore the solar system. Past exarriples of successful 
international cooperative programs are described Prospects for 
future cooperative efforts are discussed with emphasis placed on 
current events, issues, and trends which are likely to affect 
possibilities for cooperation over the next 5 to 10 years. Key factors 
whfch will play a major role in shaping future prospects for 
cooperation include the move towards batarK:ir)g tfie budget in 
the United States and the impact of the Challenger accklent on 
the NASA program. Author 

A88-29201 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SPACE WITHIN ESA 

R. M, BONNET (ESA, Paris, France) (COSPAR, lAU, lUGS, et 
al.p Plenary Meeting. 26th. Topical Meeting C3, Workshop III, and 
Symposium 8 on Planetary Studies, Toulouse, France. June 30-July 
11. 1986) Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177). vol. 7. 
no. 12. 1987, p. 227-231. 

The various areas and missk>rts involving intemational 
cooperatk>n and coordinatkxi with ESA and its various space 
partners are reviewed. Special mention is made of cooperation 
witfi NASA which has been a privileged partner of ESA for many 
years. The past ar>d future activities conducted within the Inter 
Agency Consultative Group (lACG) are also mentioned. It is shown 
that the apparent loss of ind^sendence which may result from 
extensive intemational cooperation can be con-ected through the 
existence of a Long Term Plan. Author 

A88-29772# 

A FRESH LOOK AT LAUNCH-SERVICE CONTRACTS 

W. THOMA (ESA. Directorate of Administration. Paris, France) 
ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265). no. 53, Feb. 1988, p. 49, 50. 

An important consequence of the Space Shuttle Challenger 
accident was the change in U.S. government policy concerning 
nongovernmental and commercial launchings. Customers are 
increasingly interested rK>t only in taur>ch servk)es* availat>iHty, but 
also the flexibility offered in terms of launch date changes, 
relaunches, overall price, and reliabiiity. This situation is rerxlered 
more complex by the very high insurance premiums arKl only-partial 
insurance coverage currently available. Attentfon is given to the 
application of a 'best efforts' pfutosophy to contractual provisions 
in the event of laurKh date chartges. O.C. 

A88-29776# 

INSURANCE OF SPACE RISKS 

L. PLOECHINGER (Deutscher Luftpool. Munich. Federal Republic 
of Germany) ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265). no. 53, Feb. 1988, 
p. 84-87. 

An evaluation is made of the lengths to which tfie insurance 
market is prepared to go in order to insure the tnf>erent risks of 
spacecraft missions; coverage is as a rule extended to commercial 
aircraft, and insurance protection remains unobtainat)le for manned 
spacecraft scientific experiments and for research satellites, since 
their degree of risk is consklered incalculat>le. Past experience 
has led to a massive increase in premiums, especially for launch 
insurance; a premium of up to 25 percent of the insured sum 
must currently be assumed. O.C. 

A88-30700 

NEW ASPECTS OF NATIONAL AVIATION POUCIES AND THE 

FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT REGULATION 



H- A. WASSENBERGH Air Law (ISSN 0165-2079), vol. 13. Feb. 
1988, p. 18-34. refs 

It is suggested that States should promote a *gtot)alization* of 
air transport polk»es, beginning, if need t)e, on a plurilateral or 
regwnal level. In effect, ttie EEC may set an example by 
nationalizing and privatizing the airtine industry. Regarding aviatkxi 
relatk>ns with non-EEC countries, the EEC must find a compromise 
for this 'free competition* objective. In additton. the EEC and its 
European Commissk>n should permit the formation of European 
megacarriers provkled that competitbn is not eliminated from the 
intra-EEC air traffk; market K.K. 

A8S-31000 

THE NATIONAL AEROSPACE PLANE: A POLITICAL 

OVERVSW 

KARL T. KAHRE (California Polytechnk: State University. San Luis 
Obispo) Warrendale, PA, Society of Automotive Engineers. 1986, 
8 p. refs 
(SAE PAPER 872529) 

The NASA-DOO National Aerospace Plane (NASP) will entail 
$3.3 billKKi in funding through the mid-1990s toward, among other 
development costs, the sut)contracts that have been awarded to 
five airframe- and two propulsion-related firms. At the concluswn 
of the third phase of tNs program, the X-30 experimental aircraft 
for intensive hypersonk; flight research will be produced. Legislative 
history, technical development status, and applicatbns-spinoff 
evaluations are presented for the NASP program. O.C. 

A88-33435 

GOVEmiMENT POUCIES ON SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION - 

INDUSTRY WAITS AT THE ALTAR 

PETER M. STARK (Center for Innovative Technotogy, Hemdon. 
VA) IN: EASCON '87; Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual 
Electronk^ and Aerospace Systems Conference. Washington, DC, 
Oct 14-16. 1987. New Yoric, Institute of Electrical and Electronkjs 
Engineers, Inc.. 1987. p. 89-91. 

U.S. government polkaes relating to the commercial use of 
space have been established by both the White House and NASA. 
Both policies make strong statements about what the govemment 
is willing to do in order to support and attract private sector 
investrT>ent in space businesses. While the govemment has initiated 
several actions which encourage private sector investment in 
space, a comparison of the government's policies with the actwns 
that have been taken to implement them reveals a signifk:ant gap 
still remaining. These unfulfilled policy statements represent 
pertiaps the largest remaining obstacle to signifk^nt commercial 
space activity. Author 

A88-35076 

CON(M)ESSIONAL VIEWS ON COMMERCIAL SPACE 

LILLIAN M. TRIPPETT (U.S. House of Representatives, 
Washington, DC) IN: Aerospace century XK\: Space misskjns 
and polk:y; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS Intematkmal 
Conference. Boulder. CO. Oct 26-29, 1 986. San Diego, CA. Univelt. 
Inc.. 1987. p. 447^51. 
(AAS PAPER 86-454) 

For commercial space, tf>e 99th Congress was a period of 
learning, some disappointments and sett>acks and yet, despite 
them, some progress on the policy front The Committee on Science 
and Technotogy made headway in understanding ttie optimum 
level of govemment involvement in space commercializatton and 
an appropriate govemment role in stimulating private investment 
in space activities. Congresstonal efforts to ensure the availability 
of low cost, reliable access to space for commercial and foreign 
users intensified following the Challenger accident, when it was 
learned that the U.S. could not rely solely on the Space Shuttle 
for access to space. Congresstonal efforts to ensure the 
development of a domestic expendable launch vehicle indusfry 
will be discussed. The placement of a permanently manned Space 
Statton in ort)it will further extend commercial opportunities in space. 
How U.S. laws and regulations apply to the Space Station wilt 
significantly affect the character of private sector interest and 
participation in the Space Station. Congressional action to extend 



107 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



patent and other laws to U.S, activities conducted in space will 
be described. Finally, prospects for the 100th Congress will be 
explored. Author 

A88-35077 

COMPETITION AND COOPERATION IN INTERNATIONAL 

JOINT PROJECTS 

BRENDA FORMAN (Lockheed Corp., Calabasas, CA) IN: 

Aerospace century XXI: Space missions and policy; Proceedings 

of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder 

CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc.. 1987 d' 

455-462. 

(AAS PAPER 86-342) 

An analysis is undertaken of the tension between cooperation 
and competition in joint endeavors, beginning with the 
company-to-company teaming arrangement, through large-scale 
R&D consortia formed under the National Cooperative Research 
Act of 1 984, to major international undertakings such as the U.S. 
Space Station. Examples are discussed of various techniques used 
to protect proprietary information while furthering the goals of the 
joint undertaking. Author 

A88-35082* National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Washington, DC. 

SPACE LAW AND ITS APPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE 

HELEN S. KUPPERMAN (NASA, Office of General Law, 
Washington, DC) IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space missions 
and policy; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International 
Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univelt 
Inc., 1987. p. 489-493. 
(AAS PAPER 86-362) 

The paper outlines space law as it currently stands and sets 
forth the arena in which such law has been negotiated. Note is 
taken of the flexibility set forth in these negotiated treaties and 
the fact that the treaties provide the necessary framework for the 
development of cooperative space activities in the future. Author 

A88-35083 

SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN UNITED STATES 

COMMERCIAL SPACE POLICY AND LAW 

JOHN B. GANTT (Hunton and Williams, Washington, DC) IN: 

Aerospace century XXI: Space missions and policy; Proceedings 

of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder 

CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego. CA. Univelt, Inc., 1987, p! 

495-505. 

(AAS PAPER 86-363) 

The author examines several recent U.S. legal and policy 
developments that reflect a growing interest of Congress and the 
Executive Branch (and even the Supreme Court) as to space 
commercialization matters. These developments evidence a 
determination by Congress and the President to overhaul previous 
policy with respect to access to space. Even so, the author believes 
a greater bi-partisan effort is required to shape a U.S. civilian 
space policy and legal environment conducive to long-term space 
commercialization investment decisions. Author 

A88-35088 

NATIONAL SPACE POLICY - IS IT MADE, OR DOES IT 

HAPPEN? 

STEPHEN E. DOYLE (Aerojet TechSystems Co., Sacramento, 
CA) IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space missions and policy; 
Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International 
Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univelt 
Inc., 1987, p. 551-562. 
(AAS PAPER 86-364) 

It is presently suggested that U.S. national space policies 
emerge through the uncoordinated interplay of various interests, 
frequently being strongly driven by personalities, with unilateral 
interruptions, and without cohesive structure and direction. The 
diffuseness of national space policymaking is due to its 
simultaneous conduct by Presidential administrations, con- 
gressional committees, the DOD, and NASA. A series of policy 
proposals is presented which encompass the commercialization 



of launch operations by 1990, the establishment of lunar manned 
research stations by 2010, and full commitment to a 
transatmospheric vehicle's development. O.C. 

A88-35089 

PUBLIC ATTITUDES AS OBSERVED BY THE NATIONAL 

COMMISSION ON SPACE 

LEONARD W. DAVID (Space Data Resources and Information, 
Washington, DC) IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space missions 
and policy; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International 
Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San Diego, CA, Univelt, 
Inc., 1987, p. 563-570. refs 
(AAS PAPER 86-385) 

The National Commission on Space (NCOS) recently formulated 
an aggressive set of civilian space objectives, designed to allow 
the United States to move boldly into the 21st century. In order 
for the Commission to develop a useful agenda of potential projects, 
a series of country-wide Public Forums, various electronic surveys, 
and direct mail solicitation of opinions were carried out. This paper 
will outline public attitudes concerning the future of the U.S. civilian 
space program, and NCOS recommendations to foster continued 
support for new space initiatives, based upon the findings of its 
public forum series. Author 

A88-35092 

POTENTIAL OF SPACE FOR HUMANITY 

WTARU WAKAI TANAKA IN: Aerospace century XXI: Space 
missions and policy; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS 
International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986. San 
Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc.. 1987, p. 595-603. 
(AAS PAPER 86-450) 

An evaluation is made of Japanese attitudes on space 
colonization, as well as of their aptitude for participation in 
international efforts aimed at such colonization. A trust fund is 
proposed into which the heaviest users of petroleum-derived fuels 
pay in order to support space exploration, industrialization and 
colonization, in the form of such projects as an orbiting solar-power 
station. Attention is given to the concept of a *cybernaut', a totally 
autonomous man-like robot capable of all space exploration 
tasks. O.C. 

A88-39498 

BUILDING A EUROPEAN SPACE POLICY 

HELEN WALLACE (Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 
England) Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9648), vol. 4. May 1988, p. 
115-120. 

The results of a two-year study concerning Europe's future in 
space are given. The report, conducted by five European institutes, 
concluded that Western European nations must work together to 
expand their collective space activities. In the area of space 
transportation, the report concluded that Europe should build 
launchers and develop fully retrievable transportation systems. It 
was decided that Europe should develop its satellite capabilities, 
establish its own space station and create a Europe-wide system 
of ground facilities. Increasing industrial effectiveness, developing 
collaborative programs, and promoting technical innovation were 
stressed as well. In addition, it was decided to try to maintain a 
strong program in space science and research and to reinforce 
frameworks for collaboration. Although commercial and security 
dimensions of space were dealt with in the study, they were not 
included in Europe's space policy. R.B. 

A88-39499 

SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION AND THE LAW 

MICHEL BOURELY Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), vol. 4, May 
1988, p. 131-142. refs 

Legal aspects of the commercialization of space are examined, 
emphasizing international and national legislation, freedom for 
private enterprise, and state responsibility. The Outer Space Treaty, 
adopted by the U.N. in 1967, insures the freedom of space for 
exploration and use by governments and private companies, but 
states are responsible for insuring that privately-run space 
endeavors adhere to international law. The U.S., U.K. and Sweden 



108 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



are the only countries to have enacted gerteral national regulations 
of commercial space activities. The U.S. has established regulations 
of launch activities, while the member states of ESA have created 
specific regulations for Ariane launches. Up to rww. there has 
been no need for specific national legislation concemirig 
telecommunications, because general guidelines for use of radio 
frequencies are enforced by organizations like the FCC or European 
PTT authorities. Legislation cor>cemtng telecommunication may 
become necessary with tt>e introduction of DBS. The U.N. has 
passed a resolution stressing the need for a code of conduct 
coru^eming e€irth observation, such as n>eteorotogy ar>d remote 
ser^ng. R.B. 

A88-40799 

COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE, 29TH, 

INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA, OCT. 4-11, 1986, l>ROCEE0INGS 

Colloquium sponsored by lAF. New York, American Institute of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987, 311 p. No individual items 
are abstracted in this volume. 

National legislation and policies and international agreements 
on space activities are examined in reviews and reports 
representing a wide international range of viewpoints. Topics 
addressed include maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes, 
space communication and the regulation of GEO, space 
commercialization, and the history and teaching of space law. 
Particular attention is given to the common heritage of man 
doctrine, the legal implications of SDI, arms-control verification, 
legal problems of DBS TV. the 1985 WARC-ORB recommendations, 
traffic systems for near-earth space. INMARSAT as an mixture of 
public and private enterprise in space, and a comparison of the 
new Law of ttie Sea and space law. The teaching of space law is 
discussed in a series of national surveys. T.K. 

A88-43970# 

CREATING COMMERCIAL SPACE 

GREG BARR (National Space Society, Washington. DC) IN: 
Space manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial resources, biosciences, and 
space engineering; Proceedings of the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI 
Conference, Princeton, NJ, May 6-9, 1987. Washington, DC. 
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987. p. 
199-206. refs 

A review of the backgrour>d, publicity and criticism surroundir^ 
the Commercial Space Incentive Act (CSIA) since its creation in 
May of 1986 with concluding remarks on the need for a r>ew 
national space policy encouraging the privatization of space 
transportation. A summary ar>d the complete text of the proposed 
legislation are included. Author 

A88-43971# 

FUNDING THE HIGH FRONTIER - A DIFFERENT APPROACH 

S. DAVID EISENBERG IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial 
resources, biosciences. and space engineering; Proceedings of 
the Eighth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference, Princeton. NJ, May 
6-9, 1 987. Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1 987. p. 207-21 1 . 

Sometimes two problems are each other's solutions. The two 
problems to t>e addressed are capital formation for space resource 
utilization (High Frontier) and long term funding of demographicatly 
problematic pension and insurartce programs (Social Security). An 
ordinary venture capital model of High Frontier fundir^g is 
inappropriate and misleading, t>ut a capital formation mechanism 
exists that would suffice for the tasks at hand were it not obstructed 
by short-sighted laws; legal and economic reform are therefore 
important. Taxes singled out for change are those on interest and 
dividends, capital gains, inheritance, income, and pensions. Non-tax 
areas to be changed are patent arnj copyright laws, age of majority 
for autonomous investing, and public capital good accounting and 
funding. Author 

A88-43972# 

SPACE LAW AND GOVERNMENT - A GENERATION LATER 

JAMES E. DUNSTAN (Haley, Bader and Potts. Washington. DC) 
IN: Space manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial resources, biosciences. 



and space engineering: Proceedings of the Eighth 
Princeton/ A!/^/SSI Conference, Princeton. NJ. May 6-9, 1987. 
Washington. DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1987. p. 224-232. refs 

In 1963. Andrew G. Haley, former President and General 
Counsel of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
published what was then, and still is today, one of the major 
works on Space Law. entitled Space Law and Government. The 
present paper attempts to place the developments in Space Law 
in historical perspective by reviewir>g what Haley saki and predicted 
in that work, what has developed in tt^e area of Space Law since 
1963. and what the key issues in Space Law are likely to be in 
the coming decade. It is predk:ted ttutt although Haley saw the 
critical need for intematk>nal regulatk>n of space activities, the 
self-interests of spacefaring nations, as welt as the t>eginning of 
private uses of outer space, wilt result in a continued shift from 
regutatk>n of space activities by intematk>nal treaty to regulatk>n 
by (mvate contract and bilateral agreement, but that eventually, 
international mechanisms for dispute resolution will be required in 
the form of an additional international agreement. Author 

A89-44867 

COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IN THE GEOSTATIONARY 

ORBIT (2ND REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION) 

DONALD M. JANSKY and MICHEL C. JERUCHIM Nonfood. 
MA, Artech House, Inc., 1987, 647 p. refs 

Regulatory, polk:y. and technical conskJeratk>ns pertainir>g to 
communk:atk)ns satellites in geostatk>nary ort>it (GSO) are 
addressed, and methods of dealing with the problem of interference 
that such satellites encounter are conskJered. An overview and 
historical perspective on GSO is given, and communk^atkxi satellite 
sharing of the GSO is discussed. intematk>nal and domestk: 
ortjit-spectmm polrcy is examined. Factors affecting orit>it-spectrum 
utilizatkKi are addressed for both the homoger^eous case and the 
nonhomogeneous case. The performance of anak>g and (tigitat 
signals in an interference environment, interference cancellation- 
reduction techniques, and software for orbit-spectrum 
utilization studies are discussed. CD. 

A88-48445 

THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS DECLARATIONS OF 
PRINCIPLES IN THE PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF 
SPACE LAW 

VLADIMIR KOPAL (UN. Outer Space Affairs Div., New York) 
Journal of Space Law, vol. 16. no. 1. 1988. p. 5-20. refs 

The legal nature of three UN dectaratkms of prir>ciples governing 
intematk>nal relations concerning space activities is examined. Thie 
1 963 Declaratk)n of Legal Principles estat}lished the purposes of 
the exploration and use of outer space, characterized the legal 
status of space and celestial bodies, outlined the scope of legality 
of activities in space, and provided a set of initial rules for handling 
known problems of space activities. The 1982 Principles Governing 
Direct Televisk>n Broadcasting set bask: requirements for states 
and other international organizations involved in intematk>nat 
broadcasting. The 1986 Principles Relating to RerTWte Sensing 
allows for the sensed state to obtain access to the results of 
remote sensing arKi stresses the duty of sensing states to consult 
tt>e sensed state. The historical development of ttiese declaratk)ns 
and the reactk>n of the intematk)nal community to these 
declaratk>ns are discussed. R.B. 

A8a-48446 

REMOTE SENSING AND INTERNATIONAL SPACE LAW 

CARL Q. CHRISTOL Journal of Space Law. vol. 16. no. 1. 
1988, p. 21-44. refs 

The UN Principles on Remote Ser^r)g. whteh was approved 
in 1986. is presented in detail. The factors and key issues 
influencing the successful search for an agreenront and are 
discussed, including conflicts concerning national privacy and 
sovereignty over natural resources, disagreement t>etween sensing 
states and states without sensing capabilities, arul differences in 
politk:al and ideologk:al perspectives. Tt>e negotiation process and 



109 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



the final articles of the resolution are described. Also, the legal 
status and importance of the 1986 Principles are examined. R.B. 

A88-48650# 

U.S. COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION RISK 

ALLOCATION AND INSURANCE: AN AIAA POSITION PAPER 

Washington, DC, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 1988, 8 p. 

Insurance and liability aspects of the ongoing U.S. effort to 
support the development of commercial launch services are 
examined. The system of risk assignment (RA) In place for 
NASA-provided launches of commercial payloads Is reviewed: in 
such cases, the U.S. government (USG) assumes third-party liability 
for risks beyond those covered (with the USG as a nonpaying 
named insured) by reasonably priced insurance paid for by the 
commercial party. Consideration is then given to the types of risks 
and liability involved, the insurability of typical launch risks, the 
current RA situation (in which U.S. commercial launch services 
are forced to accept risks without adequate insurance, to avoid 
losing business); and the RA practices of foreign competitors 
(mainly following the NASA precedent). Legislation and regulations 
providing for some form of USG assumption or containment of 
uninsurable risks, as pari of an RA plan similar to that for NASA 
launches, are strongly recommended. T.K. 

A88-49051 

LEADING THROUGH COOPERATION 

JOHN M. LOGSDON (George Washington University, Washington, 
DC) Issues in Science and Technology (ISSN 0748-5492), vol. 
4, Summer 1988, p. 43-47. refs 

An attempt is made to formulate an alternative approach to 
the traditional insistence of planners on the achievement and 
preservation of the U.S.'s preeminence in space exploration and 
commercialization. The alternative policy suggested involves 
intensive collaboration with such major participants in space 
activities as the USSR, Western Europe, Canada, and Japan, and 
is predicated on the manifest similarities of goals in science policy 
and in the application of space technology among these nations. 

O.C. 



A88-51742 

PUBILC POLICY ISSUES IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS 

AND REMOTE SENSING 

THOMAS L. MCPHAIL (Calgary, University, Canada) IN: Satellites 
international. New York, Stockton Press, 1 987, p. 57-60. refs 

Policy issues relating to telecommunications are discussed, 
including international use of the geostationary satellite orbit, 
remote sensing of earth resources, and direct satellite broadcasting 
of television signals. The UN provisions for international activities 
in outer space are examined, pointing out which issues have yet 
to be resolved. The question of the sovereignty of equatorial 
countries over the space above their nations, and the relationship 
between sensed states and states with remote sensing capabilities 
are considered. Other issues include whether or not individuals 
should have the right to receive any broadcast information they 
wish to receive, the problem of broadcasting propaganda, and the 
question of whether or not a nation must give prior consent before 
a program is broadcast to that nation. R.B. 

A88-53527 

COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL - THE FAIRNESS EXCEPTION 

STEVEN C. MALIN Journal of Air Law and Commerce (ISSN 
0021-8642), vol. 53, Summer 1988. p. 959-995. refs 

The doctrine of collateral estoppel, or issue preclusion, which 
prevents a party from contesting an issue that has previously 
been litigated and lost, is examined. The doctrine of mutuality of 
estoppel, which prevents a person from takng advantage of a 
judgment to which he was not bound, and the ways in which this 
doctrine has been handled in the California Supreme Court and in 
Federal Court are discussed. Collateral estoppel in air crash cases 
is considered. Justifications for allowing estoppel in the absence 
of mutuality include the vexation of multiple suits, the conservation 
of judicial resources, inconsistent judgments, and the notion that 
a party should have only one full and fair chance to litigate any 
particular issue. It is proposed that a rule ensuring that 'a defendant 
in an action may not be collaterally estopped by an adversary 
upon an issue decided in a prior action to which the adversary 
was not a party unless the adversary had agreed to be bound 
thereby should be adopted. R.B. 



A88-50300 

THE COMMON INTEREST IN THE EXPLORATION, USE, AND 
EXPLOITATION OF OUTER SPACE FOR PEACEFUL 
PURPOSES - THE SOVIET-AMERICAN DILEMMA 

CARL Q. CHRISTOL (Southern California. University, Los Angeles. 
CA) CIDA, vol. 10. no. 10, 1985, p. 41-84. refs 

The bases and prospects for U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space 
exploration are explored in the contexts of a general relaxation of 
ideological and geopolitical tensions and of the diversion of 
weapons and military personnel expenditures to benevolent 
exploitation of the space environment. Attention is given to the 
emergence of the problem of antisatellite technologies, public 
efforts by the Soviet Union to deal with the antisatellite problem, 
the major initiatives toward the relaxation of superpower tensions 
in space that have been undertaken by the United Nations, the 
involvement of the U.S. Congress in space militarization issues, 
and progress made in U.S.-U.S.S.R. talks since mid-1984. O.C. 

A88-50901 

PASSENGER PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY IN AIRCRAFT 

ACCIDENT FIRES 

NEVILLE BIRCH (Rolls-Royce. PLC, Derby. England) Aldershot. 
England. Gower Technical Press, 1988, 160 p. refs 

Techniques for protecting passengers from the effects of fire 
in othenvise survivable aircraft accidents are evaluated, and specific 
recommendations involving the expansion of current ground-based 
fire-fighting capabilities are presented. Chapters are devoted to 
the origin and characteristics of aircraft fires, heat, smoke and 
toxic gases, factors affecting evacuation, the internal cabin fire, 
evacuation-chute protection, smoke hoods, and aircraft security. 
Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided. 

TK. 



N88-10696# General Accounting Office. Washington, DC. 
National Security and International Affairs Div. 
BUDGET REIMBURSEMENTS: THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 
AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION S REIMBURSABLE WORK 

Jun. 1987 19 p 

(PB87-207296; GAO/NSIAD-87-171FS; B-227311) Avail: NTIS 

HO A03/MF A01 CSCL 05C 

The fact sheet responds to a congressional request for 
information about the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration's (NASA) reimbursement. It: (1) describes how 
reimbursements impact on NASA's funding requirements; (2) 
provides the amount of estimated total reimbursements for fiscal 
year 1987; and (3) provides information on the amount, type, and 
source of reimbursements in fiscal year 1 985 for the Space Flight 
Control and Data Communications and Research development 
accounts. GRA 

N88-11573# General Accounting Office, Washington. DC. 
General Government Dtv. 

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: FEE WAIVER PRACTICES 
AT THE FBI (FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION) 

Jun. 1987 24 p 

(PB87.216727; GAO/GGD-87-73BR; B-221963) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03/MF A01 CSCL 05B 

The report reviews how the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
(FBI) administers the provision of the Freedom of Information Act 
(FOIA) pertaining to the waiver of fees charged on information 
requests. The objectives of the review at the FBI were to: (1) 
identify and describe the procedures and standards used in making 
fee waiver decisions, and (2) provide information on how the 
procedures and standards were applied to specific fee waiver 
requests. GRA 



110 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POUCY 



N8a-11574# CorTY)uter Horizons. Inc.. Haddon Heights. NJ. 

IDENTIFYING AREAS OF LEADING EDGE JAPAHEX 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: ACnVITY ANALYSIS USING 

SIC (STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSES) CATEGORIES AM) 

SCIENTIFK: SUBFIELDS lnt»rtm Technical Report Na 1, 1975 

- 1964 

F. NARIN and D. OLIVASTRO 19 May 1986 96 p 

(Contract NSF SRS-8M7306) 

(PB87-204087) AvaU: NTIS HO A05/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

The ^owth of Japanese patent^ is ptfticuMy apparent with 
the Japanese invented U.S. pat^its ^K:re88ing from approx. 8.8 
percent in 1975 to 16.5 percent of U.S. patents in 1984. In scientific 
papers the Japanese increased from approx. 5.1 percent in 1973 
to 7.3 percent in 1982. The t)road areas of emphasis of the tvvo 
countries are also shown to t)e in strong contrast In science the 
Japanese show a pevticiteiy emphasis in chemistry and physics 
with an average emphasis in bioscienoe. In contrast the U.S. shows 
emphasis in earth and space science, and notable emphasis m 
the t>tome(fical fields of cfovcal medicine and biomedfcal research. 
Field by field Japanese and U.S. science activity correlate at 0.90. 
almost total opposrtes. In technology also there are sharp contrast. 
with Japar)ese activity notably high in various areas related to 
electronics, automotive, photography, scientific instrumentation and 
office computir>g. These areas of \vigjh Japanese activity are also 
areas in which they have increased their activity over the last tan 
years: in fact, the Japanese have increased then- share in 40 of 
the 42 different product fields. GRA 

N88-11575# Computer Horizons. Inc.. Haddon Heights. NJ. 

IDENTIFYING AREAS OF LEADING EDGE JAPAIffiSE 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: PATENT ACTIVITY AM> 

CITATION ANALYSIS USING US POC PATENT OFFICE 

CLASSIFICATION) CLASSIFICATK3N feilerim Technic«l Report 

No. 2, 1975 - 1984 

F. NARIN and D. OLIVASTRO 5 Sep. 1986 72 p 

(nrwrtrant NSF SRS-85^7306) 

(PB87-204095) Avafl: ffTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

Analysis of Japanese invented patents e^^pear^ in the U.S. 
patent system over the 10 yr period 1975 to 1984. shows that 
the share of U.S. patents with Japanese inventors increased from 
8.8 percent of all U.S. patents in 1975 to 16.5 percent in 1984, 
while the share of patents with U.S. inventors decreased from 
64.9 to 57.1 percent Japanese inventors obtained 8 percent more 
U.S. patents while U.S. inventors obtained 8 percent fewer, and 
the rest of the world's inventors remak>ed approx. constant In 
the U.S. patent system, the increase m Japanese share was entirely 
at the expense of the U.S. The Japar>ese patents are shown to 
be quite concentrated in relatively high technology classes related 
to those areas of consumer proc^Kts where there is a major 
Japanese presence, including electronics, photography, and 
automotive techrK>logy. There is also a grow^ Ja4>anese presence 
in the pharmaceutical area. When lootced at from the point of 
view of citation an^ysis. that is considering highly cited palents 
to be patents of particuiar tectmiciri impact and quafity, the 
Japanese performance is just as imp r essive. The Japanese position 
tn patented techrK}logy appears to be strong, growing and based 
on high quality. QRA 

N88-12199# Committee on Commerce. Science, and 

Transportation (U.S. Senate). 

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH 

Washington GPO 1987 156 p Hearing before the 
Subcommittee on Science. Technology and Space and the National 
Ocean Policy Study of the Committee on Commerce, Science 
and Transportation, 100th Conc^ess, 1st Session. 16 Jul. 1987 
(S-HRG-1 00-301; GPO-77-482) Avail: Subcommittee on 
Science, Technology and Space 

Testimony of various goverrmient and university scientists, 
including a representative of NASA, before the subcommitlae is 
presented. The status of research on manmade environmental 
changes is reported witi) the goal of ^iforrrmg national research 
policy in this area. J.PB. 



N88-12422# Committee on Science and Technology (U.S. 

House). 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

AUTHORIZATION ACT, 1988 

Washington GPO 1 987 1 9 p H.R. 2762 enacted into law by 
the 100th Congress. 2d session. 30 Oct 1987 
(PUB-LAW-100-147) Avail: US Capitol, House Document Room 

Appropriations were authorized to the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration for research and development; space flight 
control, and data commurncations; constnictiorYS of fadlities; arKi 
research arid program management; and for other purposes. 

Author 

N88-12424# Committee on Appropriations (U.S. Senate). 
DEPARTiKNT OF HOUSING AND URBAN 
DEVELOPMENT-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS 
FOR FISCAL YEAR 1988, THURSDAY, 9 APRIL 1967: 
NATIONAL AER0NAUTK:S AND SPACE ADMIN^TRATION 
fn fis Department of Housing and Urt>an Development, and Certain 
Independent Agencies Appropriations. 1988. Part 2 p 1019-1115 
1987 
Avail: Committee on Appropriations 

Oat and written statements of the NASA Admmistrator fctefore 
the subcomntittee are presented, as well as written questions an6 
responses to them. Areas of emphasis inckide plans for an ortNtal 
space station arKJ heavy lift laur)ch capability. J.P.B. 

N88-12425# Committee on Appropriations (U.S. Senate). 

DEPARTiSNT OF HOUSING AND URBAN 

DEVELOPiSNT-INDEPEfa>ENT AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS 

FOR FISCAL YEAR 1988, FRIDAY, 10 APRIL 1987: NATIONAL 

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE, ADMINISTRATION 

fn its Department of Housing and Urt>an Development and Certain 

Independent Agencies Appropriations. 1988. Part 2 p 1117-1197 

1987 

Avail: (Committee on Appropriations 

Oral and written testimony of the NASA Adnmstrator before 
ttie subcommittee is presented. Tt>e emphasis is on plans for an 
orbital space station, heavy lift launch vehicles, tiie reswnption of 
shuttie flights, tt>e Hubble Space Telescope, and aircraft energy 
efficiency. Some attention is given to other NASA space exploration 
and new technology programs. J.P.B. 

N88-14043# Committee on Appropriations (U.S. Senate). 
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
SPACE STATION PROPOSAL, FISCAL YEAR 1988 

Washington GPO 1 987 261 p Hearings before the Committee 

on Appropriations. 100th Congress, 1st Session, 1 arxJ 20 May 

1987 

(S-HRG-1 00-328; GPO-76-948) Avail: Committee on 

Appropriations 

Hearing were held to ascertain norvNASA expert opinion on 
the advisability of and options for a U.S. ortMtal space station. 
Scientists, academics, engirteers. and fc)usir)essmen expressed 
opinions on the desirability of funcfing a space station as opposed 
to other possible space priorities. The second day of hearings 
concentrated on opirw>ns reganfing the commercial potential of a 
space-station. J.P.B. 

N88-14044# (Committee on Science, Space and Technology 
(U.S. House). 

THE 1968 NASA (NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION) AUTHORIZATION 

Washington GPO 1986 77 p Hearing before the Subcommittee 

on Space Science and Applications of the Committee on Science. 

Space and Technology, 100th Confess, 1st Session. No. 43. 8 

Apr. 1987 

(GPO-80-245) Avail: Subcommittee on Space Science and 

Applications 

Space Stations configuration and cost reviews are cBscussed 
in terms of the commitment of the United States to a permanently 
manned Space Station. Congressional approval to release Request 
for Proposals to industry for a phased development of tiie space 



111 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



station is sought, including estimates for an enhanced capability 
configuration. Also described is the revised baseline and the 
enhanced configuration. B.G. 

N88-14854 Committee on Science, Space and Technology (U.S. 

House). 

THE 1988 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 

ADMINISTRATION (NASA) AUTHORIZATION 

Washington GPO 1987 1206 p Hearings before the 

Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of the 

Committee on Science, Space and Technology, 100th Congress, 

1st Session, No. 35, Vol. 2, 5, 24-25 Feb.; 3, 5, 10-11, 18-19, 31 

Mar.; 23 Apr. and 6 May 1987 

(GPO-76-600) Avail: Subcommittee on Space Science and 

Applications 

The fiscal year 1 988 budget request is examined for the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration programs which include: 
orbital space station; resumption of shuttle flights; expendable 
launch vehicles (ELVs); research and development; space 
transportation system; construction; and Advanced Communication 
Technology Satellite (ACTS). B.G. 

N88-15732* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

NASA PATENT ABSTRACTS BIBLIOGRAPHY: A CONTINUING 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. SECTION 1: ABSTRACTS (SUPPLEMENT 32) 

Jan. 1988 61 p 

(NASA-SP-7039(32)-SECT-1-ABST; NAS 
1.21:7039(32)-SECT-1-ABST) Avail: NTIS HC A04; NTIS 
standing order as PB 88-911100. $12.50 domestic, $25.00 foreign 
CSCL 05B 

Abstracts are provided for 1 36 patents and patent applications 
entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system 
during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists 
of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration 
selected from the patent or patent application. Author 

N88-15817'# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Washington, DC. 

ADVANCING AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGY 

FOR THE SPACE STATION AND FOR THE US ECONOMY: 

SUBMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS MAY 15. 

1987 Progress Report No. 4, Oct. 1986 - 15 May 1987 

May 1987 61 p 

(NASA-TM-89811; NAS 1.15:89811) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 

A01 CSCL 22A 

In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA 
Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to 
Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and 
robotics technology for use on the space station. This material 
was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 
87566). A further requirement of the Law was that ATAC follow 
NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. 
This report is the fourth in a series of progress updates and 
covers the period October 1, 1986 to May 15, 1987. NASA has 
accepted the basic recommendations of ATAC for its space station 
efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the will of Congress is to 
build an advanced automation and robotics technology base that 
will support an evolutionary space station program and serve as 
a highly visible stimulator affecting the long-term U.S. economy. 
The progress report identifies the work of NASA and the space 
station study contractors, research in progress, and issues 
connected with the advancement of automation and robotics 
technology on the space station. Author 

N88-16724# European Space Agency. Paris (France). Dept. of 

International and Legal Affairs. 

A POLICY FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

H. KALTENECKER In its ESA Bulletin No. 8 p 29-44 Feb. 

1977 

Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 

The relations between ESA and its organs and the governments 



and institutions of non-member states and international 
organizations are discussed. Author (ESA) 

N88-18046*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

SPACE-BASED REMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH: A 
REPORT TO THE CONGRESS 

Sep. 1987 147 p Original document contains color illustrations 
Prepared in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, Washington, D.C. 

(NASA-TM-89709; NAS 1.15:89709) Avail: SOD HC $9.00 as 
033-000-00983-6; NTIS MF A01 CSCL 08B 

The commercialization of the LANDSAT Satellites, remote 
sensing research and development as applied to the Earth and 
its atmosphere as studied by NASA and NCAA is presented. Major 
gaps in the knowledge of the Earth and its atmosphere are identified 
and a series of space based measurement objectives are derived. 
The near-term space observations programs of the United States 
and other countries are detailed. The start is presented of the 
planning process to develop an integrated national program for 
research and development in Earth remote sensing for the 
remainder of this century and the many existing and proposed 
satellite and sensor systems that the program may include are 
described. Author 

N88-18503# Indo-US Subcommission on Science and 

Technology, Washington, DC. 
MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE INDO-US 
SUBCOMMISSION ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (8TH) 
HELD AT WASHINGTON, D.C. ON SEPTEMBER 22-24, 1986 
1986 89 p Meeting held in Washington. D.C, 22-24 Sep. 1986 
(PB88-130158) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

To carry out the objectives of the agreement in various fields 
of science and technology, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on 
Science and Technology was established in January 1975. Since 
then it has met on eight occasions in either Washington or New 
Dehli and has played an important role in fostering the development 
of collaborative research projects of mutual interest as well as 
closer ties between the scientific communities of both countries. 
The Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology on 
the Indian side, and the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans 
and International Environment and Scientific Affairs on the U.S. 
side, co-chair the meetings of the Subcommission. More than two 
dozen technical agencies from both sides participate in the activities 
of the Subcommission. The work of the Subcommission is carried 
out by Working Groups in physical and materials science; earth, 
atmospheric, and marine sciences; energy; environment and 
ecology; information science and technology; and health, medical, 
and life sciences. The document presents the minutes of the Eighth 
Meeting of the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Science and 
Technology which was held in Washington, D.C, September 22-24, 
1986, and reports on the deliberations of the various Working 
Groups. Author 

N88-18511* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

NASA PATENT ABSTRACTS BIBLIOGRAPHY: A CONTINUING 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. SECTION 2: INDEXES (SUPPLEMENT 32) 

Jan. 1988 499 p 

(NASA-SP-7039(32)-SECT-2; NAS 1.21:7039(32)-SECT-2) Avail: 
NTIS HC A21; NTIS standing order as PB88-911100, $26.50 
domestic, $53.00 foreign CSCL 05B 

A subject index is provided for over 4700 patents and patent 
applications for the period May 1969 through December 1987. 
Additional indexes list personal authors, corporate authors, contract 
numbers, NASA case numbers. U.S. patent class numbers, U.S. 
patent numbers, and NASA accession numbers. Author 

N88-20208*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC 
SELLING TO NASA 

Nov. 1986 47 p Original contains color illustrations 



112 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



(NASA-TM-89724; NAS 1.15:89724) Avail: ^4TIS HC A03/MF 
A01; also available SOD HC $3.25 as 033-000-009-95-0 CSCL 
05A 

Prospective contractors are acquainted with the organizatiortal 
structure of NASA, and the major technical program offices and 
selected staff offices at the Headquarters level are briefly described. 
The basic procedures for Federal procurement are covered. A 
primer is presented on how to market to NASA. While the 
information is specific to NASA, many of the principles are 
applicable to other agencies as well. Some of the major programs 
are introduced which are available to small and disadvantaged 
businesses. The major research pro^-ams and fields of interest at 
individual NASA centers are summarized. B.G. 

N88-20222# Office of Technology Assessment, Washington. 

DC. 

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE CONSTITUTION: 

BACKGROUND PAPER 

Sep. 1967 33 p 

(PB88-142534; OTA-BP-CIT-43; LC^7-619873) Avail: NTIS HC 

A03 MF A01; also available SOD HC $1.50 as 052-000-010-86-1 

CSCL05D 

The centrality of science and technology to American society 
argues that Congress and the courts will repeatedly be asked to 
reexamine constitutional principles in the context of scientific 
knowledge and technk»l capabilities. StimulatkKi of the continiBng 
publk; discussran of the relationsh^js between science, technotogy. 
and bask: constitutional provisk>ns is sought GRA 

N8a-21087# Executive Office of the President Washington. DC. 
AERONAUTICS AND SPACE REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT: 
1986 ACTIVITIES 

1986 141 p 

Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 

The achievements of aaorMortics and space programs in the 
United States for 1986 are summarized in the areas of 



space science; space transportatkKi; commercial use of space; 
space tracking and data systems, space statkm; and aeronautics 
and space research and technotogy. The achievements of each 
of the foltowing organizattons are described: NASA, the 
Departments of Defense. Commerce, Energy. Interior, Agricultwe, 
Transportation and State, the Federal Communtoations 
Commisston. Environmental Protection Agency, National Science 
Foundation, Smitiisonian Institution. Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency and USIA. Appendtoes provkJe historical infonnation on 
launches, satellites, manned and ummanned spacecraft, and 
Federal budgets for aeronautical and astronautical activities. 

Auttxx 

N88-23689# Committee on Appropriations (U.S. House). 

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 

INDEPENDENT AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1989. 

PART 7: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 

ADMINISTRATION 

Washington GPO 1988 1137 p Hearings before a 

subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations. 1 00th Congress, 

2<i Session. 19 Apr. 1988. part 7 

(GPO-85-166) Avail: Committee on Appropriations. House of 

Representatives. Washington. D.C. 20515 HC free 

Hearings before a subcommittee of the House Committee on 
Appropriations are presented atong with the budget estimates for 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the fiscal 
year 1989. All written testimony and submittals for the record are 
also included. The budget estimates provkte a detailed outiine of 
budgetary infonnation and justifications for research and 
devetopwnent. construction of facilities, space flight and 
communications, and research and program management M.G. 

N88-24410*# Department of Energy, WasWngton. DC. 
UNITED NATIONS DEUBERATIONS OF THE USE OF 
NUCLEAR POWER SOURCES IN SPACE: 1978-1987 

GARY L BENNETT. JOSEPH A. SHOLTIS. JR.. and BRUCE C. 



RASHKOW (State Dept, Washington, D. C.) /n New Mexico 
Univ., Transactions of the Fifth Syn^>osium on Space Nuclear 
Power Systems p 171-175 1988 Sponsored by NASA, 

Washington, D.C. and DOD, Washington. D.C. 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF A01 CSCL 05D 

The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the 
use of nuclear power sources (NFS) in space. Although no 
complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain 
scientific and techntoal criteria for the safe design and use of 
NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should t>e noted tiiat 
in its 1981 report, the Wortcing Group on the Use of Power Sources 
in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely 
in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements 
are met This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position. 

Author 

N88-24411# State Dept. Washington, DC. 
DISCUSSIONS AND AGREEMENTS IN THE UNITED NATIONS 
ON IMPORTANT ISSUES ASSOCMTED WITH NUCLEAR 
POWER IN SPACE 

BRUCE C. RASHKOW. THEODORE A. BOREK. EDWARD 
KEHELEY, NATHAN J. HOFFMAN, and BRUCE B. GILLIES 
(Energy Technotogy Engineering Center. Canoga Pari<, Calif.) fn 
New Mexico Univ., Transactions of the Ftfth Symposium on Space 
Nuclear Power Systems p 177-179 1988 
Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF A01 

The United Nations (U.N.) has not agreed on a definition of a 
nuclear safe orfaH tsetow which a member state cannot have an 
operating nuclear power supply. The U.N. has not agreed on the 
definition of a reentry configuration for a nuclear power st4)pty. 
Although tiie Legal Subcommittee of tile Committee on the Peaceful 
Uses of Outer Spcu:e prevtously adopted a (Araft principto relating 
to the notification of the states concerned and the Secretary 
General by the launching state of tfte possibto urwttentional reentry 
of a nuclear power si^iply, that princ^jle has been reopened for 
discusston. A draft princ^ for assistanoe by the launching country 
to nations AffArtAri hy reentry has been reopened for discusston. 
The U.N. has not proscribed plutonkim as a fuel for a space 
power reactor or tsotopto heat source. The U.N. has not agreed 
upon a required orbitat attitude or ortMt decay time as a function 
of nuclear reactor power level. Author 

N88-25373# General Accounting Offtoe. Washington, DC, 

Accounting and Rnancial Management Div. 

FINANCIAL REPORTING: NASA (NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 

AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION) CAN IMPROVE COMPUANCE 

WITH GAO (GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE) STANDARDS 

AND TREASURY REQUIREMENTS 

Feb. 1988 18 p 

(PB88-172523; GAO/AFMD-88-21) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 

CSCL05A 

The results are presented of the authors review of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration's preparation of its fiscal 
year 1986 Report on Financial Position, commonly refen-ed to as 
a balance sheet The review, one segrnent of a government wtoe 
effort, was performed to detemrttne the extmit of oon^iance witti 
the General Accounting Office's and the Department of the 
Treasury's annual financial reporting requirenr>ents. Author 

N88-25379# Department of Defense, Washington, DC. 
THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REPORT ON THE MERIT 
REVIEW PROCESS FOR COMPETITIVE SELECTION OF 
UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROJECTS AND AN ANALYSIS OF 
THE POTENTIAL FOR EXPANDING THE GEOGRAPHIC 
DISTRIBUTION OF RESEARCH FOR THE COMMITTEES ON 
APPROPRIATIONS. UNITED STATES CONGRESS 
Apr. 1987 33 p 
(AD-A191842) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 05A 

This report responds to the Committee on Conference request, 
DoD Appropriations Act. 1987 as set forth in the following. With 
the establishment of ttie University Research Initiative in fiscal 
year 1986 and rising funds for the Strategic Defense Initiative, the 
Department of Defense's investment in university-based research 



113 



10 LEGALITY, LEGISLATION, AND POLICY 



is increasing. Consequently, the appropriations Committees need 
to ensure that the peer review process for the allocation of 
university funding is woricing effectively, and that mechanisms are 
in place to broaden the base of DoD university research 
commensurate with these increasing resources. Therefore, the 
conferees direct the Department of Defense to submit a report to 
the Appropriations Committees by March 1, 1987, which (1) explains 
in detail the curent peer review process in a step-by-step fashion; 
(2) explains cun-ent participants in this process, including peer 
review panels, boards, or conferences, and how such peer 
reviewers are evaluated and chosen; and (3) an analysis of the 
potential for expanding the research base into geographical areas 
which at the present time receive little defense-related university 
funding. This report explains DoD's merit review process and the 
participants in that process and also describes the current 
distribution of DoD research funding to universities and the potential 
for geographic expansion. GRA 

N88-25388* National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington. DC. 

NASA PATENT ABSTRACTS BIBLIOGRAPHY: A CONTINUING 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. SECTION 1: ABSTRACTS 

Jul. 1988 25 p 

(NASA-SP-7039(33); NAS 1.21:7039(33)) Avail: NTIS HC A03 

CSCL 05B 

Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications 
entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems 
during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry 
consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key 
illustration selected from the patent or patent application. Author 

N88-29233*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, DC. 

PRESENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER 
ATMOSPHERE 1988: AN ASSESSMENT REPORT 

R. T. WATSON, M. J. PRATHER, and M. J. KURYLO Jun. 1988 

203 p 

(NASA-RP-1208; NAS 1.61:1208) Avail: NTIS HC A10/MF A01 

CSCL04A 

This document was issued in response to the Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1977, Public Law 95-95, mandating that NASA 
and other key agencies submit biennial reports to Congress and 
EPA. NASA is to report on the state of our knowledge of the 
upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. This is the sixth 
ozone assessment report submitted to Congress and the concerned 
regulatory agencies. Part 1 contains an outline of the NASA Upper 
Atmosphere Research Program and summaries of the research 
efforts supported during the last two years. An assessment is 
presented of the state of knowledge as of March 15, 1988 when 
the Ozone Trends Panel, organized by NASA and co-sponsored 
by the Worid Meteorological Organization, NCAA, FAA and the 
United Nations Environment Program released an executive 
summary of its findings from a critical in-depth study involving 
over 100 scientists from 12 countries. Chapter summaries of the 
International Ozone Trends Panel Report form the major part of 
this report. Two other sections are Model Predictions of Future 
Ozone Change and Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data 
for Use in Stratospheric Modeling. Each of these sections and 
the report in its entirety were peer reviewed. Author 

N88-29632# General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. 

National Security and International Affairs Div. 

COMPETITION: ISSUED ON ESTABLISHING AND USING 

FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

CENTERS 

Mar. 1988 57 p 

(PB88-1 78884; GAO/NSIAD-88-22) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF 

A01 CSCL 05A 

The national defense role of Federally Funded Research and 
Development Centers is documented. Information is presented on 
the placement of research and development work at 12 centers: 
10 sponsored by the Department of Defense and 2 sponsored by 
the Department of Energy. Author 



114 



SUBJECT INDEX 



MANAGEMENT /A Bibliography for NASA Managers 



APRIL 1989 



Typical Subject Index Listing 

-(subject heading| 



INCEMTIVE TECHNIQUES 

— Anatomy of «n organtzationBl change effort at the lewis 
Research Ce. iter 
[NASA-CR-4146] p 17 Ne8-26264 



TITLE 



REPORT 
NUMBER 



/ 




PAGE 
NUMBER 




NASA 

ACCESSION 

NUMBER 



The subject heading is a key to the sut)iect content 
of the document. The title is used to provide a 
description of the subject matter. When the title is 
insufficientiy descriptive of the document content, 
the title extension is added, separated from the title 
by three hyphens. The (NASA or AIAA) accession 
number and the page number are included in each 
entry to assist the user in locating the at>stract in 
the abstract section, ft applicable, a report number 
ic aicn inHtiriAH a<i an aid in identifyina the 
document. Under any one subject heading, the 
accession numbers are arranged in sequence with 
the AIAA accession numbers appearing first. 



The irrteraction of bottom-up and topntown consislency 
inme devotopment of sWHs p4 A86-35464 

ABSTRACTS 

FY 1965 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers 
and presentations 
[NASA-TM-e6521] p 71 f488-130e3 

Strategic nuragement of research and development: 
A literature search 
[NASA-CR-182337] p 72 N88-14847 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest issue 14 
[f4ASA-CR^3922(16)] p 73 N88-16317 

Engine structives: A Ubfiograptiy of Lewis Research 
Center's research for 1960-1967 
[NASA.TM-100e«) p27 Ne&^40(^ 

USSR Space Ufe Sctenoes Digest. Issue 17 
[UASA.CS.3922{20)] p79 N8a^4155 

USSR space life scienoes digest, issue 18 
[NASA-CR-3922(21)] p 61 N6&^6096 

Bibiiography of Lewis Research Center technical 
publications annourK»d in 1967 
[NASA-TM-1009103 p 62 N66-26e32 

ACCESS cowmoL 

Computer resource management technology program 
(PE 64740F). Task no. 9: Advanced user authent ica tion 
[PB86-183066] p 52 N6e-25163 

ACCIDCNTS 

Post-ChaNenger evaluation of space shuttle risk 



[NASA-CR-162461] p 96 N8a-20202 

ACCOUNTING 

Monitoring the usage of a computer system 
[DE66-0043101 p 51 N8fr.22542 

Financial reporting: NASA {Natk>nal Aeronautics and 
Space AdministrBtion) can Improve complianoe with GAO 
(General Accounting Office) standards Md treasury 
requirements 
[PB88-172523] p 113 N66-25373 



ACEEmOGRAM 

Department of Housing and Urban 
Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations for 
fiscal year 1968. Friday. 10 April 1967: Natnnal 
Aeronautics and Space Administration 

pill N6&.12425 

Acousncs 

Put>Sc«tions on acoustics research at the Langley 
ReMtfch CenlBr during 1960-1966 
[NASA-TM-100S80} p61 N6e.27Bei 

Artificial in to K g ence software acquisition program. 
vokjme2 

[AD-A194239] p 54 Ke6-28680 

ACTUATORS 

A standard arctvtecture for controlling robots 
[ADA195929] p 37 Ne&-30371 

ADA fPROQRAMMMQ LANQUAOE) 

Ada - What eveiy good msnagar needs to know 
[AIAA PAPER 67-2657] p 38 A86-12S77 

What every good manager shouW know about Ada 

p43 Ae6-42201 

Ada and knowledge-based systems - A prototype 

combining the best of both worMs p46 A8e-52343 

Beyond Ada: Generating Ada code from equattonal 

specfficalions 

[AD-A1918e6j p52 Ne6-25176 

ADAPTATION 

NASA Wodcshop on Bk)k)gical Ad^jlation 
[NASA-Tigi-69466] p 74 N66-18174 

ADAPTIVE CONTROL 

Uncertainty management techniques in adaptive 
control p12 A66-26590 

ABKMOOUSnCS 

NA.<iA/AnnyRokn:raftTechnokx]V.Vokime2:MatBrittls 
and Structures. Propulskm and Drive Systems. Flight 
Dynamics and Control, and Acoustics 
[NASACP-2495-V0L-5] p 25 N66-ie632 

AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS 

L»igley Symposium on Aerodynamics, vokime 1 
[NASA-CP-2397] p 24 N86-14926 

If s time to reinvent the general avisMon airplane 

p27 N66-23726 
AERODYNAMIC STABIUTV 

oiaoimf am conooi memoooiogy ror conceptual ttrcran 
design. VokMne 1: Methodotogy manual 
[AI>A191314j p27 N66-22906 



Rotorcraft r o sear ch at NASA p64 A6&40552 

Joint U m ver sfty Progrm for Air Transportatk>n 
Rese«ch, 1966 

[NASA-CP-25023 P 78 N8ft.23715 

AEROELASTtCmr 

Recan t trends In aeroelasicity. structures, wdstniclural 
dynwncs: Prooeedngs of the R. L. BiMnghoff Memorial 
Symposium. University of Ftorida. Gainesvile. FU Feb. 6. 
7.1966 p21 A66^5526 

NASA/Army RoAorcrafl Technology. Volume 1: 
Aerodynamtos. and Dynanvcs and AeroelftstkJly 
[NASA<:P-2495-V0L-1] p 25 N68-16625 

Aircraft aeroelasticity and stnictural dynamfcs roaoareh 
at the NASA Langley Research Center Some Musfrative 



[NASA-TM-100627] p 79 N88-24596 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 

Wright Brothers lechmhip in aeronmftkx: The Skunk 
Works* management styte - If s no secret 
[AIAA PAPER 864516] p 

JPRS Report Scienoe and Technotogy. 
tJPRSCST-87-033] p 

Astronautics wid aeronaulkx, 1978: A 
[NASA-SP-4023] p 

Impact and promise of NASA 



14 A86-51976 
Chra 
71 N66-12062 
cfvonology 

24 N66-14062 
aeroprop uls ion 

25 N66>1669e 
nooo a roh and technokigy. 1967 

CNASA-TM-100323) p 76 N66-20253 

Aeronautics and spmoB report of the Presidsnt 1966 

activfties p113 N6&^1067 

Research and technology 

[NASA-TM-IOOITZ] p 78 N66-22651 



NASA history data book. Vohjme 1: NASA resources . 
1958-1966 

[NASA-SP-4012-VOL-ll p 80 N88-25428 | 

AERONAUTICS 

Langley aerospace test higf^ights. 1987 
[NASAr7M-100595] p 78 N8e-22853 I 

NASA historical data book. Vokime 2: Programs and I 
pfOjects 1956*1966 
[NASA^P^12-VOL-2] p 80 N86-25429| 

NASA historical data book. Volume 3: Programs and I 
projects 1969-1976 

[NASA-SP-4012-VOL-3] p 80 N88-25430 | 

AEROSPACE ENGINEERING 

Aerospace highlights 1987 p20 AB8-21000 | 

Educatkxiat uses of the aerospace datattase 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0749] p 41 A8e-22566 ' 

CAD/CAM machine - Indudtng planning for CAD/CAE 
usage in your compoiy or major pro-am 
[AAS PAPER 86-261] p 32 A88-35110 

A project-oriented introductxm to ffigttt test 



[AIAA PAPER 88-2116] p4 A88-38764 

Space Statwn - Home and workplace in orbit 

p70 A88-554d6 

Astronautics and aeronautk^s. 1978: A chronok>gy 
[NASA-SP-4023] p 24 N88-14062 

Research and technotogy objectives and plans. 
Summary. Fiscal Year 1966 
[NASA-TM67504] p 72 N88-14e94 

FY67 scientific and technical reports, artkdes, papers. 



[NASA-TM-100316] p 25 N86-16578 

Aeronautcs and space report of the Presklent 1966 
activities p113 N88-21067 

JF»RS report Science arxj technotogy. Japan 
[JPRS-JST-86^)01] p77 N88-22218 

JPRS report Science and technotogy. Japan 
[JPR&aST-87-029] p 77 N88-22228 

Soviet spacecraft engineering research 
[FASAC-TAR-3090] p 27 h«6-23823 

The 1986 Qoddard Conference on Space Appltoations 
of Artificial IntoHigenoe 

[NASA-CP-3009] p 37 N88-30330 

AEROSPACE ENVIRONHENTS 

Experiments in advanced control concepts for space 
robotics - An oveniew of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics 
Laboratory 
[AAS PAPER 87-044] p 30 A6&-16999 

Large space systems environmental entanglements 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0388] p 59 A88-22266 

International legal protection of the outer space 
environment against harmful corrtamination - PreSminary 
remartw p 106 A88-26146 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 15 
[NASA-CR-3922(18)] p 74 N68-18175 

Study of indwrtiy raqurements that can be fulfilled by 
combustion experimentation aboard space statton 
[NASA-CR-180854} p 26 N68-19377 

Space utilization plans p 90 t>468-22219 

Microgravity robotics technotogy program 
CNASA-TM.10069e] p 35 N88-23219 

EnviroNET: An interactive spaoe-environment 
information resource 
[NASA-TM-101137] p 51 N88-23812 

Appltoation of Al to space systems p35 N68-25626 

Mk:rogrBvity science and appNcationsbMtography, 1967 
revision 

[NASA-TU4067] p 82 N8&-28171 

AEROSPACE INDUSTRY 

industriid modernization irwentives program - Uses m 
space system producing industry p 19 A86-1S307 

Air Force space requirBments - Can industry meet the 
challenge for space systems? p 19 A86-15312 

Thirty years of space with McDonnell and Douglas 
[lAF PAPER 87-665] p 19 A86-16241 

D ev elopment of tm expert investment strategy system 
for a e ros pa ce RD&E and production contract bidding 

p30 A86-19885 

Aerospace highlights 1967 p 20 A68-21000 

LffijrK^hing a convnercial space industry 

p85 A88-21652 



A-1 



AEROSPACE MEDICINE 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Educational uses of the aerospace database 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0749] p 41 A88-22566 

Keeping a sharp technology edge p 20 A88.26646 

Design features of excimer lasers for safe operation in 
industry and medicine p 99 A88-31083 

Future aerospace projects or engineering the future for 
UK Ltd p20 A88-31339 

Government policies on space commercialization - 
Industry watts at the altar p 107 A88-33435 

Satellite manufacturers and systems 

p23 A88-51745 

Polymer composites for automotive applications; 
Proceedings of the International Congress and Exposition, 
Detroit. Ml, Feb. 29-Mar. 4. 1988 p 23 A88-51813 

Microgravity research - The current situation 

p69 A88-54790 

Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor 
technology 
[NASA-CP-10004] p24 Ne8-14970 

The appropriate use of contract types in development 
contracts (a systems approach with emphasis on the 
European space sector) 
[ ESA-STR-222 ] p 24 N88- 1 6573 

Cooperation know-how in high-tech products 
[MBB-Z-101/e6] p25 N88-17833 

Quality and productivity drive innovation and 
improvement at United Technologies Aerospace 
Operatk>ns, Inc. 

[NASA-CR-182944] p 103 N88-24983 

AEROSPACE MEDICINE 

Spacelab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific research 
objectives p 55 A88- 12428 

Physiologic adaptation of man in space; Proceedings 
of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, 
Houston. TX, Feb. 10-13, 1986 p 1 A88-12951 

The role of preventive nwdicine in the future of USA 
space life sciences p 60 A88-29104 

Man in space: 25 years of manned space flights in the 
Soviet Union - Biomedical aspects p 60 A88-29105 

Soviet space physiology from its origins to the 'close 
look' p62 A88-29768 

Psychosocial training for physicians on board the Space 
Statton p4 A88-37450 

Earth benefits from space life sciences 
[lAF PAPER 88-500] p 70 A88-55433 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 
sciences 
[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 N88-12915 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14 
[NASA-CR-3922(16)] p 73 N88-16317 

USSR report: Life sciences. Siomedical and btehavioral 
sciences 
tJPRS-UBB-86-022] p 73 N88-16318 

JPRS Report: Science and Technology. USSR: Space 
Biology and Aerospace Medicine, volume 21, no. 6. 
November - December 1 987 
[JPRS-USB-88-004] p 74 N88-18150 

Present stage of space medicine p 7 N88-18151 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 
sciences 
tJPRS-ULS-88-001 ] p 75 N88-19079 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 1 6 
[NASA-CR-3922(19)] p 77 N88-22515 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Issue 17 
[NASA-CR-3922(20)] p 79 N88-24155 

USSR space life sciences digest, issue 1 8 
[NASA-CR-3922(21)] p 81 N88-26096 

AEROSPACE PLANES 

Aerospaceplane - NASA's flame rekindled 

p56 A88-16376 

Spaceplanes - Key to the future p 84 A88-21329 

The National Aerospace Plane: A political overview 
[SAE PAPER 872529] p 107 A88-31000 

National Aero-Space Plane 
[AAS PAPER 87-127] p 21 A88-41288 

National aero-space plane: A technology development 
and denrtonstration program to build the X-30 
[GAO/NSIAD-88-122] p 27 N88-23764 

AEROSPACE SAFETY 

SAFE Association. Annual Symposium, 24th, San 
Antonk). TX, Dec. 11-13, 1986, Proceedings 
[AD-A199275] p 98 A8e-13376 

Propulsion safety almost equals mission safety 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2881 ] p 101 A88-44698 

NASA's post-Challenger safety program - Themes and 
thrusts 
[lAF PAPER 88-510] p 102 A88-55435 

Safety philosophy, policy, and requirements for manned 
spaceflight. Volume 1 : Executive summary 
[HEG-0e66/1036-VOL-1 J p 102 NB8-15826 

AEROSPACE SCIENCES 

Science on the Space Station: The opportunity and the 
challenge - A NASA view 
[ I AF PAPER 87-92] p 39 A88-15863 

Proceedings of the Fourth Annual L5 Space 
Development Conference p 58 A88-22000 



Canadian directions in space science - An update 

p59 A88-24978 

Space science at NASA - Retrospect and prospect 

p 61 A88-29226 

Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, 
and commercial developments; Proceedings of the 
Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, 
CO. Oct. 26-29, 1986 p 63 A88-35123 

Aerospace design education at Texas A & M 
University 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4413] p6 A88-53751 

Activities report in aerospace 
[ETN-88-91978] p 77 N88-21866 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 16 
[NASA-CR-3922(19)] p 77 N88-22515 

NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog 
of Special Publications, Reference Publications, 
Conference Publk:ations, and Technical Papers, 1987 
[NASA-SP-7063{02)] p 78 N88-22830 

Issues and recommendations associated with distributed 
computatk)n and data management systems for the space 
sciences 

[NASA-CR-183026] p 18 N88.27108 

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 

Systems and their management p 13 A88-30675 

Scientifk: and economy-oriented space systems 
/revised edition/ — Book p 65 A88-43247 

Data nrianagement for large space systems 

p44 AB8-45034 

AAAIC '87 - Aerospace Applications of Artifrcial 
Intelligence; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, 
Dayton, OH, Oct. 5-9, 1987 p 32 A88-52226 

AGARD: The NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace 
Research and Development 
[AD-A185062] p 71 N88-14063 

Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to 
space p14 N88-17250 

Applkation of Al to space systems p 35 N88-25626 
AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 

Technology - The basis for the past, the key to the 
future 
[lAF PAPER 87-47] p 56 A88-15833 

Benefit from space technology - A view from a 
developir>g country 
[lAF PAPER 87-679] p 84 A88-16250 

Spinoff. 1987 
[NASA-TM-89652] p 71 N88-11577 

AGARD: The NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace 
Research and Development 
[AD-A185062] p 71 N88-14063 

Cooperation know-how in high-tech products 
[MBB-Z-101/86] p25 N88-17833 

Langley aerospace test highlights. 1 987 
[NASA-TM- 100595] p 78 N88-22853 

AEROSPACE VEHICLES 

Managing engineering design information 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4452] p 23 A88-51957 

AGRICULTURE 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 
sciences 

[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 N88-12915 

AIR LAW 

Recent developments in aviation case law 

p 106 A88-22719 

Collateral estoppel • The fairness exceptbn 

pllO A88-53527 
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL 

Computer systems in future advanced air traffic 
management p 92 A88-23264 

Computer-assisted aircraft arrivals management using 
speed control p 92 A88-23266 

Experimental use of artificial intelligence for (future) ATC 
systems 
[PB87-106449] p 95 N88-12970 

Chicago's O'Hare Runway Configuration Management 
System (ROMS). Volunrm 2: Users gukle 
[AD-A186222] p 95 N88-15783 

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS (PERSONNEL) 

'Were you distracted by the other plane's sudden 
appearance?' - The case for standardized post-accident 
interviews for air traffic controllers p 5 A88-43004 

AIR TRANSPORTATION 

New aspects of national aviation policies and the future 
of internatksnal air transport regulatron 

p 107 A88-30700 

Issues in air transport and airport management 
[ PB87-204509 ] p 95 N88- 1 0782 

FAA aviation forecasts fiscal years 1988-1999 
[AD-A191711] p96 N88-24576 

AIRBORNE/SPACEBORNE COMPUTERS 

Evolution of data management systems from Spacelab 
to Columbus 
[MBB-UR-E-968-87] p 41 A88-23981 

Software engineering development environment for the 
launch processing system p 46 A88-52357 

Space languages p 7 N8B-16420 



AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 

'Were you distracted by the other plane's sudden 

appearance?" - The case for standardized post-accident 

interviews for air traffic controllers P 5 A88-43004 

A methodological approach to the search for indirect 

(human) events related to mishaps p 13 A88-43006 

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS 

Passenger protection technology in aircraft accident fires 
..-Book p110 A88-50901 

Collateral estoppel - The fairness exception 

p110 A88-53527 
AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS 

Civil air transports for the 21st century - A European 

view p62 A88-31187 

Aircraft aeroelasticity and structural dynamics research 

at the NASA Langley Research Center: Some illustrative 

results 

[NASA-TM-100627] P 79 N88-24598 

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 
Future aerospace-materials directions 

p20 A88-24823 
Electrically conducting plastics - New materials from 
aerospace research P 22 A88-48454 

AIRCRAFT CONTROL 

Robotic air vehicle - A pilot's perspective 

p29 A88- 10437 

Utilities systems management - Flying demonstrator 

[SAE PAPER 860851 ] p 92 A88-15585 

Vehicle Management Systems - The logical evolution 

of integration 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3175] p 94 A88-53148 

StabHiity and control methodology for conceptual aircraft 
design. Volume 1 : Methodology manual 
[AD-A191314] p27 N88-22906 

Joint University Program for Air Transportation 
Research, 1986 

[NASA-CP-2502] p 78 N88-23715 

AIRCRAFT DESIGN 

Robotic air vehicle - A pilot's perspective 

p29 A88-10437 
The teaching of aircraft design computer applications 

p 41 A88-23260 
Keeping a sharp technology edge p 20 A88-26646 
Maintainability - A design parameter 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2184] p 93 A88-38753 

National Aero-Space Plane 
[AAS PAPER 87-127] p 21 A88-41288 

Cost-of-a-cassette air safety p 101 A88-48499 

Managing engineering design information 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4452] p 23 A88-51957 

The role of regulations in aircraft design education 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4485] p 23 A88-51968 

Aerospace design education at Texas A & M 
University 

[AIAA PAPER 88-4413] p 6 A88-53751 

Use of a detail cost model to perform conceptual phase 
cost analysis 
[SAWE PAPER 1784] p 23 A88-53788 

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1 
[NASA-CP-2397] p 24 N88-14926 

The NASA aircraft icing research program 

p24 N8B-15803 
NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 2: Materials 
and Structures, Propulsion and Drive Systems, Flight 
Dynamics and Control, and Acoustics 
[ N ASA-CP-2495- VOL-2 ] p 25 N88- 1 6632 

Stability and control methodology for conceptual aircraft 
design. Volume 1 : Methodology manual 
[AD-A191314] p27 N88-22906 

It's time to reinvent the general aviation airplane 

p 27 N88-23726 
Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test 
report 

[NASA-CR-172587] p 28 N88-28915 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 3: Ancillary test results 
[NASA-CR-172588] p 28 N88-28916 

AIRCRAFT ENGINES 

Results of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Program 

p 92 A88-20785 
21 St century high speed transport propulsion 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2987] p 87 A88-44718 

Vehicle Management Systems - The logical evolution 
of integration 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3175] p 94 A88-5314e 

Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine 
hot sections; Proceedings of the Thirty-third ASME 
International Gas Turiaine and Aeroengine Congress and 
Exposition. Amsterdam, Netheriands, June 5-9, 1988 

p 101 A88-54137 

Recent advances in engine health management 

[ASME PAPER 88-GT-257] p 94 A88-54333 

Engine structures: A bibliography of Lewis Research 

Center's research for 1980-1987 

[NASA-TM-100842] p 27 N88-24002 



A-2 



SUBJBCTfNDEX 

Engine condrtion monitoring civil requirements: A British 
Ainwaysview p 97 N88-28002 

Recent advances in engine health management 

p97 M8S-28005 
AIRCRAFT GUIDANCE 

Joint University Prograin for Ah- Transportation 
Resea^c^ 1966 

[NASA-CP-2502] p 78 N88-23715 

AIRCRAFT HAZARDS 

Training - Behavioral and motivatioral solutions? 

p 1 Ae8-10961 
Icing Technology BibKography 
[SAE AIR 4015] p 101 A88-54400 

AIRCRAFT IMXISTRY 

Prototype manufacturing techniqoes for reducing cost, 
schedule, and technical risk p 26 N88-20ie9 

FAA avtaton forecast fiscal years 1988-1999 
[AD-A191711] p96 N8ft-24576 

AIRCRAFT LANOmO 

The certification aspects of microwave landing systems 
- Ainworthiness considerations p 101 Ae8^46253 

AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

Implementation of the fttght safety parts program 

p92 Ae8-22793 
Tt» evolution of force management technology 
[A!AA PAPER 88-2228] p 93 A88-32191 

Maintain^Mlity - A de^n paramet^^ 
(AtAA PAPER 88-2184] p 93 A88-38753 

Training of technical personnel for quality 
maintenance p4 A88-42921 

Recent advar>ces in engine health management 
[ASME PAPER 88-GT-257] p 94 Ae8-54333 

Cost benefits of nondestructive testing in aircraft 
"wintenance p 95 A88-55041 

Recent adveuices in engine health management 

pg7 N68-2e005 
AIRCRAFT MANEUVERS 

Ungley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1 
[NASA-CP-2397] p 24 N88-14926 

AIRCRAFT NOISE 

Advisory circular Noise certification handbook 
[FAA-AC-36-4B] p 103 N88-24234 

AIRCRAFT PARTS 

Lewis materials research and technotogy: An overview 
p95 N88-16699 
AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 

NASA smalt dvil airplane research 
[SAE PAPER 872404] p 99 A88-30975 

AlAA Flight Test Conference. 4th. San Dieoo. CA. Mav 
18-20. 1988, Technical Papers p 99 A88-38701 

AIRCRAFT PILOTS 

The captain's managerial tasks p 13 A88-42964 

Advanced blackboard approaches for cockpit 
information management p 46 A88'52229 

AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPUES 

Utilities Management System on the EAP demonstrator 

- Aircraft power system integration 

[SAE PAPER 871780] p 92 A88-30775 

Aircraft electrical systems (3rd revised and enlarged 

edition) — Book p 22 A88-45596 

AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION 

Use of a detail cost model to perform cor>oeptual frfiase 
cost analysis 

[SAWE PAPER 1784] p 23 A88-5378e 

Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft 
structures: Future progrEun 

tNASA-CR-181467] p 24 N88-14155 

Picking winners: Parametric cost estimating and project 
fT«^^agement p 26 N88-20176 

AIRCRAFT REUABIUTY 

The role of regulations in aircraft design education 
[AlAA PAPER 88-4485] p 23 A88-51968 

AIRCRAFT SAFETY 

FAA roles and outkxA for safety p 100 Ae8-42917 

Cost-of-a-cassette air safely p 101 A88-48499 

Proceedings of the Woritshop on the Assessment of 

Crew Workload Measurements Methods. Techniques and 

Procedures. Volume 1: Preliminary Selectkm of 

Measures 

tAD-A189004] pS Ne8-20827 

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES 

Practical solutions to problems in experimental 
mechanics, 1940-85: A history — Book 

p19 A88-17945 
Critical joints in large corr^josrte primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 2: Technology demonsb^tion test 
report 

[NASA-CR-1725e7] p 28 N88-28915 

Critical joints in large composite primary a»cratt 
stiuctures. Volume 3: Andltary test results 
[NASA-CR-172588J p 28 N88-28916 

AIRFRAMES 

Cost-of-a-cassette air safety p 101 A88-48499 

AIRUNE OPERATIONS 

Issues in air transport and airport management 
[PB87-204509] p 95 N88-10782 



Engine contftion nxKHtorwig civH requirements: A British 
Ainwaysviow p 97 Nee-28002 

AIRPORT PLANNING 

Issues in air transport and airport management 
[PBe7.204509] p 95 N88-107e2 

FAA aviation forecasts fiscal years 1988-1999 
[AD-A191711] p96 Ne8-24576 

AIRPORTS 

M«ro PAVER concept and devekjpment airport 
pavement management system 

[AD-A1B7360] p 96 Ne8-18598 

AIRSHIPS 

Blimps are back on board p 20 A88-16499 

AIRSPEED 

Computer-assisted aircraft arrivals mviagement using 
speed control p 92 A88-23266 

ALGEBRA 

Scientific data manipulation in a relational database 
system 

[PB87-124400] p 49 N88-14850 

ALQORrfHMS 

AUTOPLAN - A PC-based automated mission planning 
tool p40 A88-20486 

Task aHocation for effnient performance of a 
decentralized organization 

[AD-A188699] p 15 N88-20204 

ANALOGS 

Space station liabttabiKty recommendatiirts based on 
a systematic comparative analysis of analogous 
conc^tions 

[NASA-CR-3943] p9 N88-25372 

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 

A prototype expert systwn for separation scierx» 
[DE87-013542] p 48 N88-12333 

ANALYZERS 

Computer-aktod writing 
{AD-A192516] p 53 N88-26e37 

ANTINEUmiNOS 

PiTyscs of massive neutrinos — Book 

p67 Ae8-45597 
APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS) 

POPEYE: A production njle-based model of multitask 
supervisory control (POPCORN) p 8 N8e-23384 

APPROPRUTIONS 

Budget reimbmements: The National Aeronautics and 
Space Administiaftion's reimbursable work 
[PB87-207296] pllO N88-10696 

The 1968 Natkxial Aeronautics and Space 
Administivtion (NASA) authorization 
(GPa76-600] p112 N88-14854 

Department of Housing and Urt>an Devetopment 
independent agencies appropriations for 1989. Part 7: 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
[GP0^85-166] p113 N88-23689 

The Department of Defense report on the merit review 
process for competitive selection of university research 
projects and an analysis of the potential for expanding 
the geographK distribution of research for the Committees 
on AppropriatNXts, United States Congress 
[AD-A191842] p 113 N88-25379 

APPROXIMATION 

Rrx^ mirwnunfvcost circulations by successive 
approximation 

[AD-A194028] p 18 N88-29469 

ARCHfTECTURE 

Space Station Human Factors Research Review. 
Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: 
Architectural Research 

[NASA-CP-2426-VOL-3] p7 N88-19e83 

ARCHTTECTURE (COMPUTERS) 

Status of the Space Station water reclamation and 
management subsystem design corK»pt 
[SAE PAPER 871510] p 58 A88-21156 

Utilities Management System on the EAP derxmstrator 
• Aircraft power systmn inte^ation 
[SAE PAPER 871780] p 92 A88-30775 

Telemetry hancMirig on the Space Stetion data 
management system p 42 A88-3%29 

Al and ATLAS - The prospects for a marriage 

p43 A88-36546 

Fluid dynamks parallel computer devetopment at NASA 

Ungley Research Center p 44 A88-44893 

Modern meteorological computing resources - The 

Maryland experience p44 Aefr46023 

1993 - A vtston of the design center 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4451 ] p 45 A88-51956 

Computer vdiitectures for artiticisa inteHigerx» 
[PB87-123824] p 72 Ne8-14671 

A general architecture for intelligent training systems 

p7 N88-14875 

Proceedirjgs of the Woriishop on Future Directions in 

Computer Architecture and Software 

[AD-A184949) p 50 N88-18191 

Models and metrics for software management and 



p52 N88-24200 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

The -mdoc macro package: A software tool to support 
computer documentation standards 
[DE88^)O0SO0] p52 N88-25188 

A standard architecture for contix)lling robots 
tAD-A195929] p 37 N88-30371 

ARMED FORCES (UNTTED STATES) 

Competing for a future in space - NASA and the 
Department of Defense p 86 A88-28537 

Management and the executive 
[AD-A190778] p 17 N88-25374 

ARRIVALS 

Computer-assisted aircraft anivals management using 
speed control p 92 A88-23266 

ARTIFICIAL QRAVrfY 

Reconsidering artifcial gravity for twenty-first centijry 
space habitats p65 A88-43953 

Use of a 2-m6ter radius centrifuge on Space Station 
for human physiotogic conditioning and testing 

p6 A88-43962 

Preliminary analysis of an integrated togistics system 
for OSSA paytoads. Volume 4: Supportability analysis of 
the 1.8m centrifuge p 89 N88-19481 

Some operational aspects of a rotatirig 
advanced-technotogy space station for the year 2025 
[NASA-CR-181617] p 81 N88-26397 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

Building intelligent systems - Artificial intelligence 
research at NASA Ames Research Center 

p29 A88-15300 

Devetopment of an expert investment sti»tegy system 
for aerospace RD&E and production conti-act bidding 

p30 A88-19885 

The NASA telerobot technology demortstrator 

p 31 A88-21651 

Applications of artiftoiat intelligence in Japan 

p31 A88-32522 

AAAIC '87 - Aerospace Appik:ations of Artificial 
Intelligence; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, 
Dayton, OH, Oct 5*9, 1987 p 32 A88-S2226 

Advanced blackboard approaches for cockpit 
information management p 46 A88-52229 

Space Congress, 25th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 26-29. 
1968. Proceedings p88 A88-52317 

Expert system prototype devetopments for NASA-KSC 
business and efigineering appNcations 

p32 A88-52340 

Conceptijal model-based reason^ for 

knowledge-based software project management 

d33 A8e-52350 

Artifkaal intelligence for providing expertise on 
instrumerHation 
[AlAA PAPER 88-4666] p 33 A88-53828 

Potential applications of expert systems and operations 
research to space station togistics functions 
[NASA-CR.180473] p 95 N88-12342 

Experimental use of artifkaal intelligence for (fubjre) ATC 
systems 

[PB87-106449] p 95 N88-12970 

USSR report Cybernetics, computers and autismation 
technotogy 
[JPRS-UCC.86^14] p33 N88-14669 

Computer architecftfl^s for artifkaal intelligence 
[PB87-123824] p 72 N88.14671 

A general architecture for intelligent ti^atning systems 
p 7 N88-14875 

Expert system study for ^^acecraft management 
[TL-2699-ISS-1 ] p 33 N88-15004 

DoD Gateway Information System (DGIS) common 
command language: The first prototyping and the deciston 
for vtiftoi^ intelligence 
[AD-A185950] p 49 N88-15725 

Space languages p7 N88.16420 

The intelligent user inftertace for NASA's advar>ced 
information management systems p 49 N88- 16424 

Artifkaal Inteltigenoe (Al). Operations Research (OR), 
and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual 
framework p 34 N88-17245 

Knowledge-based system analysis arid comrol 
[AD-Aie8163] p34 N88-20049 

Ptiysics for robots 
[AD-A1 89056] p 34 N88-20054 

The use of an automated flight test management system 
in the devetopment of a rapto-prototyping flight research 
facHfty 
[NASA-TM-100435] p 34 N88-20896 

Application of expert systems in project mar«gement 



[NASA-CR-1 82953] 



[NASA-CR-1 80762] p 16 N88-21074 

Comparative analysis 
[AD-A190556] p 34 N88-22313 

Application of Al to space systems p 35 N88-25626 

Building an artificial intelligence capability at Los 
Alamos 
[DEe&^)09155] p35 Ne8.26866 

Expert system appltoation education project 
[NASA^R-183089] p 36 N8e.26867 



A.3 



ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Artificial intelligence software acquisition program, 
volume 2 

[AD-A194239] p 54 N88-28680 

Intelligent resource management for local area 

networks: Approach and evolution p 54 N88-29385 

The 1988 Goddard Conference on Space Applications 

of Artificial Intelligence 

[NASA-CP-3009] p 37 N88-30330 

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected 
spacecraft ground system automation scenarios 

p37 N88-30332 

A design for a ground-based data management 

system p 55 N88-30355 

Research on problem-solving systems 
[AD-A195154] p 18 N88-30370 

Knowledge based simulation: An artificial intelligence 
approach to system modeling and automating the 
simulation life cycle 

[AD-A1 95838] p 37 Ne8-30372 

ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES 

Aeronautics and space report of the President: 1986 
activities p113 N88-21087 

Space systems cost study 
[AD-A196024] p 91 Ne8-30469 

ASSEMBLING 

Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE /ACCESS 
mission management p 70 N88-10875 

ASTEROIDS 

Universe (2nd edition) — Book p 60 A68-28951 

ASTRODYNAMICS 

30 years of progress in space; Proceedings of the 
Thirty-eighth International Astronautical Congress, 
Brighton, England, Oct. 10-17, 1987 p63 A88-38304 
Astrodynamics problems of the Space Station 

p13 A88-47907 
ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING EQUIPMENT 
Personnel occupied woven envelope robot 

p36 N88-29408 
ASTRONAUT PERFORMANCE 

Physiologic adaptation of man in space; Proceedings 

of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, 

Houston. TX, Feb. 10-13. 1986 p 1 A8e-12951 

Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight 

[AIAA PAPER 88-0444] p2 A88-22330 

The Soviet cosmonaut team, 1978-1987 

p2 A8e-30185 
Simulation - Antidote to risk p 100 A88-40524 

NASA-Ames workload research program 

p9 N88-24151 
ASTRONAUT TRAINING 

Reaching for the stars: The story of astronaut training 

and the lunar landing p 2 A8e- 13236 

Before lift-off: The making of a Space Shuttle crew — 

Book p2 A88-17922 

Training for 21st century space missions 

p 4 A88-38686 
ASTRONAUTICS 

Enhancing the quality of space education through 
programme evaluation p 2 A88-20069 

Visions of tomorrow: A focus on national space 
transportation issues; Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth 
Goddard Memorial Symposium, Greenbelt, MD, Mar. 
18-20, 1987 p64 Ae8-41276 

ASTRONAUTS 

Social psychological research in NASA • History, status, 
prospects p 62 A88-32e27 

Human pertormance issues arising from manned space 
station missions 

[NASA-CR-3942] p9 N88-25156 

ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES 

Spacecraft technology requirements for future NASA 
missions 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3487] p 65 A88-43299 

ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY 

Going to Mars by way of the Moon - The role of a lunar 
base in Mars exploration p 62 A88-30400 

ASTRONOMY 

Universe (2nd edition) — Book p 60 Aa6-2e951 

The next steps - 20 possibilities - - to hasten and increase 

benefits of SETI contact p 70 A86-55239 

National Science Foundation 
[PB87-228375] p 71 N8e-12410 

Research and technology, 1 967 
[NASA-TM- 100323] p 76 N88-20253 

ASTROPHYSICS 

Physics of the galaxy and interstellar matter — Book 

p66 A88-44856 

Galactic dynamics — Book p 67 A88-45599 

Research and technology, 1987 

I NASA-TM- 100323] p 76 Ne8-20253 

Research and Technology, 1987, Goddard Space Flight 

Center 

[ N AS 1 . 1 5: 1 1 097 ] p 79 N88-24572 

ATOMIC PHYSICS 

Research and technology, 19B7 
[NASA-TM-100323] p 76 N88-20253 



ATTENTION 

Attention theory and training research 

p3 A88-35444 
Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological 
perspectives p 9 N88-23387 

AUDIO FREQUENCIES 

Use of optical disk technology at the Air Command and 
Staff College 

[AD-A192424] p 54 N88-27969 

AUGMENTATION 

Data management and language enhancement for 
generalized set theory computer language for operation 
of large relational databases 

[NASA.CR-182868] p 51 N88-23446 

AUTOMATA THEORY 

USSR report: Cybernetics, computers and automation 
technology 

[JPRS-UCC-86-014] p33 N88-14669 

Management of complex information in support of 
evolving autononrK>us expert systems 
[AD-A186680] p 34 N88-17337 

AUTOMATED EN ROUTE ATC 

Computer systems in future advanced air traffic 
management p 92 A88-23264 

AUTOMATIC CONTROL 

Al and ATLAS - The prospects for a maniage 

p 43 Ae8-36546 
Advancing automation and robotics technology for the 
space station and for the US economy: Submitted to the 
United States Congress May 15, 1987 
[NASA-TM-89811] p112 N86-15817 

A collaborative program of research in engineering 
sciences 

[ DE88-003383 ] p 75 N88- 1 8504 

The use of an automated flight test management system 
in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research 
facility 

[ NASA-TM- 1 00435 ] p 34 N88-20896 

Second Conference on Artificial intelligence for Space 
Applications 

[NASA-CP-3007] p 36 N88-29351 

Space station as a vital focus for advancing the 
technologies of automation and robotics 
[IAF-86-62] p36 N88.29352 

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected 
spacecraft ground system automation scenarios 

p37 Ne8-30332 
AUTOMATIC TEST EQUIPMENT 

Al and ATLAS - The prospects for a marriage 

p43 A88-36546 
AUTOMATION 

Space Station autonuition II; Proceedings of the Meeting, 
Cambridge, MA, Oct. 28-30. 1986 

[SPIE-729] p30 A88-21631 

Use of automation and robotk:s for the Space Station 

p30 A88-21632 
NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Program - A 
step toward Space Station automation 

p31 A88-21639 

Advances in design automation - 1987. Volume 1 - 

Design methods, computer graphics, and expert systems; 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 

Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 27-30, 1987 

p31 A88-31644 

Advances in design automation - 1987. Volume 2 - 

Robotics, mechanisms, and machirm systems; 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 

Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 27-30, 1987 

p31 A88-31648 
Data management for the factory floor 

p 21 A88-42377 
HUMANE: A knowledge-based simulation environment 
for human-machine furK:tion allocation 

p 45 A88-51006 
Advanced manufacturing management current and 
forthcoming techf>ologies 

[PNR90445] p 28 N88-28802 

AUTOMOBILES 

Identifying areas of leading edge Japanese science and 
technology: Patent activity and citation analysis using US 
POC (Patent Office Classification) classification 
[ PB87-204095 ] pill N88- 1 1 575 

AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION 

Autonomous navigation - When will we have it? 

p57 A88-17333 
AUTONOMY 

NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Program - A 
step toward Space Station automation 

p31 A88-21639 
Expert system study for spacecraft management 
[ TL-2699-ISS- 1 ] p 33 N88- 1 5004 

AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY 

A metfKxJological approach to the search for indirect 
(human) events related to mishaps p 13 A8e-43006 
New US book on aviation psychology reviewed 

p7 N88.15433 



AVIONICS 

Avionics in conceptual system planning; Proceedings 
of the Eighth Annual IEEE Symposium, Dayton, OH, Dec. 
3, 1986 p 19 A88-16912 

Distributed expert management system (DEMANS) 

p32 A88-34213 

Aircraft electrical systems {3rd revised and enlarged 
edition) - Book P 22 A88-45596 

Advanced avionics system analysis. Modular avionics 
cost benefit study formulation 
[AD-A189019] p90 N88-21158 

Joint University Program for Air Transportation 
Research, 1986 
[NASA-CP-2502] P 78 N88-23715 

8 

BEHAVIOR 

Innovation and creativity; A critical linkage 
[DE88-003309] P 7 N88-18515 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

Icing Technology Bibliography 
[SAE AIR 4015] P 101 A88-54400 

Standard reference data publications, 1985-1986 
[PB87-210241] p 102 N88-10128 

Using bibliographic databases in technology transfer 
[NASA-CR-1814031 P 71 N88-11399 

Health hazards of video display terminals. A 
comprehensive, annotated bibliography on a critical issue 
of workplace health and safety with sources for obtaining 
items and list of terminal suppliers 
[RSI-IAS-4] p6 N88-12240 

Research papers and publications (1981-1987): 
Workload research program 
[ NASA-TM- 1 000 1 6 ] p 7 N88- 1 2924 

University program management information system, 
fiscal year 1985 
[NASA-TM-88381 ] p 72 N88-14846 

NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing 
bibliography. Section 1 : Abstracts (supplement 32) 
[NASA-SP-7039(32)-SECT-1-AB] p 112 N88-15732 

Publications of the exobiology program for 1986: A 
special bibliography 
[NASA-TM-4029] p 73 N88-17205 

NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing 
bibliography. Section 2: Indexes (supplement 32) 
[NASA-SP-7039(32)-SECT-2] p 112 N88-18511 

Engine structures: A bibliography of Lewis Research 
Center's research for 1980-1987 
[ NASA-TM-1 00842 ] p 27 N88-24002 

Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 83, 
May- June 1986 
[AD-A190969] p 80 N88-24950 

Management and the executive 
[AD-A190778] p 17 N88-25374 

NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing 
bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts 
[ NASA-SP-7039(33) ] p 1 1 4 N88-25388 

Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1 987 
revision 
[ N ASA-TM-4067 ] p 82 N88-28 1 7 1 

Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical 
publications announced in 1 987 
[NASA-TM-100910] p 82 N88-28832 

Literature review: Validity and potential usefulness of 
psychomotor ability tests for personnel selection and 
classification 
[AD-A193558] p 10 N88-29287 

Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1987 
[NASA-CR-181198] p 55 N88-30453 

BIOASTRONAUTICS 

Scientific objectives and functional requirements of life 
sciences in the Space Station p 58 A88-21570 

Society in orbit p 87 A88-44065 

BIOCHEMISTRY 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 
sciences 
[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 N88-12915 

Technology "87: Research and Development Laboratory 
Technology Transfer Program 

[DE88-003142] p 77 N88-21084 

BIOENGINEERINQ 

Advanced topics tn manufacturing technology: Product 

design, bioengineering; Proceedings of the Symposium, 

ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston. MA. Dec. 13-18, 

1987 p22 A88-44001 

BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION 

Publications of the exobiology program for 1986: A 
special bibliography 

t NASA-TM-4029 ] p 73 N88- 1 7205 

BIOLOGICAL MODELS (MATHEMATICS) 

Models of procedural control for human performance 
simulation p 1 A88-12642 



A-4 



SUBJECTiNDEX 



COMBUSTION CONTROL 



.DATA 

Man in apace: 25 years of manned space flighls in the 
Soviet Union - Biomedical aspects p60 A88-29105 



lUlental-Stale Estimation. 1967 
[NASAO>-2504] pB N88-23370 

An overview of current approaches and future 
chaRangas in physiological monitoring p8 N8fr-23371 

Mlention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological 
parapactives p9 N8a^23387 

Computer resource management technology program 
(PE 64740F)- Task no. 9: Advanced user authentication 
[PB8&-1830e6] pS2 N8a-2S163 



JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 
sciences 
[JPRS-UL&87-013} p72 N86-1460e 

Biolachnology opporlunitea on Space Stalion 
(SAE PAPB) 871466] p 58 A88-21124 

Space manufacturing 6 • Nonterrestrial resources, 
bioadanoas. and space engineering; Prooeedngs of the 
Eighth Prinoaton/AtAA/SSI Conference. Princeton. MJ. 
May 6-9. 1967 p 21 A86-43951 

JPRS report Scienoe and tecfmology. Jap«i 
[ JPR&JST-8B-001 } p77 r«8-2221B 



Maps for the Mnd and methods of their production 

pe N88-23296 



Software bhjophnting for togisbcs software engineenng 
p45 A88-50987 
lAmCRAFT 

Prototype munufacturffig tac^miques for reducing cost 
schedule, and technical risk p26 N8S-20189 



fOASA Wortcshop on Biotognal Adaptation 
[NASA-TM-B9468] p 74 N88-18174 

BOOSTER ROCKET ENGINES 

Space launch systems • Cunsnt United States plans 
and the next k>gical steps through 2000 
[lAF PAPER 87-187] p11 Ae8-15928 



Lewis Information Networti (Llf4K): Background and 
[NASA-TM-1X162] p 46 N66-11925 



Funding ttie fiigh frorrfier • A dtfferent approach 

p 109 A88-43971 



space Station careens past «« obstacles 

p103 A88-10367 

Furxjing - A unified approach 
[AiAA PAPER 88-3247] p 86 Ae8-44d05 

Budget reimtMjrsements: The Natiortal Aeronautics and 
space Administration's reimbursable wort( 
[PB87-207296] p 110 N88-10696 



NBS(Nationid Biveau of Standards) calibration servk^s 
users guide: Fee sc^iedirie 

[PB87-210654] p 102 N88-105e6 

CANADIAN SPACE PROGRAM 

Canadnn dvectkxis in apace science - An update 

p59 A88-24978 
CAPE KENNEDY LAUNCH C OM PL EX 

Atmospheric sctenoes program at NASA Kennedy Space 



(AIAA PAPER 88-0197] p SB A88-22145 

CAROKNjOQY 

Spacetab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific resevch 
ofafectives p 55 A88-12428 

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTCM 

Reoonaidaring artifkaal gravity for twenty-lirsit century 

spaoa hafaitals p65 A88-43953 

JPRS Report Science and Technokigy. USSR: Space 

Biology and Aerospace MedKine. vohime 21. no. 6, 

N overttber - Deoamber 1967 

lJPRS4JSB-«a«)4] p74 N88-iei50 

CATALOGS (PUBLICATK)NS) 

NASA sdentifK and technical publk:ations: A catatog 

of Spedal Publications. Reference Pubkcatk>ns. 

Conference PubKcatnns. and Technksl Papers. 1987 

[NASA-S P-70^ (02)] p 78 N88-22830 

CAUSTICS <0PTICS) 

Static and dynamc photoelasticity and caustics recent 
developments — Book p59 AB8-24820 

CELESTIAL MECHAMCS 

Oalart i c dynamtes ~ Book p 67 A88-45599 

CBtTRAL PROCESSING UNITS 

The rtext wave of Japanese supercomputers 

p 41 A88-27490 



CENTRmiQES 

Use of a 2-meter radius centrifuge on Space Station 
for human physk>k)gic conditioning and testing 

p6 A86-43962 

Preliminary analysis of an integrated togistics system 
for OSSA payk>ads 
[NASA-CR-4114J p 89 N86-19477 

Preliminary analysis of «t integrated kigistcs system 
for OSSA paytoads. Vokjme 4: SupportabHity analysts of 
the 1.8m centrifuge p69 N86-19481 

CERAMKS 

Introductnn to fine ceramics: Applk»tions in engineering 

— Book p22 A88-46296 
JPRS report Science and tectmotogy. Japm 

[JPRS%JST-e7-029] p77 NB8-22226 

The Hig^ Temperature MaterieUs Lalwratory: A new 

research and user facility at tfie Oak FVdge HaHiona^ 

Laboratory 

[DE68^10792] p 82 N86-26136 

CERrmCATKNH 

The evahjetion of pflot judgment during certHicafion flight 

tests p4 A86-42961 

The certifk^ation aspects of microwave twiding systems 

- Airworttwiess consideratens p 101 A88-46253 

Aircraft grourxl vibration testing at NASA ^nes-Oryden 
Flight Research Facility p 101 A88-50B31 

Zero/zero r ot or c r a ft certification issues. Volume 1: 
Executive summary 

[NASA-CR-177483-VOL-1] p 96 N88-2S453 

Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Vokime 2: 
Plenary sesskxi presentations 

[NASA-CR-177483-VOL-2] p 96 N86-25454 

Zero/zero r o torcr a ft certification issues. Volume 3: 
Working group resutts 

[NASA-CR-177483-VOL-3] p 97 N86-25455 

CHALLENGER <ORBITER) 

NASA's post-Challenger safety program - Themes arxJ 
thrusts 

IIAF PAPER 68-510] p 102 A88-55435 

CHANNELS (DATA TRA>KNISSK)N) _^ ^ 

Selection and effects of channols in dtslributed 
commuracatnn and decisk)n making tasks: A theoretKal 
review and a proposed research paradq^m 
[AD-A191807] p17 1^86-25375 

CHEMICAL FRACTK>NATK)N 

A prototype expert ^fstem for separation soance 
[DE87-013542] p 46 N88-12333 

CT«MK:AL PROPERT IE S 

Standard reference data publkatkins. 1985-1966 
roQP7.9in?Ail O102 N8e-10128 

CHffIA 

1 967 Intematkxial Conference on Chinese and Oriental 
Language Computing, IKnois Institute of Technotogy, 
Chicago. IL. June 15-17. 1967. Proceedings 

p42 A88-31276 
Technok^ transfer to China 
[PB67-223416] p 89 N88-13087 

Technotogy transfer to China. Volume 2: Working 
papers, part 1 

[PB88-158704] p 77 N88-21872 

Technology transfer to China. Volume 2: Wortcing 
papers, part 2 

[PB88-1S8712] p77 N86-21873 

CHINESE SPACE PROGRAM 

Cfwiese launch vetiicles aim for ttie commerciti 
maricet p85 A88-24452 

CHINESE SPACECRAFT 

Cfwwse launch vetiides aim for tfte commerce 
maritet p85 A88-24452 

ClfflONOLOGY 

Astronautics and aeronautics. 1978: A chronotogy 
[NASA-SP-4023] p 24 N68-14062 

Marshall Space Fight Center 1960-1985: 25th 
anniversary report 

[NASA-TM-100326] p 78 N88-22852 

CINEMATOGRAPHY 

The use of photographic insbunentation and motk>n 
picture pfK rto yr ap hy g> NASA space piogiariis 

p57 AB8-17933 
aRCULATKM 

Finding mirwnum-cost circulations by canc^ng negative 
cycles 

[AD-A194027J p IB N88-29468 

Finding minimum-cost drculatxxis by successive 
approximatkxi 

[AD-A194028] p 18 N88-29469 

CtVtLAVUTKW 

Hiring, firing, and retiring - Recent developments in airtine 
labor and emptoyment law p2 A66-22716 

Recent devekipments in aviation case law 

p106 A68-22719 

Computer systems in future advanced air traffic 

management p 92 A66-23264 

New aspects of national aviation policies wtd tfte future 

of intematkxtiy air franspori regulation 

p107 AB6-30700 



Civil air transports for the 21st century - A European 
view p62 A88-31ie7 

The role of re^laUons in ^craft de»gn education 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4485] p 23 A88-51968 

JPRS report Science and technotogy. Japvi 
[JPRS-JST-e8-001 ] p77 N8e-222ie 

FAA aviaticKt forecasts fiscal yews 1988-1999 
tAD-A191711] p96 N8e-24576 

classifk;atk>ns 

Uteratore review: Vabdity and potential usefulrtess of 
psychomotor ability tests for personnel selection and 
dassrfication 

[AD-A1 93558] p 10 Na8-29287 

CLIMATE CHANGE 

Global environmental change r^earch 
[S-HRG-100-301] p111 N88-12199 

CLMATOLOGY 

Atmosfirfieric scierK»s program at NASA Kennedy Space 
Cerrter 
[AiAA PAPER 88-0197] p 56 A68-22145 

Proposed uses of ERS-1 p 59 A88-27833 

Research and Technotogy. 1 967, Goddard Space Flight 
Center 

[NAS 1.15:101097] p 79 Ne8-24572 

CUNK:AL MEIMCINE 

jras report Science and technology. USSR: Life 



[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 Ne8.12915 

JPRS report: Science and technotogy. USSR: Life 
sciences 

[JPRS-ULS-87-013] p 72 N8e-14608 

Mirutes of the meeting of tt>e Indo-US Sutwommiss»n 
on Science and Technotogy (Bth) heto at Washington. D.C. 
on September 22-24, 1966 

[PB86-130158] p112 N88-18503 

Technotogy *87: Research and Development Laboratory 
Technotogy Transfer Program 

[DEe6-003142] p 77 N88-21064 

CLOSED ECOLOGK^AL SYSTEMS 

Sp«:e farming in the 21st century p 62 A66-29^7 

Controttod Ecotogtoal Life Support Systems (CELSS) 

physioct>emtoal waste management systems evakiation 

[NASA-CR-177422] p 72 Ne8-14626 

COBALT ALLOYS 

Future aerospace-materials directions 

p20 A88-24e23 
COCKPITS 

AdvafK»d helicopter cockpit information management 
43 A68-35376 
Cockpit Resource Management concept arxi trainvig 
strategies - Developing an analysis of training needs 

p5 A66-42963 
Cockpit resout» m»iagement - New dev^opments and 
techraques p 13 A88-42970 

Evahjattng cockpit resource management training 

p5 A8a42971 
AdvwKed blackbowd approacties tor cockpit 
informatton management p 46 A88-52229 

CODE DIVISiON MULTIPLE ACCESS 

VSAT ratworks: ^^chitectt^es, protocols, and 
management p46 A68-52132 

COGNITION 

Human problem solving in dynamic environments. 
UrxJerstarvfing and si^jportmg operators in targe-scale, 
comptox systems 

[AD-A1 89539] p 16 N86-20626 

Extracting ^formation from problem solvmg 



[AD-A191331] p16 

Selection and effects of channels in dtetributed 
commurvcation and decision makvig tasks: A ttieoretical 
review bpA a proposed resean:^ pvadigm 
{AD-A191807] p 17 N88-2S375 

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 

High performance cognitive skM acquisition - 
Perceptual/mle learning p3 A88-35445 

Training devetopmerrt for complex cognitive tasks 

p4 A86-35481 
Mental models »xl faikjres in humarnffiachine 
systems p6 A68-4e514 

COLUMBUS SPACE STATKM 

Earth observation and the Space Station 

p11 A88-2156e 

Partnership, a key issue in the International Space 

Station cooperation p 1 1 A88-21 575 

EvokJtion of data management systems from S pa o elab 

toCokimbus 

[MBB-UR-E-968-e7] p 41 AB8-239ei 

COMBUSTKm 

Soviet combustion research 
[PB86-182324] p 79 N88-24730 

COMBUSTKM CONTROL 

Study of industry requirements that can be futfWed fay 
combustion experimentation aboard space station 
[NASA-CR-180e54] p 26 N88-19377 



A-5 



COMBUSTION PHYSICS 



SUBJECTINDEX 



COMBUSTION PHYSICS 

Laser diagnostics and modeling of combustion — 
Book p 67 Ae8-46300 

COMMAND AND CONTROL 

Knowledge-based planning and replanning in naval 
command and control p 13 Ae8-39594 

COMMERCE 

Status of emerging technologies: An 
economic/technological assessment to the year 2000 
[PB88-155775] p 89 Ne8-19381 

Spin off businesses as mechanisms for transfening 
technologies 
[DE88-005640] p 90 N88-21085 

Technology transfer to China. Volume 2: Working 
papers, part 2 

tPB88-158712J p 77 N88-21873 

COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT 

What changes and what endures - The capabilities and 
limitations of training and selection p 1 A88- 10960 

NASA advanced turboprop research and concept 
validation program 
[NASA-TM-100891 ) p 26 N88-22902 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 1; Technical summary 
[NASA-CR-3914J p 29 N88-28983 

COMMERCIAL SPACECRAFT 

The commercial use of space stations: The legal 
framework of trans-Atlantic cooperation; International 
Colloquium, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, June 
12, 13, 1986, Reports 
[DGLR BERfCHT 86-02] p 103 A88-13443 

Low-cost commercial launch vehicle - Liberty 
[SAE PAPER 871334] p 84 A88-14363 

Chinese launch vehicles aim for the commercial 
market p 85 A88-24452 

Space for rent p 86 A88-33743 

The role of commercial space launch systems 
[AAS PAPER 87-1 16] p 87 A88-41281 

Space commercialization and power system 
technology p 87 A88-44003 

U.S. Commercial space transportation risk allocation and 
insurance; An AlAA Position Paper p 110 A88-48650 

Space for rent? p 1 4 A88*51 1 33 

COMMONALITY 

A cost analysis for the implementation of commonality 
in the family of commuter airplanes, revised 
[ NASA-CR-1 82569 ] p 89 N88-20221 

COMMUNICATION 

Space languages p 7 N88- 16420 

Networking requirements and future alternatives 
tNASA-TM-897111 p 15 N88-18517 

Research and technology 
[ N ASA-TM- 1 00 1 72 ] p 78 N88-2285 1 

Linguistic and cultural barriers to the transfer of 
informatkjn p 55 N88-30459 

Political and economic baniers to information transfer 
p 91 N88-30460 
COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT 

Satellite communication systems — Book 

p 69 A88-55025 
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 

Telemetry handling on the Space Station data 
management system p 42 Ae6-33629 

VSAT networks: Architectures, protocols, and 
management p 46 A88-52132 

Knowledge-based system analysis and control 
[AD-A188163] p 34 N88-20049 

Human problem solving in dynamic environments. 
Understanding and supporting operators in large-scale, 
complex systems 
[AD-A 189539] p 16 N8e-20e26 

NASA and the challenge of ISDN: The role of satellites 
in an ISDN world 
[NASA-CR-182749] p 90 N88-22676 

Human problem solving in complex dynamic 
environments 
[AD-A1 90788] p 16 N88-25142 

International and domestic mobile satellite regulatory 
proceedings: A comparison of outcomes and discussion 
of implications p 90 N88-25690 

COMMUNICATION SATELLITES 

Communications satellites: The technology of space 
communications — Book p 56 A88- 17024 

Allotment planning for telecommunication satellites 

p 12 A88-22992 

Transportation system choices • ROI implications — 
Return On Investment 
[AlAA PAPER 88-0840] p 85 Aee-27582 

International relations in space - A US view 

p 106 Ae8-28540 

Asia in space - The awakening of China and Japan 

p86 A8d-28541 

Communication satellites in the geostationary orbit (2rKJ 
revised and enlarged edition) — Book 

p 109 A88-44867 

Satellites international — Book p 23 A88-51736 



Public policy issues in satellite communications and 
remote sensing p 1 1 ABe-51 742 

Satellite manufacturers and systems 

p23 A88-51745 
NASA and the challenge of ISDN: The role of satellites 
in an ISDN world 
[NASA-CR-182749] p 90 Ne8-22676 

Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference 
[NASA-CR-ie2964] p 80 Ne8-25680 

Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, 
co-operation and competition p 90 Ne8-25691 

Mobile satellite service in the United States 

p90 Ne8-25758 
COMMUNICATION THEORY 

Communications satellites: The technology of space 
communications — Book p 56 A68- 17024 

Space languages p7 N68-16420 

COMPARISON 

Space station habitability recommendations based on 
a systematic comparative analysis of analogous 
conditions 

[NASA-CR-3943] p9 N88-25372 

COMPETITION 

Space station: Leadership for the future 
tNASA-PAM-509/8-87] p 14 N88-10072 

Competition: Issued on establishing and using Federally 
funded research and development centers 
[PB88-178884] pii4 NB8-29632 

COMPLEX SYSTEMS 

A simulation program to model effects of logistics on 
R&M of complex systems p 94 A88-43355 

Human problem solving in complex dynamic 
environments 

[AD-A190788] p 16 N8e-25142 

COMPONENT RELIABILITY 

NASA aerospace battery system program initiation 

p98 A8e-117e3 
Implementation of the flight safety parts program 

p92 A88-22793 
COMPOSITE MATERIALS 

Engineer's guide to composite materials — Book 

p38 A88-13111 

Advanced composites: The latest developments; 

Proceedings of the Second Conference. Dearborn, Ml. 

Nov. 18-20, 1986 p 57 A88- 18226 

Large space structures - Structural concepts and 

materials 

[SAE PAPER 872429] p 42 A88-30999 

Advanced composite materials products and 
manufacturers - Book p 23 A88-49969 

COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 

Engineer's guide to composite materials — Book 

p38 A88-13111 
Development of a program for the preparation of 
aerospace maintenance personnel for inspection and 
repair of composite structures p 93 A86-42333 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test 
report 

[NASA-CR-1 72587] p 28 N88-28915 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 3: Ancillary test results 
[NASA-CR-1 72588] p 28 Nee-28916 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 1 : Technical summary 
[NASA-CR-3914) p 29 Ne8-28983 

COMPRESSION LOADS 

Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft 
structures. Volume 3: Ancillary test results 
[NASA-CR-1725e8] p 28 Ne8-28916 

COMPUTATION 

A cost analysis for tfie implementation of commonality 
in the family of commuter airplanes, revised 
[NASA-CR-1 82569) p 69 N88-20221 

The role of working menf>ory in lar>guage 
comprehenskxi 

[AD-A1 92721 ] p 53 N88-26805 

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS 

Fluid dynamics parallel computer development at NASA 
Langley Research Center p 44 A6&-44e93 

Lar>gley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1 
[NASA^P-23971 p 24 N88-14926 

NASA/ Army Rotorcraft Techr>ology. Volume 1 : 
Aerodynamics, and Dynamics and Aeroelasticity 
[ NASA-CP-2495-VOL-1 ] p 25 N88-1 6625 

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN 

Project management issues and lessons learned from 

computer aided design applications 

[AlAA PAPER 87-2912] p 19 A8e-14267 

Expert systems for space power supply - Design, 

analysis, and evaluation p 31 A8e-22696 

The teaching of aircraft design computer applications 

p 41 Aee-23260 
NASA small civil airplane research 
[SAE PAPER 872404] p 99 A88-30975 



Advances in design autonution - 1987. Volume 1 - 
Design methods, computer graphics, and expert systems; 
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Design Autonrration 
Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 27-30. 1987 

p31 A88-31644 

Advances in design automation - 1987. Volume 2 - 
Robotk^s. mechanisms, and machine systems; 
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 
Conference. Boston. MA. Sept. 27-30, 1987 

p31 A88-31648 

CAD/CAM machine - Including planning for CAD/CAE 
usage in your company or major program 
[AAS PAPER 86-281] p 32 A88-35110 

R&M design influence from spreadsheet analysis 

p 100 A88-43360 

The missing links - Advances in graphic processing of 
finite element modeling information p 45 A88-50874 

The sp>ecification and design of a system using 
computer-aided software engineering and performance 
analysis tools 
[AlAA PAPER 88-4410] p 45 Ae8-51934 

1993 - A vision of the design center 
[AlAA PAPER 88-4451 ] p 45 A88-51956 

Managir>g engineering design information 
[AlAA PAPER 88-4452] p 23 A88-51957 

A data-base management scheme for computer-aided 
control engineering p 46 Ae8-54484 

An interface for computer-aided control engineering 
based on an engineering data-base manager 

p46 A8e-54485 

The impact of informatk^n technology on research in 
scier>ce and engineering 
[DE88-000342] p 48 N88-12417 

The use of computer graphic simulation in the 
developnrant of robotic systems p 50 N88-1 7275 

It's tinrm to reinvent the general aviation airplane 

p 27 N88-23726 

Interaction management in CAD systems with a history 
mechanism 
[CWI-CS-R8756] p 35 N88-26851 

Advanced manufacturing management current and 
forthcomirig technologies 
[PNR90445] p28 N88-28802 

Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space 
Applications 

[ NASA-CP-3007 ] p 36 N8e-2935 1 

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING 

CATS: Computer-aided trade study methodology 

p20 A88-34101 

CAD/CAM machine - Including planning for CAD/CAE 
usage in your company or major program 
[AAS PAPER 86-281] p 32 A88-35110 

Data management for the factory floor 

p 21 A88-42377 

The use of computer graphic simulation in the 
development of robotic systems p 50 N88- 17275 

Prototype manufacturing techniques for reducing cost, 
schedule, and technical risk p 26 N68-20189 

Advanced manufacturing management current and 
forthcoming technologies 

tPNR90445] p28 N88-28e02 

COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION 

Computer-enhanced learning p 6 A88-54856 

Computer-aided writing 
[AD-A192516] p 53 N88-26837 

COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

Project management issues and lessons learned from 
computer akled design applicatk>ns 
[AlAA PAPER 87-2912] p 19 A88-14267 

Advances in design automation - 1987. Volume 1 - 
Design methods, computer graphics, and expert systems; 
Proceedirigs of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 
Conference. Boston, MA. Sept. 27-30. 1967 

p 31 A88-31644 

CAD/CAM machine - Including planning for CAD/CAE 
usage in your company or major program 
[AAS PAPER 86-281) p 32 A8d-35110 

Advances in image processing; Proceedings of the 
Meetir>g, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 1987 
[SPIE-804] p 45 A88-50319 

The missing links - Advances in graphic processing of 
finite element nrKxieting information p 45 A88-50874 

The use of computer graphic simulation in the 
devek)pment of robotic systems p 50 N88-17275 

COMPUTER INFORMATION SECURITY 

New technologies and intellectual property: An 
economic analysis 
[N-2601-NSF] p89 N88- 10695 

Defending secrets, sharing data: New locks and keys 
for electronic information 
[PB88-143185] p 50 N88-20210 

Monitoring the usage of a computer system 
[DEe8-004310] p 51 N88-22542 

Development environment for secure software 
[RSRE-87015] p 52 N88-24179 



A-6 



SUBJECTINKX 



CONFERENCES 



Computer resource maffiagement technology 
{PE 64740F). Task no. 9: Advarwed user 
[PB88-1 83066] p 52 

COMPUTER NETWOmCS 

Networks lor advanced computing p 38 

The European Space Physics Analysts 

P42 

Modern meteorological computing 
Maryland flKperienoe p44 

1993 - A vision of the design center 
[AIAA PAPER 8ft4451 ] p 45 

Retattonal data handfing system for 
[PBa7-223426] p 46 

USSR report Cybernetics, computers and 



N88^25163 

A88-13107 

vork 

A88-29771 

A88-46023 

AB8^1956 

ts 

N88-14038 



[JPRS-UCC«W)14] p33 

Networking requirements and future 

[NASA-TM-897113 p 15 

COMP UTjEBPBO aRAMHUTEQRtTY 
Development envirenment for secure 

[RSRE-87t)15] p 52 



NB8-14669 

tives 

1486-18517 

■re 
N88-24179 



Tradrbonal versus rule-based programrrang techniques 

- Applk:atx)n to the control of optional flight infbrmatton 

p38 A6e-10965 

1987 tntematwnal Conference on Chinese and Oriental 

Language Computing, Illinois Institute of Technok>gy. 

Chicago, IL. June 15-17, 1967. Proceedings 

p42 A8&^1276 
Software tools for buikJing dedteated, realtime 



[AIAA PAPER 88-46503 P 46 A88-53669 

Beyond Ada: Generating Ada code from equat»nai 



[AD-A1918663 p 52 N88-25176 

A comparative study of protect estimating tools 
tDE88-0090593 p 52 N88-26266 

Inspection methods in programming: Cliches and 
plans 
[AD-A192782] p 53 N88-27767 

Archetyping: A software generation and management 
methodotogy p 54 N88-29382 

COMPUTER PROGRAMS 

A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center for 
Shuttle and expendable launch vehk^te paytoads 

p40 A66-21205 

Devetopmem of the NASA/FLAQRO computer 
proyam p45 A88-47005 

Ada and knowledge-based systems - A prototype 
combining the best of both worWs p46 NS»-^'£S^ 

Conceptual model-based reasoning for 

knowledge-based software protect management 

p33 A88-52350 

Artifk»l intelligenoe for providng expertise on 
tnstnjmentation 
[AIAA PAPER 68-4666) p 33 A86-53628 

A prototype expert system for separation science 
[DE87-013542] p 48 N88-12333 

Third Conferenoe on Artifkaal imeHigenoe for Space 
ApplKatkxis, part 1 
[NASA-CP-2492-Pt-13 P 33 N88-16360 

OuaMalive models for planning: A gentle introduction 
p49 Ne8-16414 

Proceedings of the Workshop on Future Directkxw in 
Computer Architecturs and Software 
[AD-Aie4949] p 50 N66.iei91 

EnviroNET: An 



^resource 
[NASA-TM-101137] p 51 N86-23812 

Third Conference on ArtHnial IntelMgence for Space 
Applkalkxts. part2 
[NASA-CP-2492-PT-2] p 35 N88-24188 

Managing rracFOcomputer applications: A primer and 
gukto to good practioe 
[AD-A1929923 p 53 N86-26817 

Computer-akled writkig 
[AD-A192516] p 53 N88-26637 

Knowledge-based cost estimatmg vs tradttkxial softwwe 
cost models 
tDE8e-009707] p 53 N88-27116 

Vision research. A natx}nal plan: 1963-1987, 1967 
ev^jatxxiand update 
[PB6e-192604] p18 N88-27726 

What's on the menu? Friendfer comp u ter s 
[AD.A1943933 P 54 N88.2e637 

Archetyping: A software generatxxi and management 
methodotogy p 54 N68-29382 

COMPUTER STORAGE DEVICES 

The role of working memory in language 



p53 1488-26805 
p54 N88-28643 



Data management for large space systems 

p44 A88-45034 

Modem meteorological computing resources - The 
Maryland experience p44 A86-46023 

Computer-enhanced learning p6 A68-54856 

Expert system study for spacecraft management 
[TU-2e9&4SS-1] p33 N8e-15004 

Proceedings of the Workshop on Future Directions in 
Computer Architecture aid Software 
[AD-A184949] p 50 N88-18191 

Computer science and technology: Knowledge-baaed 
system for physical database design 
[PB88-193289} p 53 N8a^27109 

A software engineering i^iproach to expert system 
design and verification p36 N88-293S6 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE 

Interfaces for advanced computing p 36 A68-13106 

Proc oo dwig s of the Workshop on Futue Directkms in 
Computer Architectura and Software 
[AD-A184949] p 50 N88-16191 

Beyond Ada: Generating Ada code from equafiorud 
specfficattons 
[AD-A19ieGe3 pS2 f«6-25176 

Archetyping: A softvrare generatton and management 
methodotogy p54 N88-29382 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROQRAMS 

Mission operations systems for planetary exploratkin 
[AIAA PAPER 68^>547] p 41 AB8-22410 

What every good manager shoukl toww about Ada 

p43 A68-42201 

Software for integrated manufacturing systems. p«t 1 
p25 N8&-17261 

Software tor integrated mam/facturvig systems, part 2 
p25 N86-17262 

Artrfk:ial trrtelligence software acquisition program, 
vokjme2 

[AD-A1 94239] p 54 N66-28660 

COMPUTER TECHMQUeS 

Maintaining large plannirtg systems during rapid 
technotogtoal change p43 A88-39049 

Computer aided requirements management system 
(CARMS) and fight test 
[AIAA PAPER 68-2091] p 100 A88-40250 

Relational data handling system for scientists 
[PB87-223426] p 48 N88-14036 

USSR report Cybernetics, computei s and automation 
tec^vtology 
[JPFtS-UCC-e6^143 p33 N88-146e9 



nuvouioiTu 



[AD^I 92721] 

Research on wide ar 
[AD-A1 92529] 
COMPUTER SYSTEMS DESIGM 

A oomprehenswe model for tt*o 
compiler systems 



design of dniributed 
p39 A86-14564 



[AD-A189390] p 51 1488-20825 

Managing microcompular applicattons: A primer and 
guMe to good practtoe 
[AD-A192992] p 53 N66-26817 

Computer-atoed writing 
[AD-A192516] p 53 N66-26837 

COMPUTER VISION 

Intelligent robots arxj computer wsion: Proceedings of 
the Fifth MeertinQ. Cambridge, MA. CtoL 26-31. 1966 
[SPtE-7263 p30 A68-21620 

Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space 
Apphcations 

[NASA-CP-30073 p 36 1466-29351 

COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION 

A (fistrtxited resource Tnanagement mechtfiism for a 
partitionabto multiprooes so r system p 41 A88-2^61 

1 987 Annual Summer Computer Simulatton Conference, 
19th. Monrtraal. Canada. July 27-30, 1967. Prooeedv^ 
p44 A68-46951 

The NASA aircraft icing research program 

p24 N88-15803 

The use of computer graphic simulatton in the 
devetopment of robotic systems p 50 ^ffi6-17275 

Human probtom solving in dynamto environmer rt s. 
Understandng «ki si^iporttog opera t oi s in large-scale, 
complex systems 
[AD-A189539] p 16 N86-20626 

The 1966 Goddwd Confererx^ on Space Apphc a tions 
of Artificial Intelligence 
[NASA-CP-3009] p 37 N68-30330 

Knowledge based simulatton: An artiftotal inteHigenoe 
approach to system modeling and automating the 
simulation fife c^^to 

[AD-A195636] p 37 1^8^-30372 

COMPUTERS 

Tfw next computer revokitton p 38 A88-13101 

JPRS report Science and technotogy. Japan 
[ JPRSOST^88«)1 ] p77 N86-22216 

JPRS report Science and technotogy. Japan 
[JPRS>IST^7-029] p77 N66-22228 

Technics conxnurncation oi the computer irxlustry: An 
ffrformation-devetopmert process to track, measure and 
ensure quality p54 N86-29635 



Intemattonaf Conference on Japanese Information in 
Science, Technology and Commerce, University of 
Wanwick. Coventry, England, Sept 1-4, 1987, Preprints 
p36 A6e-10175 

Pfrysiotogfc adaptatton of man in space; Proceedings 
of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, 
Houston, TX, Feb. 10-13. 1986 p 1 A88-12951 

SAFE Association, Annual Symposium, 24th, San 
Antonto. TX Dec. 11-13. 1966, Proceedtogs 
[AD-A199275] p 96 A88-13376 

The commercial use of space stations: The legal 
framework of trans-Atlantto cooperatton; Interrtattonai 
Colloquium, Hanover, Federal Republk: of Germany, June 
12. 13, 1966. Fteports 
[DGLR BERK>fT 86-023 P 103 A88-13443 

Avtonics in conceptual system planning; Proceedings 
of the Eighrth Annual IEEE Symposum, Dayton, OH. Dec 
3, 1986 p 19 A66-18912 

Advanced composites: The latest devetopments; 
Proceedngs of the Second Conference, Dearborn. Ml. 
Nov. 18-20, 1986 p 57 Ae6-ie226 

Intelligent robots and computer viston: Procaecfings of 
the Fifth Meeting, Cambridge, MA. Oct 28-31, 1966 
[SRE-726] p30 A88-21620 

Space Statton automatton tl; Proceedings of the Meeting. 
Cambrtoge, MA. Oct 26-30. 1986 
[SPtE-729] p30 A68-21631 

Lasers in motion for indusbriid af^jNcattons; Procee(^igs 
of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 13, 14, 1967 
[SPIE-744] p20 A68-21664 

^xx»edings of tfte Fourth Armual L5 Space 
Devetopment Conference p 56 A88-22000 

CoNoquium on the Law of Outer Space, 28lh. Stockholm. 
Sweden. Oct 7-12, 1965, Proceedings 

p106 A66-26197 

Materials processing in the reduced gravity environment 
of space: Proceedings of the Symposium. Boston, MA. 
Dec. 1-3, 1966 p 60 A68-28551 

Btotogtoal scienoes in space 1986; Proceedings of ttie 
1966 I nter na tional Symposium, Nagoya. Japan, Nov. 
10-12,1966 p60 A88-29103 

1967 International Conference on Chinese and Orients 
Language Computing, Illinois Institute of Technotogy, 
Chtoago. IL^ June 15-17, 1967, Proceedings 

p42 AB8-31276 

Advances in design automation - 1967. Volume 1 - 
rvwirm mflfihods. computer oraohics, and expert systems; 
Proceedngs of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 
Conference, Boston, MA. Sept 27-30. 1987 

p31 A8fr^1644 

Advances in design automation - 1967. Votome 2 - 
Robotics, mechanisms, and machine systems; 
Proceedngs of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 
Conference. Boston, MA, Sept 27-30. 1967 

p 31 A68-31646 

Aerospace century XXt: Space misstons and policy: 
Proceedmgs of the Thirty-third Annual AAS totemational 
Conference, Boukler, CO. Oct 26-29. 1966 

p62 A88-35051 

Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, appltoations, 
and commercial developments; Proceedings of tfie 
Thirty-third Annual AAS Internationa Conference. BouWer. 
CO. Oct 26-29. 1966 p 63 Ae6-35123 

HiOTian Factors Society, Arvwal Meeting, 31st New 

York, NY, Oct 19-23, 1987, Proceedings. Votomes 1 & 2 

p2 A86-35401 

Ftecent trervls m aeroeiasticity, ^ructures, and smjctural 
dyrwnics: Proceedings of the R. L Bisplinghoff Memorial 
Symposium. University of Ftorida, Gainesville, FU Feb. 6, 
7. 1986 p 21 AS8-35526 

30 years of progress in space; Prooeedtogs of ttte 
Thirty-eighth International Astronautical Congress, 
Brigfiton, England. Oct 10-17, 1987 p 63 Ae8.38304 

AIAA Flight Test Conference, 4th, San Diego. CA, May 
16-20. 1968, Techntoal Papers p 99 A68-38701 

CoHoquium on the Law of Outer Space, 29th, Innsbruck. 
Austria, Oct 4-11. 1966. Proceedings 

p109 A66-40799 

Visions of tomorrow: A focus on nation^ space 
transportation issues: Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth 
Goddard Memorial Symposium, Greenbelt MD, Mar. 
1 8-20, 1 967 p 64 A88-41 276 

Roto of tractors mechanics in modern technology: 
Proceedings of the International Conference. Fukuoka, 
Japan. June 2-6, 1966 p 100 A88-41851 

Remote sensing for resources development and 
environmental management; Proceedings of the Seventh 
International Symposium, Enschede. t^etherlands. Aug. 
25-29. 1986. Volumes 1.2, & 3 p 65 Ae8-41961 

Space manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestriat resources, 
biosciences, and space engineering; Prooeedtogs of the 
Eighth Prinoeton/AIAA/SSI Conference, Princeton. NJ. 
May 6-9, 1967 p 21 A86-43951 



A-7 



CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Advanced topics in manufacturing technology: Product 
design, bioengineering; Proceedings of the Symposium, 
ASME Winter Annual Meeting. Boston, MA. Dec. 13-18. 
1987 p22 A88-44001 

Review of radio science 1984-1986 — Book 

p67 A88-46299 

Information systems: Failue analysis: Proceedings of 
the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bad 
Windsheim, Federal Republic of Germany, Aug. 18-22. 
1986 -Book p44 A88-46506 

1 967 Annual Summer Computer Simulatnn Conference, 
19th, Montreal. Canada, July 27-30, 1987, Proceedings 
p44 A88-46951 

Advances in image processing: Proceedings of the 
Meeting. The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 3. 1987 
[SPIE-d04] p45 A88-50319 

International Modal Analysis Conference. 5th, Imperial 
College of Scter>ce and Technok)gy. London, England. Apr. 
6-9, 1987, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2 

p 101 A68-50789 

Polymer composites for automotive applications: 
Proceedings of the Intemattonal Congress and Expositton. 
Detroit, Ml. Feb. 29-Mar. 4. 1988 p23 A88-51813 

AAAIC '87 - Aerospace Appltoatkms of Artiftoial 
Intelligence; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference. 
Dayton. OH, Oct. 5-9. 1967 p32 A88-52226 

Space Congress, 25th. Cocoa Beach, FL. Apr. 26-29, 
1986. Proceedings p6e A88-52317 

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - 
Proceedings of the Cryogenk: Engineering Corvterence, 
SaintCharies.lL, June 14-18. 1967 p68 A68-53176 

Advances in cryogenic engineering (Materials). Volume 
34 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Cryogenic 
Materials Conference. Saint Charles. 11^ June 14-18. 
1967 p68 A66-S3301 

Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine 
hot sections; Proceedings of the Thirty-third ASME 
International Gas Turibine and Aeroengine Cor>gress and 
Exposition. Amsterdam, Netfieriands. June 5-9, 1968 

p 101 A88-54137 

Devek)pment8 in Mechanics. Volumes 14(a). 14(b), A 
14(c) - Midwestern Mechanics Conference, 20th, Purdue 
University, West Ufayette, IN. Aug. 31-Sept 2, 1967. 
Proceedings p 69 A66-54676 

ISTFA 1987 - Intemattonal Symposium for Testing and 
Failure Analysis: Advanced materials; Proceedings of the 
SymposHjm. Los Angeles, CA. Nov. 9-13. 1967 

p 102 A66-55276 

Spacecraft 2000 
[NASA-CP-2473] p 70 N68-10084 

Space Construction 
[NASA-CP-2490] p 70 N88-10870 

Research papers and publications (1981-1987): 
Workk>ad research program 
[NASA-TM-100016J p7 N68-12924 

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1 
[NASA-CP-2397] p 24 N66-1492e 

Wind shear detectk>n. Fonward-k}oking sensor 
technotogy 
[NASA-CP-10004] p24 N88-14970 

Dyogenic Flukl Management Techrx^ogy Workshop. 
Volume 1: Presentation material and discusston 
[NASA-CP-10001] p73 N66-15924 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14 
[NASA-CR-3922(16)] p 73 N66-16317 

Third Conference on Artifk:ial Intelligence for Space 
ApplteatkHW, part 1 
[NASA-CP-2492-Pt-1 ] p 33 N66-16360 

NASA/ Army Rotorcraft Technotogy. Volume 1 : 
Aerodynamk». and Dynamics and Aeroelasttoity 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL-1 ] p 25 N86-16625 

NASA/ Army Rotorcraft Technok)gy. Volume 2: Materials 
and Structures, Propulston and Drive Systems. Flight 
Dynamics and Control, and Acoustics 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL-2] p 25 N86-16632 

Minutes of the meetirig of the Indo-US Subcommisston 
on Science and Technotogy (8th) hekl at Washington. D.C. 
on September 22-24, 1986 
[P666-130158] p 112 N88-18503 

Proceedings of the 3rd European Symposium on Ufa 
Sciences Research in Space 
[ESA-SP-271] p8 N86-19893 

Cryogento Fluto Management Techrtotogy Workshop. 
Volume 2: Roundtable Discussion of Technotogy 
Requirements 
[NASA-CP-10009] p7e N86-20599 

NASA scientific and techntoal publtoations: A catatog 
of Special Publicattons. Reference Publtoattons. 
Conference Publications, and Techntoal Papers. 1967 
[NASA-SP-7063(02)] p 78 N66-22630 

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space 
AppUcattora, part 2 
[NASA-CP-2492-PT-2] p 35 N66-24188 

Transacttons of the Fifth Symposium on Space Nuclear 
Power Systems 
[DE86-0061651 p 79 N66-24374 



Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 1; 
Executive summary 
[NASA-CR-1 77483-VOL-1 ] p 96 N88-25453 

Zero/zero rotorcraft certiftoatton issues. Volume 2: 
Plenary session presentations 
[NASA-CR-1 774e3-VOL-2] p 96 N68-25454 

Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 3: 
Working group results 
[NASA-CR-177463-VOL-3] p 97 N88-25455 

Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference 
[NASA-CR-162964] p 60 N68-25660 

The NASA Electric Propulsion Program 
[NASA-TM-101324] p 63 N68-29859 

The 1968 Goddard Conference on Space Appltoattons 
of Artiftoial Intelligence 
[NASA^P-3009] p 37 N86-30330 

Information technotogy to facilitate group interaction 

p55 N68-30463 
CONFIGURATION MANAQEMENT 

Chicago's O'Hare Runway Configuratton Management 
System (RCMS). Volume 1: Description of the operattonal 
software 
[AD-A185686] p 95 N88-14990 

Chicago's O'Hare Runway Configuratton Management 
System (RCMS). Volume 2: Users gutoe 
[AD-A186222] p 95 N88-15783 

Intelligent resource management for kx»l area 
networks: Approach and evolutton p 54 N68-2g385 
CONGRESSIONAL REPORTS 

Budget reimbursements: The Nattonal Aeronautics ar>d 
Space Administratton's reimbursable work 
[PB87-207296] p 110 N86-10696 

Gtobal environmental change research 
[S-HRG-100-301] pill N68-12199 

Nattonal Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act. 1966 
[PUB-LAW-100-147] p 111 N66-12422 

Department of Housing and Urt>an 
Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations for 
fiscal year 1968, Thursday. 9 April 1987; Nattonal 
Aeronautics and Space Adminlsti-atton 

pill N88-12424 

Department of Housing arKJ Urtian 
Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations for 
fiscal year 1966, Friday. 10 April 1967: National 
Aeronauttos and Space Administration 

p111 N86-12425 

National Aeronauttes and Space Administration space 
station proposal, fiscal year 1986 
[S-HRG-100-328] pill N88-14043 

The 1986 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration) authorization 
tGPO-80-245] pill N66-1 4044 

The 1988 National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) authorization 
[GPO-76-600] p112 N68-14854 

Advancing automation and robotics technology for the 
space station and for the US economy: Submitted to the 
United States Congress May 15. 1987 
[NASA-TM-69611] p112 N66-15617 

Department of Housing and Urban Devetopment 
independent agencies appropriations for 1989. Part 7: 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
[GPO-85-1 66] p 1 1 3 N88-23669 

CONSISTENCY 

The interaction of bottom-up and top-down consistency 
in the devetopment of skills p 4 A66-35464 

CONSTITUTION 

Science, techrwiogy and the Constitution: Background 
paper 

tPB88-142534] p113 N86-20222 

CONSTRUCTION 

Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS 
misston management p 70 N88-10875 

State-of-tiie-art technotogtos for construction in space: 
A review 

[AD-A188412] p 15 N66-19463 

CONSUMERS 

Spinoff, 1967 
[NASA-TM-69652] p 71 N66-1 1577 

CONTEXT 

A review of hypertext in a NASA project management 
context p 49 N66-14859 

CONTRACT INCENTIVES 

Contractual methods of incentivizing improved space 
flight safety p i05 A88-15305 

CONTRACT MANAGEMENT 

Analysis of R&D portfolto strategies for contract 
competition p 88 A86-53696 

The appropriate use of conti«ct types in development 
contracts (a systems approach with emphasis on the 
European space sector) 

[ESA-STR-222] p 24 N88-16573 

CONTRACTORS 

Debarnwnt and suspenston -- of conti-actors 

p 105 A68-15306 



Satellite manufacturers and systems 

p23 A86-51745 
A method for assessing the software engineering 
capability of contractors: Preliminary verston 
[AD-A1872301 P 102 N88-18290 

CONTRACTS 

Debarment and suspenston — of contractors 

p 105 A88-15306 
A fresh look at launch-service conti-acts 

p107 A88-29772 

The appropriate use of contract types in development 

contracts (a systems approach with emphasis on the 

European space sector) 

[ESA-STR-222] P 24 N68-16573 

Selling to NASA 
[NASA-TM-89724] p112 N86-20208 

CONTROL EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA Expert System for Space Station 
communications and tracking system management — 
Control and Monitor Equipment Resource Allocation 

p29 A8d-15285 
CONTROL SIMULATION 

Experiments in advanced control concepts for space 
robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics 
Laboratory 

[AAS PAPER 87-044] P 30 A86-16999 

CONTROL SURFACES 

Stability and control methodology for conceptual aircraft 
design. Volume 1: Methodology manual 
[AD-A191314] p27 N88-22906 

CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN 

Experiments in advanced conti-ol concepts for space 
robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics 
Laboratory 

[AAS PAPER 87-044] p 30 A86-16999 

Uncertainty management techniques in adaptive 

control P 12 A68-2B590 

Large space stiuctures: [Dynamics and control — Book 

p22 A86-46401 

The specification and design of a system using 

computer-atoed software engineering and performance 

analysis tools 

[AIAA PAPER 86-4410] p 45 A88-51934 

Real-time fault management for large-scale systems 

p 101 A88-52355 
Vehicle Management Systems - The logical evolution 
of integration 

[AIAA PAPER 86-3175] p 94 A86-53148 

A data-base management scheme for computer-akled 

conti^ol engineering p 46 Ae8-54484 

An interface for computer-akled control engineering 

based on an engineering data-base manager 

p46 A88-54485 
Fiber optic engineering sensor system. Preliminary 
program management plan, phase 3 revision 
[AD-A183663] p 24 N8e-10608 

Mtorogravity robotics technology program 
[NASA-TM-100898] p 35 N88-23219 

Sovtot spacecraft engineering research 
tFASAC-TAR-3090] p 27 N68-23823 

Expert system appltoation education project 
[NASA-CR-183089] p 36 N88-26667 

CONTROLLABILITY 

NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 2: Materials 
and Structures, Propulsion and [Drive Systems, Flight 
[Dyrmmics and Control, and Acoustics 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL.2] p 25 N68-16632 

CONTROLLERS 

Microgravity mechanisms and robotics program 

p 35 N86-23237 
COOPERATION 

Technology transfer from US Federal laboratories: 
Report of a roundtable 

[PB88-144603] p 76 N86-20228 

COORDINATION 

Coordination in deciston-maidng organizations 
[AD-A191952] p 17 N88-26261 

COSMOLOGY 

The structure of the planets — Book 

p67 A88-46308 

COSMONAUTS 

Present stage of space medicine p 7 N86-18151 
COST ANALYSIS 

Station pricing - Not just a question of 'How much does 
it cost?' 
(lAF PAPER 67-631] p 84 Ae8-16223 

Managing test program risks p 66 A66-33781 

CATS: Computer-aided trade study methodology 

p20 A86-34101 

Funding - A unified approach 
[AIAA PAPER 88-3247] p 86 A88-44605 

Component model reductton by component cost 
analysis 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4086] p 94 A68-501 92 



A-8 



SUBJECTINDEX 

Use of a detail cost model to perform conceptual phase 
costan^ysts 
[SAWE PAPER 1784] p 23 A88-53788 

Cost benefits of nondestructive testing in aircraft 
maintenance p 95 A88-55041 

The 1986 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration) authorization 
tGPO-80-245] p 111 N88-14044 

Picking winners: Parametric cost estimating and project 
management p26 N88-20176 

Task aOocatnn for effictent perfomiance of a 
decentralized organizatkm 
[AD-A188e99] p 15 N8e-20204 

A cost analysis for the implementation of oorranonality 
in the family of commuter airplanes, revised 
[NASA^CR-ie2569] p 89 N86-20221 

Advanced avionics system analysis. Modular avionics 
cost benefit study fonnulatkyi 
[AI>A189019] p90 N88-211S8 

A method for estimating and controNng the cost of 
extendmg technokigy 
[AD-A190717] p90 N88-22831 

FtfKting minimum-cost circulations by canceting negative 
cycles 
[AO-A194027] p 18 N88-29468 

Finding minimiffn-cost circulations by successive 
approMmation 
[AD-A1940a8) p 18 N88-29469 

New devekipments m capital cost esttmatffig 
[DE88-005392] p 91 Na6-29638 

Space systems cost study 
[AO-A196024] p 91 N8a~30469 

COST EFFECTIVENESS 

Has mamed space fft^ a future? p 83 A88-10850 

Traditional versus rule-based pro^Bmming techrvques 
- Applkation to the control of optional flight informatnn 
p38 A88-10965 

A comprehensive model for the design of distrftxited 
computer systems p 39 Ae8-14584 

Transportatkxi syst^n choices - RCN implications — 
Return On Invesmient 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0840] p 85 A88-27582 

The econon»cs of sat^rte retrieval 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0843] p 85 A88-27584 

An economw model for vendor selection 

p86 A88-33602 

Space transportatkwt - The commercial user's 
perspective 
[AJAA PAPER 88-3492] p 87 A88-42901 

Station progr^n 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3502] p 93 A88-43300 

Risk analysis methodotogy survey 

p 102 N88-15604 
Advances in personal computers for scientific 
applk:atk>ns 

[DE88-009824] p 52 N88-26107 

COST ESTIMATES 

Cost estimator's reference manual p 84 AB8-17923 

Measurement of output from university research: A case 

study p69 A88-53695 

A method for estimating and controlling the cost of 

exterKJing tectinology 

[AD-A1907173 p90 N88-22831 

A comparative study of project estimating tools 
tDE88-009059] p 52 N88-26266 

Knowledge-based cost estimating vs traditional software 
cost models 
[DE8e-009707] p 53 N88-27116 

New devekipments in capital cost estimating 
tDE88-005392] p 91 N88-29638 

COST REDUCTION 

Te>econfererKtr)g-fr<Kn-the-c(^lege-classroom - Space 
devektpmerrt. gk>bal problems and educatkxial 
motivation p 12 A88-24197 

Gnat robots (Ar>d how they wiH change robotks) 

p32 A8&42873 
Cost-of-a-cassette air safety p 101 A88-48499 

Ground-t>ased mk:rogravity mat^ials science research 
at NASA's Mx:rogravity MaterieUs Scter>ce Laboratory 

p68 A88-49090 
Software for inte^ated mafHJfacturing systems, part 1 
p25 f«8-17261 
Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 2 
p25 N88-17262 
Space systems cost stojdy 
[AO-A196024] p 91 N88-30469 

COSTS 

A method for estimating and controlliT>g the cost of 
exterKJing techrx)k)gy 

[AD-A190717] p90 N88-22831 

Artificial tntetligence costs, benefits, risks for selected 
spacecraft grourxi system automation scenarios 

p37 N8a-30332 
Information technok>gy to facilitate group interaction 

p55 N88-30463 



CRACK GEOMETRY 

Devek)pment of the NASA/FLAGRO computer 
program p45 A88-47005 

CRACK PROPAGATION 

Devetopmenl of tiie NASA/FLAGRO computer 
program p45 AB8-47005 

CRAY COMPUTERS 

The next wave of Japanese supercomputers 

p41 A88-27490 
CREATIVITY 

Innovation aixl creativity: A critical linkage 
[DE88-003309] p7 N8e-18515 

Idea procesSHig for creativity and management 
[DE88-006110] p17 N88-26113 

CREW PROCEDURES (INFUGKT) 

How the Station wiU operate— operation, management 
and maffitenance in space p 95 A88-54852 

CREW PROCEDURES <PREFUGHT) 

'But Captain, I've been doing this a k>t kxtger ttwt you 
have' - The effects of 'roiefevsrsaT on crew interaction 
p5 AB&42968 
CRYOGEMC COOUNG 

Cryogervc Fluid M»iagement Technok>gy Workshop. 
Vokime 1: Presentatkm material arxl discussion 
tNASA-CP-10001] p73 N88-15924 

CRYOGENK EQUIPMENT 

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - 
Proceecfrigs of the Cryogenic Engineerir>g Conference. 
Saint Chartes, IL, June 14-18. 1967 p68 A88-53176 
CRYOGEMC FLUID STORAGE 

Cryogenic Fhiid Management Tecf>rK>k>gy Workshop. 
Volume 1 : Presmtation material and discussion 
[NASA-CP-10001] p73 N88-15924 

CRYOQENK; FUNDS 

Cryogenic Fhid Mwiagement TecfuK>k)gy Workshop. 
Vc^me 1: Presentation materia and d»aission 
[NASA-CP-10001] p73 NS8-15924 

Cr^jgenk: Fluid Mwiagement Technoksgy Workshop. 
Vokime 2: Rottfidtable Discussion of Techrwrtogy 
Reqtnremente 
[NASA-CP-10009] p76 N88-20599 

cryogenk; rocket propellants 

Advanced space propulsion technotogy for spai» 
leadership pe2 A88-33442 

HOTOL - A cryogenk: materials challenge 

p66 A88-53302 
CryogOTic Fluid Management Tecfmotogy Worktop. 
Volume 1: Presentation material and discussion 
L NASA-UF-l uuui J p 73 r*6d- 1 5924 

CRYOGENK^ 

Advances in cryogenk; w>gineerHig (Materials). Vokjnie 
34 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Cryogenic 
Materials Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18. 
1987 p68 A88-53301 

Cryc^roc Fliad ManagOTient TectmokDgy Workshop. 
Vokjnw 1: Presentation material and discussk>n 
[NASA-CP-10001 3 p73 N8e-15924 

CRYSTAL GROWTH 

Preparatxxi for mkxogravity - The role of tite Mttrogravtty 
Mat^ial Sctenc^ Laboratory 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3510] p 65 A88-42908 

Materials science in space: 

Theory-experirf>ents>technok>gy — Book 

p67 AB8-46305 
Ground-based rracrogravity materials science research 
at NASA's Mk:ro9%nty Materials Science Uj^boratory 

p68 A8fr49090 
CRYSTALLIZATION 

NASA resevch Program: The roles of fkjid motion cuid 
otf>er transport pfienomena in tfte morphotogy of 



[NASA-CR-ie28013 P 80 N86-25327 

CRYSTALS 

NASA research Program: The roles of fhjki motion arxl 
oth«' transport (rfienomena in the morphok>gy of 
materials 

[NASA-CR-1 82601 ] p 60 N88-25327 

CULTURE (SOCIAL SCIENCES) 
Poterrtial of space for humanity 
(AAS PAPER 86-450] p 106 A88-35092 

Linguistic and o^ural barriers to the transfer of 
information p 55 N8e-30459 

CYBERNETK^S 

USSR report Cybernetics, computers and autorrtation 
technok}gy 

[JPRS-UCC-ee-OU] p33 l^88-14669 

CYCLES 

Finding minimum-cost drcutations by cancettng negative 
cydes 

tAD-A1940273 p 18 N8e-29468 

CYCUC LOADS 

Devek)pment of tiw NASA/FLAGRO corrputer 
p45 A86-47005 



DATA FLOW ANALYSIS 

D 

DATA ACOUISmON 

Data access for scientific problem solving 

p40 Ae8-20252 

An approach to design knowledge capture for the space 

station p40 A88-21642 

Implementing and managing change: A guide for 

assessing information technotogy 

[DEe8-000035] p 47 N88-11571 

Design knowledge capture for the space station 

p33 N88-17239 
DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

Recent trends in geographic infOTmation system 

research p 38 A88-13623 

Role of data tiase management in design optimization 

systems p 40 A88-19666 

SatelWe data management for effective data access 

p43 A88-38690 

A datfr-base managemart scheme f(x computer-akied 

contiol engineering p 46 A88-54484 

Object-oriented data base management for robot 



[ETN-87-90367] p 33 N88-10687 

The microcomputer as an engineering management 
too) 
[DE87-014882] p 47 N88-11378 

RelatK>nal data handling system for scientists 
[PBe7-223426] p 48 N88-14038 

Scientifk: data m»^putation in a retatior»l database 
system 
[PB87-124400] p 49 N88-14850 

Third Conference on Artifkad tnteffigence for Space 
Appbcations, part 1 
[NASA-CP-2492-Pt-1] p 33 N88-16360 

Critical issues in NASA information systems 
[I^ASA-CR-182380] p 49 N88-16577 

Management of complex information in support of 
evc^ving autonomous expert systems 
[AD-A1866803 p 34 N86-17337 

Laboratory Irrformation Management System (UMS): A 
case study 
[NASA-TM-100835] p 51 N88-21697 

Data management and language enhancem^rit for 
generatizBd set theory computer language for operation 
of targe relational databases 
[NASA-CR-1 82868] p 51 N6e-23446 



CnnnmhllTT' 



An 



information resoi^ce 

[NASA-TM-1011371 p 51 N88-23812 

Issues and recommendatkxis associated with distributed 
computatkxi stfxl data management systems for the space 
sciences 
[NASA-CR-183026] p 18 N88-2710e 

Computer science and technotogy: Knowledge-based 
system for physk:al database design 
[PB86-193269] p 53 N8e-27109 

C^tabase design and management in engineering 
optHnization 
[AD-A193325] p 28 N8e-27813 

IntelligerTt resource management for local area 
networks: Approach and evolution p 54 N8e-29385 
DATABASES 

A comprehensive model for the de^n of distrbuted 
computer systems p 39 A88-14584 

NASA-STD-3000, Man-System Integration StarxJards - 
The new space huntan ^i^neering standards 
[lAF PAPER 87-550] p 40 A88-16167 

Educational uses of the aerospace database 
[AIAA PAPER 88^749] p 41 A8d-22566 

The effects ol different data t»se formats on ^formation 
retrieval p43 Ae8-35463 

Maintaining large plarming systmns during rapki 
technotogcal change p 43 A88-39049 

An interface for computer-akied control engir>eering 
based on an ^igineering data-base mevtager 

p46 A88-544a5 

Standard referervDe data pii>lk:ations, 1965-1986 
[ PB87-21 0241 ] p 1 02 N88-1 01 28 

Using biblkigraphk: databases in technokjgy transfer 
[hiASA-CR-1814031 p 71 N68-11399 

Role of tectviiced kiformation in innovation 
[PB87-235388] p 48 N68-14039 

A review of hypertext in a NASA project management 
context p 49 N88-14e59 

DoD Gateway Information System (DGIS): Common 
corrvnand language mapping 
[AD-A165951] p 49 N88-15726 

A directory of databases availat)le through 
SearchMAESTRO 

[AD-A188813] p 50 1088-20214 

DATA FLOW ANALYSIS 

An overview of tf>e Hubble Space Telescope command 
and data management system p 43 M8-33671 



A-9 



DATA MANAGEMENT 



SUBJECT INDEX 



DATA MANAGEMENT 

Space Station ground data management system 

p39 A8d-15282 
A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center for 
Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle payloads 

p40 Ae8-21205 
Evolution of data management systems from Spacelab 
to Columbus 

[MBB-UR-E-968-e7] p 41 A8e-23g81 

Telemetry handling on the Space Station data 

nrtanagement system p 42 A88-33629 

An overview of the Hubble Space Telescope command 

and data management system p 43 A88-33671 

Satellite data management for effective data access 

p 43 A88-38690 
Data management for the factory floor 

p 21 A88-42377 
The standardisation of on-board data management 
systems and its impact on ground systems 

p 44 A86-45032 
Data management for large space systems 

p44 A8e-45034 
An interface for computer-aided control engineering 
based on an engineering data-base manager 

p46 A88-54485 
Personal computers: A powerful toot for protect 



[De87-013381] p47 N88-11377 

Relational data har>dling system for scientists 
[PB87-223426] p 48 N88-U038 

Data management strategies in the industrial 
environment 
[NLR-MP-e7002-U] p 27 N88-23684 

Image management research p 51 N68-24150 

The role of working memory in language 
comprehension 
[ AD-A1 92721 ] p 53 N88-26805 

A design for a ground-based data management 
system p 55 N8e-30355 

DATA PROCESSING 

Security implications of remote sensing 

p 106 A88-28543 

Personal computers: A powerful tool for project 
management 
[DE87-013381] p 47 N8e-11377 

Idea processing for creativity and management 

[DEsa-ooeiio] pi7 N88-26113 

KrK>wledge-based cost estimating vs traditional software 
cost models 
[DE88-009707] p 53 N88-27116 

Research on wide area workstations 
[AD-A192529] p 54 N88-28643 

Advanced information processing system: Input/output 
network management software 

[NASA-CR-18167e] p 54 N8e-29431 

DATA PROCESSING TERMINALS 

Health hazards of vkleo display tenminals. A 
cofTiprehensive, anr>otated biblk>graphy on a critical issue 
of workplace health and safety with sources for obtaining 
items and list of terminal suppliers 
[RSMAS-4] p6 N88-12240 

DATA RECORDING 

Cost-of-a-cassette air safety p 101 A88-48499 

DATA RETRIEVAL 

The ecor>omk:s of satellite retrieval 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0843] p 85 A88-27584 

Sampling criteria in multicollection searching 

p42 A88-27780 
The microconnputer as an engineering management 
tool 

[0687^)14882] p 47 NB8-11378 

Using bibliographk: databases in technology transfer 
[NASA-CR-181403] p 71 Ne8-11399 

DATA SAMPLING 

Sampling criteria in muttkx>llection searching 

p42 A88-277e0 
DATA STORAGE 

An approach to design knowledge capture for the space 
station p 40 A88-21642 

SatetIKe data management for effective data access 

p43 A88-38690 

A review of hypertext in a NASA prc^t management 

context p 49 N88- 14859 

Use of optical (Ask technology at the Air Command and 

Staff College 

[AD-A1 92424] p 54 N88 27969 

DATA SYSTEMS 

Recent trends in geographic information system 
research p 38 A88-13623 

Data access for sdentifk: probfem sotvtrig 

p40 A88-20252 
The evolutk>n of force management technology 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2228] p 93 A88-32191 

DATA TRANSMISSION 

An overview of the Hubble Space Telescope command 
and data management system p 43 A88-33671 



VSAT networks: Architectures, protocols, and 
management p46 A88-52132 

Satellite information systems — Book 

p47 A88-55015 

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and 
overview 

[NASA-Tf^-100162] p 48 N88-11925 

DECISION MAKING 

An economic model for vendor selection 

p86 A88-33602 

The interactron of bottom-up and top-down consistency 
in the development of skills p 4 A88-35464 

A methodological approach to the search for indirect 
(human) events related to mishaps p 1 3 A8e-43006 

R&M design influence from spreadsheet analysis 

p 100 A88-43360 

An interactive approach to R&D project selection and 
termination p 14 A88-53694 

Artificial Intelligence (Al), Operations Research (OR), 
and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual 
frameworif p 34 N88-17245 

Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to 
space p14 N88- 17250 

Management of complex informatk>n in support of 
evolving autonomous expert systems 
[AD-A1 86680] p 34 N88-17337 

Physics for rotx>ts 
[ AD-A 1 89056 ] p 34 NB8-20054 

Applicatk>n of expert systems in project management 
decision aiding 
[NASA-CR-180762] p 16 N88-21074 

Selection and effects of channels in distributed 
communication arKi decision making tasks: A theoretk;al 
review and a proposed research paradigm 
[AD-A191807] p 17 N88-25375 

Coordination in decision-making organizations 
IAD-A191952] p 17 N88-26261 

Expert system application education project 
[NASA-CR-183089] p 36 N88-26867 

Rules, schema and decision making 
[AD-A193389] p 10 N88-27967 

Technrcal change needs organizational change 

p 18 N88-30466 
DECISION THEORY 

Task allocatk>n for efficient performance of a 
decentralized organization 

[AD-A18B6d9] p 15 N88-20204 

DEEP SPACE NETWORK 

The Deep Space Network 
[NASA-CR-182700] p 76 N88-20524 

The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio 
astronomy research 

[NASA-CR-183219] p 83 N88-30554 

DEFENSE INDUSTRY 

Air Force space requirements - Can industry meet the 
challenge for space systems? p 19 A88-15312 

JPRS report: Science and technology. Japan 
[JPRS-JST-88-001 ] p77 N88-22218 

JPRS report: Scier>ce and technology. Japan 
[JPRS-JST-87-029] p 77 N88-22228 

DEFENSE PROGRAM 

Ada - What every good manager needs to know 
[AIAA PAPER 87-2857] p 38 A88-12577 

Planning of risk in defence devek>pment projects 

p 85 A88-23866 

Competing for a future in space - NASA and the 
Department of Defense p 86 A88-28537 

A directory of databases available through 
SearchMAESTRO 
[AD-A188813] p 50 N88.20214 

The Department of Defense report on the nwrit review 
process for competitive $electk}n of university resecu^ch 
projects and an analysis of the potential for expar>ding 
the geograp>hic distribution of research for the Committees 
on Appropriations, United States Congress 
[ AD-A 1 9 1 842 ] p 1 1 3 N88-25379 

DEICING 

The NASA aircraft k;ing research program 

p24 N88- 15803 
DESIGN ANALYSIS 

An approach to design knowledge capture for the space 
statwn p40 A88-21642 

R&M design influence from spreadsheet analysis 

p 100 A88-43360 

A collaborative program of research in engineering 
sciences 
[OE88-003383] p 75 N88- 18504 

Sonrw operatk>nal aspects of a rotating 
advanced-technology space station for the year 2025 
[NASA-CR-181617] p 81 N88-26397 

DESIGN TO COST 

Use of a detail cost model to perform conceptual phase 
cost analysis 
[SAWE PAPER 1784] p 23 A88-53788 



DEVELOPING NATIONS 

Benefit from space technology - A view from a 
developing country 

[ I AF PAPER 87*679] p 84 A88-16250 

DIAMONDS 

Diamonds shine brightly in aerospace's future 

p57 A88-18495 
DIGITAL DATA 

Critical issues in NASA information systems 
[NASA-CR- 182380] p 49 N88-16577 

NASA and the challenge of ISDN: The role of satellites 
in an ISDN world 

[ NASA-CR- 1 82749 ] p 90 N88-22676 

DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITES 

Going mobile — satellite communk;ation 

p85 Ae8-21532 
DIRECTORIES 

A directory of databases available through 
SearchMAESTRO 

[AD-A188813] p 50 N88-20214 

Federal Council on Science. Engineering and 
Technology: Committee on Computer Research and 
Applk^tions, Subcommittee on Science and Engineering 
Computing: The US Supercomputer Industry 
[DE88-011262] p 28 N88-27756 

DISASTERS 

Earth safety and disaster response employing 
space-borne systems - A review 

[lAF PAPER 87-578] p 98 Ae8-16189 

DISCRIMINATORS 

Rules, schema and decision making 
[AD-A193389] p 10 N88-27967 

DISPLAY DEVICES 

Utilities systems management - Flying demonstrator 

[SAE PAPER 860851 ] p 92 A88-15585 

Fiber optic engineering sensor system. Preliminary 

program management plan, phase 3 revision 

[AD-A1836631 p 24 N88-10608 

DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING 

A comprehensive model for the design of distributed 

computer systems p 39 A88-14584 

A distributed resource management mechanism for a 

partitronable multiprocessor system p 41 A88-24981 

Distributed operating system for NASA ground statkxts 

p42 A88-33665 

Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 1 

p25 N88-17261 

Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 2 

p25 N88- 17262 

Issues and recommendations associated with distributed 

computatnn and data management systems for the space 

sc»er>ces 

[ NASA-CR- 1 83026 } p 1 8 N88-27 1 08 

DOCUMENT STORAGE 

Sampling criteria in multicollection searching 

p42 A88-27780 
DOCUMENTATION 

Documentation as a management strategy for reaching 
goals in high-risk research-oriented projects 
[DE87-012394] p 14 N88-10685 

NASA scientifk; and technical publications: A catalog 
of Special Publk;atk)ns, Reference Publicatk)ns, 
Confererice Publk^atwns, and Technical Papers. 1987 
[NASA-SP-7063(02)] p 78 N88-22830 

The -nKkx; macro package: A software tool to support 
computer documentatk>n standards 
[DE88-(XX)500] p 52 N88-25188 

Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical 
publk:ations announced in 1 987 

[NASA-TM-100910] p 82 N88-28832 

Technk:al communicatron in the computer industry: An 

informatkwi-devetopment process to track, nmasure and 

ensure quality p 54 N88-29635 

DOCUMENTS 

FY87 scientifk: and technical reports, artk:les, papers. 
arKJ presentatkx>s 

[NASA.TM.100318] p 25 N88-16578 

Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system 
for OSSA paytoads. Volume 3: OSSA integrated logisttes 
support planning document p 89 N88-19480 

Pubtk^atKHis on acoustics research at the Langley 
Research Center during 1980-1986 
[NASA-TM-100590] p 81 N88-27881 

DOMESTIC SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 
The Geostar approach to space business 
[lAF PAPER 87-627] p 84 A88-16218 

DOPPLER RADAR 

Wind shear detection. Fonward-looking sensor 
technotogy 

[NASA-CP- 10004] p24 N88-14970 

DOWNLINKING 

Missk>n operatrons systems for planetary exploratk>n 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0547] p 41 A88-22410 

DRAG COEFFICIENTS 

Blinf>ps are back on board p 20 A88- 18499 



A-10 



SUBJECTINXX 



ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 



Turtxjient drag reduction research at NASA Langtoy - 
Progress and plans p67 A86-46228 

DURAnUTY 

Toward improved duraMity in advanced aircraft engine 
hot sections; Proceedings of the Thirty-third NSMB 
Irrtemational Gas Turt>ine and Aeroengine Congress and 
Exposition. Amsterdam. Netherlands. «kjne 5-9. 1968 

p101 A88-54137 
DYNAWC CHARACTERSnCS 

The SSO graph - A tool for profsct scheduling and 
p64 A8&-39048 



p 81 N88-27820 



[AD-AI 92385] 
DYNAMIC MODELS 

Component 



model reduction by componnvt cost 



CAIAA PAPER 8^4066] p 94 A88-50192 

CoortSnation in decisiorMnaking onganizaliQris 
[ACMM919S2] p 17 N86-26261 

DYNAMIC SmnKmiRAL ANALYSIS 

Recent trerxls n aeroelastlcity. strudures, and sbrucbiral 
dynamics; Proceedings of tfie R. L. Bnpiinghoff Memorial 
Symposium, University of Florida. GainesviNe. PL, Feb. 6. 
7,1966 p21 Aa8-35526 

Uff^ space structives: Dynamics and control — Book 
p22 A88-46401 

International Modal Analysis Conference. 5lh. Imperiat 
College of Science and Technology, London. Engtoid, Apr. 
6-9. 1967, Pnxeedings. Volumes 1 & 2 

p 101 A88'50789 

Smxiural dynamics branch research «id 
accomplishments for fiscal year 1 967 
[NASA-TM-1 00279] p 77 1^8-22446 

Aircraft aeroelastictty and strtjcturat dynamics r o s oa r ch 
at the NASA Livigley Research Center Some iBustrative 
results 
[NASA-TM-100627] p 79 N8e-24598 



EARTH (PLANET) 

Spacecraft technology requiremems for future NASA 



[AIAA PAPER 86-3487] p 65 Ae8-43299 

EnnTH cnVinOfmcriT 

Glotnl envffonmerrt^ c^iange research 
[S-HRG-1 00-301] p 111 N86-12199 

EARTH OBSERVATIONS (FROM SPACE) 

NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory - Seventeen years 
of using remotely sensed satetite data in land 



[lAF PAPER 87-164] p 56 A86.15912 

Earth safety and disaster response employing 
space-bome systems - A review 
[lAF PAPER 87-578] p 98 A88-16189 

Earth obsenraition and the Space Station 

p11 A88-21568 

Commercial utilisation in U.K. earth obsenntion 

p85 A88-21571 

Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, 
fiwid commercial developments; Proceedings of the 
Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, 
CO. Oct 26-29, 1966 p 63 A88-35123 

Scientific and economy-oriented space systems 
/revised edrtion/ — Book p 65 A66-43247 

Earth Ot»ervation Progrun in Japan and its international 
cooperative activities p67 A8fr45112 

Renxrte senstng and intemationai space law 

p109 A88-48446 

Space-based remote sensing of ttie Earth: A report to 
tfie Congress 

[NASA-TU«9709] p112 N86-18046 

EARTH ORBITAL ENVIRONMENTS 

An overview of materials processing in space 
[SAE PAPER 871891] p 13 A68-30835 

Low earth orbit space fvm p66 A8fr43959 

EARTH ORBITS 

The National Aerospace Plane: A poNtictf overview 
[SAE PAPER 872529] p 107 A88-31000 

State-of-the-art techrK>k>gies for construction in space: 

[AD-A188412] p 15 N88-19483 

EARTH RESOURCES 

Remote sensing for resources development and 
environmental management; Proceedings of the Seventh 
International Symposium. Enschede, Netherlands. Aug. 
25-29. 1986. Vokjmes 1.2, & 3 p 65 AB8-41961 

Critical issues in NASA information systems 
[NASA-CR-182380] p 49 N88-16577 

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 

Communications satellites: The technok>gy of space 
comm u nic a tions — Book p 56 Ae8-17024 



Transportation system choices - ROI implications — 
Return On Investment 
[AIAA PAPER 66O640] p 85 A88-27582 

Space resources - Breaking the bonds of earth — 
Book p88 A88^5603 

Economics of space and the role of government 

p88 A68-51B26 

Economic benefits of commercial space activfties 
tiAF PAPER 88-566] p 88 A88-55445 

New technotogies and intellectual property: An 
economic analysis 
[N-2601-NSF] p89 N8e-10695 

Status of emerging technok>gies: An 
economic/technological assessment to the year 2000 
[re88-155775] p 89 N68-193ei 



Spin off txisinesses as mecdianisms for transferring 



1DE68-00S640] p 90 1468-21065 

ECONOMIC FACTORS 

The e c onomic s of satellite retrieval 
(AIAA PAPER 88-0843] p 85 A88-27584 

ECONOMICS 

The international political economy of space activities 
[lAF PAPER 87^74] p 105 A88-16247 

An economi c model for vendor selection 

p86 A88-33602 

Techrwtogy transfer to China 
[PB87-223418] p 89 N88-13087 

impressions, observations and comments on science 
and tecfmofogy in Japan 
[PB87-235743] p 72 N88.14893 

Technology transfer to China. Volume 2: Working 
papers, part 1 
[PB88-158704] p 77 N88-21872 

A basts of settlement: Economic foundatk>n8 of 
permanertt pior>eer commtmities 
[DE88-010907] p 91 N88-26382 

Politoal arKl ecor>omic tiamers to inf ormatkx> transfer 
p91 N88-30460 
EDUCATION 

What cttanges and what endures - The capabilities and 
limitatkjns of trwning and selecton pi A88-10960 

Training - Behaviorat and motivational sokjtions? 

p 1 A88-10961 

Enharong the quality of space education through 
progiwnme evaliwtnn p 2 A88-20069 

Educatk>nal uses of the aerospace database 
lAiAA i^Arcn 66-0745] «> 4' A0C-22SGC 

The teaching Of aircraft design computer applications 
p41 A88-23260 

Teleconferencing-from-the-college-classroom - Space 
development gk>bal problems arMJ educatkxut 
motivation p 12 A88-24197 

Current devetopments in intemationai space educatkxi 
[AAS PAPER 8&457] p2 A88-35087 

Cockpit resource management - New devetopments and 
techraques p 13 Ae8-42970 

Evaluating cockpit resource management training 

p5 A88-42971 

Selection for optimal crew performance - Relative impact 
of selection and training p5 Ae6-42972 

The role of regulations in aircraft design education 
[AIAA PAPER 8&'4465] p 23 A88-51968 

Aerospace design education at Texas A & M 
University 
[AIAA PAPER 8fr4413] p6 A68-53751 

Computer-entianced levning p 6 A88-54856 

Interdiscipfinary research in mathematics, science and 
technotogy educatkxi 
[PB88-131446] p 75 N68-18333 

Text organization and tt)mpref)ensibiNty in technical 



p15 N8&-20217 



Engir>eering management for valklation prototype 
phase p26 N88-20195 

A standard architecture for controlling rotwts 
[AD-A195929] p 37 Ne8-30371 

EFFLUENTS 

Space Station propulsion (Uti6zatk)n of effluents for 
optimized flight profiles and STS togtstKs capabilities) 
[AAS PAPER 86-260] p 93 A88-35094 

EFFORT 

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychologic^ 
perspectives p 9 N68-23387 

ELECTRIC BATTERIES 

NASA aerospace battery system progrwn initiation 

p98 A88-11783 
ELECTRIC COIOHICTORS 

Electrically conducting plastics - New materials from 
aerospace resevch p22 A88-48454 

ELECTRIC GENERATORS 

Sd^ energy: European research and devetopment 
tPB87-107645] p 71 N88-12866 



[A[>A188913] 



ELECTRIC POWER 

Space convnerci^ization 
technokigy 
ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS 

Solar energy: Europevi research and devekipment 
[PB87-107645] p 71 fa88-12e66 

ELECTRIC PROPULSION 

AM electronic propulsion - Key to future spaceship 



p67 A86-44003 



[AIAA PAPER 88-3170] p 22 A88-44875 

The NASA Electric Propulsion Program 
[NASA-TM-101324] p 83 N88-29659 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 
National ScierKe Foundation 
[PB67-228375] p 71 N88.12410 

Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering 
technical publKation anrvxfftcements covervig Center 
programs. July to September 1987 
[PB68-196S30] p 28 1466-26572 

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 

Identifying areas of leading edge Japvwse science and 
technotogy: Patent activity and citation analysis using US 
POC (Patent Office Ctessification) dassifwation 
[PB87-204095] p 111 N86-11575 

ELECTRONICS 

Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering 
technical publk:ation anrKX^K^ments covering Center 
progr»ns, July to September 1987 
[P688-196530] p 28 N88-26572 



Archetyping: A software generation and management 
methodotogy p 54 N6e-29382 

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 

Hirvig, firirtg, and retiring - Recent developments in avtine 
labor and emptoyment law p2 A88-22718 

ENERGY CONSERVATION 

NASA advanced turt>oprop research and concept 
validation program 
[NASA-TM-100891] p26 N88-22902 

NASA/industry advartced turboprop technology 



[NASA-TM-1 00929] p 28 N88-24641 

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS 

Power systems for productkm, construction, life support 



[NASA-TM-100838] p 77 N88-21254 

ENERGY STORAGE 

Power systerr^ for production, construction, life support 

ttiKJ ufjtsiaifuim ni bf^di;^ 

[NASA.TM-100638] p 77 N88-21254 

ENERGY TECHNOLOGY 

Space commerciiJization arvi power system 
technotogy p87 A8fr44003 

Spinoff, 1967 
[ NASA-TM-89652] p 71 N88-1 1 577 

Mim^es of the meeting of the Indo-US Sulxxxnmission 
on Science and Technotogy (8th) hekj at Washington, D.C. 
on September 22-24, 1966 
[PB88-13015e] p112 Ne8-16503 

Starpower The US and the intemationai quest for fusion 
energy 
[PBe8-128731] p75 N88-192e3 

Techrwtogy "87: Research and Devetopment Laboratory 
TectwK)logy Transfer Program 
[DE8e.O03142] p 77 Ne8-21084 

JPRS report SderK» and technotogy, Japan 
[JPRS-JST-87-029] p 77 N88-22228 

ENGINE CONTROL 

Utilities systems management • Flying demwistrator 
[SAE PAPER 860851] p 92 A88-15565 



Rest^ of NASA's Er>ergy Efficient Engine Program 

p92 A8fr-20785 

21st century high speed trvisport propi^sion 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2967] p 87 A86-44718 

NASA/ Army Rotorcraft Technotogy. Votome ^ Materials 
and Structures, Propulskxi and Drive Systems. Flight 
Dynanrucs arvl Control, »id Aoxjstics 
[NASA-CP-2495.VOL-2] p 25 f>*88-16632 

Impact and promise of NASA aeropropufsion 
technotogy p25 N68-16696 

ENGINE MONITORING INSTRUMENTS 

Recent advances m wig^te he^th m»iagement 
[ASME PAPER 88-GT-257] p 94 A88-54333 

Engine cortdition monitorrig civil requirements: A British 
A^ays view p 97 N88-28002 

ENGINE TESTS 

Ran>i6t devetofHnent testmg - Are we domg it right? 
[AIAA PAPER 87-2185] p 99 A88-18658 

ENGINEERING MANAGENKNT 

Biffldtng hi^ performing wigmeermg project teams 

p 10 A86-10401 

Engrneertng management: Concepts, procedures and 
models— Book p 20 A6&-24807 

An^ysis of R&D portfoto strategies for contract 
competition p 86 A68-53696 



A-11 



ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS 



SUBJECTINDEX 



The mk;rocomputer as an engineering management 
tool 
tDE87-014882] p 47 N88-11378 

Summaries of FY 1987 engineering research 

[DE88-002572] p 24 N88-15096 

Picking winners: Parametric cost estinnating and project 

management p26 N88-20176 

Engineering management for validation protct^w 

phase p26 N88-20195 

ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS 

Global environmental change research 
[S-HRG-100-301] p 111 N88-12199 

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT 

Remote sensing for resources devetopmont and 

environmental management; Proceedings of the Seventh 

International Symposium, Enschede, Netheriands, Aug. 

25-29, 1986. Volumes 1. 2. & 3 p 65 A8e-41961 

ENVIRONMENT MODELS 

Coordination in decision-making organizations 
[AD-A191952] p 17 N88-26261 

ENVIRONMENT SIMULATION 

HUMANE; A knowledge-based simulation environment 
for human-machine function allocation 

p45 A86-51006 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL 

Large space systems environmental entanglements 
[AIAA PAPER 88-0388] p 59 A88-222e6 

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 

Global environmental change research 
IS-HRGO 00-301] pill N88.12199 

EPIDEMIOLOGY 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 



[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 N88-12915 

ERROR DETECTION CODES 

Processes in construction of failure management expert 
systems from device design intomiation 

p 31 A88-24230 
ERS-1 (ESA SATELLITE) 

Proposed uses of ERS-1 p 59 A88-27833 

ESA SPACECRAFT 

Western European space science p 64 A88-39332 
ESTIMATES 

Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system 
for OSSA payloads. Volume 1 : Executive summary 

p89 N68-19478 
Picking winners: Parametric cost estimating and project 
management p 26 N88-20176 

ESTIMATING 

Mental-State Estimation. 1987 
[NASA-CP-2504] p8 N8a-23370 

EURECA (ESA) 

Evolution of data management systems from Spacelab 
to Columbus 

[MBB-UR-E-968-e7] p 41 A88.23981 

EUROPE 

Soiar energy; European research and developnwnt 
[PB87-1 07645] p 71 Nee-12866 

EUROPEAN AIRBUS 

Civil air transports for the 21st century - A European 
view p62 Ae8-31187 

EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY 

The ESA Ar.tlirorack project - Integrated research in 

human physiology pi ASS- 12429 

The enlargement of the European Space Ager>cy - Legal 

issues p 106 A88-25829 

International cooperation in space within ESA 

p 107 A88-29201 
Insurance of space risks p 107 Ae8-29776 

An overview of materials processing in space 
[SAE PAPER 871891] p 13 A88-30835 

Western European space science p 64 A8e-39332 
Building a European space polk:y p 1O8 A88-39498 
The European long-term space plan 

p68 A8e-49a20 

NASA research and development - A return to 

legitimacy p 68 Ae8-53517 

The appropriate use of contract types in devetopment 

contracts (a systems approach with emphasis on the 

European space sector) 

[ ESA-STR-222 ] p 24 NBS- 1 6573 

Studies for future scientific projects 

p73 N8e-16720 

A policy for international relatbns p 112 N86- 16724 

Study for history of technok>gy developments in 

European space projects 

[REPT-8518-1] p 14 N88-17690 

Spacelab: An international success story 
[NASA-SP-487I p 75 N88- 19375 

Preparing for the new programs. The ESA technologk:al 
research and development program 1968-1990 
[ESA-SP-1095] p7e N88-23814 

With an eye to the future: ESA general studies program 
1988 
[ESA-SP-1100] p83 Ne8-30447 



EUROPEAN SPACE PROGRAMS 

The European Long-Temi Space Plan 
[lAF PAPER 87-671] p 11 A88-16244 

The space life sciences research and application in 
Europe p 61 A88-29106 

The European Space Physres Analysis Network 

p42 A88-29771 
Principles for informatk}n systems design for space 
projects p42 A8a-29773 

Western European space science p 64 A86-39332 
Buikjing a European space policy p 106 A88-3949e 
The European long-term space plan 

p68 A68-49820 
Studies for future scientifk; projects 

p73 N88-16720 
Study for history of technology developments in 
European space projects 

[REPT.8518-1] p14 N88-17690 

Preparing for the new programs. The ESA technologk:al 
research and development program 1986-1990 
[ESA-SP-1095] p 78 N88-23814 

With an eye to the future: ESA general studies program 
1988 

[ESA-SP-1 100] p 83 N88-30447 

EVALUATION 

The SSD graph - A tool for project scheduling and 
visualization p 64 A88-39048 

Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) 
physiochemical waste management systems evaluatk)n 
[NASA-CR-1 77422] p 72 N88-14626 

A method for assessing the software engineering 
capability of contractors: Preliminary version 
[AD-A187230] p 102 N88-18290 

Engineering research centers and their evaluation 
[PB8e-180054] p 17 N8e-26262 

Procedures for peer review assessments 
EDE88-007749] p9 Ne8-26263 

Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 
1988: An assessment report 

[NASA-RP-1208] p114 N88-29233 

EXCIMER LASERS 

Design features of excimer lasers for safe operatnn in 
indus^ and nrtedicirw p 99 A88-31083 

JPRS Report: Science and Techrrology. China 
[JPRS-CST-87-033] p 71 N88-12062 

EXOBIOLOGY 

Technology base for microgravity horticulture 
[SAE PAPER 871436] p 58 A88-21099 

Biotechnotogy opportunities on Space Station 
[SAE PAPER 871468] p 58 A88-21124 

Bralogical scier>ces in space 1986; Proceedings of the 
1986 International Symposium, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 
10-12,1986 p60 Aee-29103 

Space life sciences in Japan p 61 A88-29107 

Low earth orbit space fann p 66 Aee-43959 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14 
[NASA-CR-3922(16)] p 73 N88-16317 

Publications of the exobiology program for 1986: A 
special biblk)graphy 

[NASA-TM-4029] p 73 Nee-17205 

Present stage of space medicine p 7 N88-18151 
NASA Worttshop on Bk)logk;al Adaptation 
[NASA-TM-89468] p 74 N88-18174 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 15 
[NASA-CR-3922(18)] p 74 N88-18175 

Genetic research in space 
[NASA-TT-20216] p 75 N8e-19066 

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 16 
[NASA-CR-3922(19)] p 77 N88-22515 

USSR Space Life Sciences CHgest, Issue 17 
[NASA-CR-3922(20)] p 79 N88-24155 

USSR space life sciences digest, issue 18 
[NASA-CR-3922(21)] p 81 N88-26096 

EXPANSION 

The Department of Defense report on the merit review 
process for competitive selection of university research 
projects and an analysis of the potential for expanding 
the geographic distribution of research for the Committees 
on Appropriations, United States Congress 
[AD-A191842] p 113 N88-25379 

EXPENDABLE STAGES (SPACECRAFT) 

A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center for 
Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle payloads 

p40 A86-21205 
EXPERIMENT DESIGN 

Experiments to ensure Space Station fire safety - A 
challenge 

[AIAA PAPER 88-0540] p 99 A88-22405 

Experinwntal use of artifkaal intelligence for (future) ATC 
systems 

[PBe7-106449] p95 Ne8-12970 

EXPERIMENTATION 

Practical solutions to problems in experimental 
mechanics, 1940-85: A history - Book 

p 19 A86-17945 



EXPERT SYSTEMS 

CAMERA Expert System for Space Station 
communk;ations and tracking system management — 
Control and Monitor Equipment Resource Allocation 

p29 A88-15285 

Applicability of A.I. technkiues to the Space Station, a 
study case - Development of an expert system for on board 
fault management 
[lAF PAPER 87-30] p 29 ASS-1 5822 

Devetopment of an expert investment strategy system 
for aerospace RD&E and production contract bidding 

p30 A88-19885 

Cooperating expert systems for Space Station power 
distribution management p 30 A88-21633 

Expert systems for space power supply - Design, 
anat^s, and evaluation p 31 A88-22696 

Processes in construction of failure management expert 
systerra from device design information 

p 31 A88-24230 

Advances in design automaton - 1987. Volume 1 - 
Design methods, computer graphics, and expert systems; 
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Design Automation 
Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 27-30, 1987 

p31 A88-31644 

A knowledge based approach to strategic on-board 
mission management p 31 A88-34205 

Distributed expert managerrvent system (DEMANS) 

p32 A68-34213 

Al and ATLAS - The prospects for a marriage 

p43 A88-36546 

Radarbet - A multiple trajectory estimator using an expert 
system 
[AIAA PAPER 88-2082] p 32 A88-38705 

Knowledge-based planning and replanning in naval 
command and control p 1 3 A88-39594 

Review of expert systems technology 

p32 A88-42306 

HUMANE: A knowledge-based simulation environment 
for human-machine furwtksn allocation 

p45 A88-51006 

Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC 
business and engineering applications 

p32 A88-52340 

Ada and knowledge-based systems - A prototype 
combining the best of both worids p 46 A88-52343 

Conceptual model-based reasoning for 

knowtedge-based software project management 

p33 A88-52350 

Artificial intelligence for providing expertise on 
instrumentatkm 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4666] p 33 A88-53828 

A prototype expert system for separatk>n science 
[DE87-013542] p 48 N88-12333 

Potential applications of expert systems and operations 
research to space statk)n logistics functkjns 
[NASA-CR-180473] p 95 Ne8-12342 

Experimental use of artifrcial intelligence for (future) ATC 
systems 
[PB87-106449] p 95 N88-12970 

Computer architectures for artifk^ial intelligence 
[PB87-123824] p 72 N88-14671 

A general architecture for intelligent training systems 
p7 N88-14875 

Expert system study for spacecraft management 
[TL-2699-ISS-1 ] p 33 N88-15004 

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space 
Applk»tions, part 1 
[NASA-CP-2492-Pt-1 ] p 33 N88-16360 

Qualitative models for planning: A gentle introduction 
p49 N86-16414 

Planning activities in space p 73 N88-16417 

The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced 
information management systems p 49 N88- 16424 

The resource envelope as a basis for space station 
management system scheduling p 95 N88- 16427 

Design knowledge capture for tfie space statk>n 

p33 N88- 17239 

Advanced decision aiding techniques appltcabte to 
space p 14 N88- 17250 

Management of complex information in support of 
evolving autonomous expert systems 
[AD-A186680] p 34 N88-17337 

Knowledge-based system analysis and control 
[AD-A188163] p 34 N88-20049 

Physk:8 for robots 
[AD-Aie9056] p 34 N8d-20054 

Tfie use of an automated flight test management system 
in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research 
facility 

[NASA-TM-100435] p 34 N88-20896 

I of expert systems in project management 



[ NASA-CR- 1 60762 ] p 1 6 N68-2 1 074 

Third Conferer>ce on Artificial Intelligence for Space 
Applications, part 2 

[ NASA-CP-2492-PT-2 ) p 35 N88-24 1 88 



A-12 



SUBJECTINDEX 



FLIGHT SIMULATION 



A comparative shjdy of profoct sstimatinQ tools 
[OE8&-009059] p 52 N8fr-26266 

E)9>ort system appficwftoo s du cation profect 
[NASA-CR-1B30e9] p 36 N6fr26867 

Computer scienco and technology: Knowtodje based 
system for ptrysictf datebaae daaign 
[PB88-19328gi p 53 N88-Z7100 

Second Conference on Ar tificial lutolioonco for Spanf 
Apptications 
[NASA-CP-3007] p 36 N8e-^9351 

Space station as a vital focus for advancing the 
technologies of ttJtemation and robobcs 
[tAF-e&«2] p36 N88-29352 

A software engineerffig approach to expert system 
design and verification p 36 N6B-29356 

A scheduling and resource mana gement system for 
space applicatens p 97 N86-29383 

ExperimerTt scheduling for Spaoelab miaaions 

p36 Ne8-2»404 

The 1988 Goddard Conference on Space Ap pM ca dion a 
of Artifidal Inteffigenoe 
[NASA-CP-3009] p 37 N8a-30330 

Artifiutf wtteHigonco coals, benefitSi nsks lor selected 
spacecraft grourxj system automation scenarios 

p37 N88-30332 

A design for a grourKMiaaed date managament 
system p55 N68-30355 

EXPLOITATION 

Proceedings of ttte Fouth Annual LS Space 
Development Conference p 58 AB6-22000 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTEUJQENCE 

A critical eitemination of f 
secrecy -- impact of 



[lAF PAPER 87-566] p 105 AB8-16193 

EXTR A T ER R ES T RI AL UFE 

U.S. sctentnte view future Mars mnaions ' Is ttte 'search 
for Hte* a primary goal p68 AB8-51422 

Tfte next steps- 20 possttMHtfes — to hasten and increase 
benefite of SETt contact p70 A88-55239 

Pub^cations of the exobiology program for 1986: A 



tNASA-TM-4029] p 73 M86-17205 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL MESOURCES 

Space farming in the 21st century p62 A86-2gi237 

Public attitudes as observed by the ftetional Commission 
on Space 
TAAS PAPER 86-385] p 108 A86-35089 

Hffivestnig nonterrestrtel resources - A status report 
[AAS PAPER 66-341 ] p 63 Ae6-35163 

Space resources - Breaking ttie borxis of ewth — 
Book p88 A86-45603 

EXTRA VEHICUUkR ACTIVITY 

Space Consli u cUon 
[NASA-CP-2490] p 70 N88-10870 

Marshall Space Flight Center's rote in EASE/ ACCESS 
mission management p 70 N68-10675 

The US space programme spaoewaHt/extravehicular 
activjty experience: Past, present and future 

p60 N66-26031 



FABRICATION 

Advanced topics in manufacturing technology: Product 

design, bioengi noorin g: Proceedings of the S^nposium, 

ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boeton. MA, Dec. 13-18, 

1967 p22 Ae6-44001 

FACILITIES 

Lewis materials research and technology: An oyerview 
p95 N88-16699 
FAILURE ANALYSE 

Applicabilfty of A.I. techniques to the Space Station, a 
study case - Development of an expert system for on board 
f aUt mviagement 

[ I AF PAPER 87-301 p 29 A88-15822 

MTBF specification hi a miitipte use environment 

plOO A88-43341 

Information systems: Failure analysis; Pro c ee ci n ga of 

the NATO Advanced Research Workahop. Bad 

Wtndsheim, Federal Repubfic of Germany, Aug. 18-22. 

1986 -Book P44 A86-46S06 

Real-time fautt management for larg»«cate systems 

plOI A88.52355 
ISTFA 1987 - Intematkvitf Symposium for Testing and 
Failure Analysis: Advanced matertels: Prooeedngs of the 
Symposium, Los Angeles. CA, Nov. 9-13, 1987 

p102 A88-55276 
FAR INFRARED RA0UT10N 

Diamonds shine brightly in aerospace's future 

p57 Ae6-16495 
FATIGUE (BKNjOQY) 

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychotogical 
p9 N68-23387 



FATIGUE (MATEMALS) 

. Development of ths NASA/FLAGRO computer 
program p45 A88-47005 

FAULT TOLERANCE 

Processes in construction of failure martagement expert 



Spacecraft fire-safety experimente tor space stetton: 
Technology development mission 
[NASA-CR-182114} p 103 N66-20353 



p31 A88-24230 
FEASnaJTY ANALYSS 

Launching a commercial space industry 

pB5 A66-21652 
New dovolopmonto in capital cost estimating 
[DE88-00S3923 p 91 N6fr-29638 



National Aeronautic g and Space Adi iwiisti ation 
Authorizaten Act, 1966 
[PUB4AW-100-147] pill N66-12422 

Department of Housing wl Urban 
Devetopment-lndependsnt Agencies Appropriatiorw for 
fiscal i^m 1988, Thursday. 9 April 1967: Nation^ 
AeronaiAics and Space Adminislration 

p 111 N86-12424 

Department of Housing and Urban 
D e ve kip i i lent-tndependent Agencies Approprtettons for 
fiscal year 1966. Fridty. 10 April 1967: National 
Aeronautics and Space Adminislration 

pill N88-1242S 

The 1966 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space 
Adminilralion) aut f M u abun 
[GPO80-24S} pill N88-14044 

The 1968 Nationat Aeronautics «id Space 
Administration (NAS>^ au0x>rization 
[GPO-7e-600] p 112 N86-14654 

Department of Housing and Urtian Developmen t 
independent agencies a ppropr tet ions for 1969. Part 7: 
National Aeronautics and Space AdmmiaAration 
[GPO-85-166] p113 N68-23669 

Ttie Dopartment of Defsnae report on tfie merit review 
process for competitive aslaction of univerarty research 
protects and an analysii of the potential for aac pa ndwg 
tfw geographic distrtoutKm of reaearch for the Commitleea 
on Approprtetions. United States Congroaa 
[AD-A191842] p 113 N66-25379 

Competition: Issued on establishing and using FadsraNy 
funded research and dsvslopment centers 
[PBe6 -17e864]_^ p114 N8&-29632 

FFFDBACICwuwiHOL 

Uncertainly managsmsnt tecfmiques in aJapth w 
control p12 A88.26590 



Af*v*«r*»^ nmiinic composite materials for aircraft 
structum: Future program 
[NASA^>l-iei4671 p24 N8e-14155 



Fiber optic ei i yii teei' i n B sensor system. Preliminary 
program management plan, phase 3 revision 
[AD.A183663] p 24 N66-10eoe 

F«ER 0RCNTAT1ON 

Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft 
structeres: Future prografn 

[NASA-CR-181467] p 24 Ne6-14155 

FIGHTER AIRCRAFT 

Utilities Management System on the EAP demonstrator 
- Aircraft power system integration 
[SAE PAPER 871780J p 92 A86-30775 

Vetiicte ManagemwTt Systems - The logicai evolution 
of integration 

[AlAA PAPER 66-3175] p 94 A88-53148 

FILE MAINTENANCC (COMPUTERS) 

A comprehensive model for the design of d h trfc ute d 
computer systems p39 A66-14564 

Relational date ttendUng system for scientiste 
1PB87-223426] p46 N86-14038 

FMANCC 

Concept for private financing and operation of the Space 
Station 
[AAS PAPER 86-453] p 86 Ae6-35064 

Fundaig ttte titff\ frorrtisr - A dMerent approach 

p109 Ae6-43971 

Natiottel Aeronautics and Space Adminislralion 
A u tho riza tion Act. 1968 
tPUB-LAW-100-147] pill N68-12422 



Fundmg - A urMed approach 
[AlAA PAPER 86-3247] p 86 A6&44805 

Financial reporting: NASA (National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration) can improve compiance mlh GAD 
(General Accounting Office) stendards and traasury 

CPB88-172S23] p113 Ne8-25373 

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 

The missing inks - Advances in graphic processng of 
finite element modeling infonwation p45 Ae6-50e74 
FIRE PREVENTION 

Eiqieriments to ensue Space Station fire satety - A 



p99 A86-22405 



[NASA-TM-100627] 



Passenger protection tecfmotogy in aircraft accident fires 
— Book pllO A66-50901 

FIXED WINGS 

Aircraft aeroetoticity arxl structural dynamics research 
at the NASA Langtey Research Center Some illustrative 



p79 Nea-24S96 



Laser dtegnosttcs and modeling of contfxjstion — 
Book p67 A8&-46300 

FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT 

Largs space structures: Dynamics and control — Book 
p22 A88-46401 
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS 

The NASA Integrated Test Facility and ite impact on 
flight research 

[AlAA PAPER 68-2095] p 99 A86-%711 

FLIGHT CONTROL 

TradHiontf versus rule^tesed p iugi a i n in ii iy techniques 
- Apfrfication to the conftrol of optional fttgfit information 
p3e Ae8-10965 
Utilities Management System on the EAP demonstrator 



[SAE PAPER 871780] p 92 A88-30775 

A project-oriented introduction to ffight test 



[AlAA PAPER 66-2116] p4 A68-38764 

NASA/Amiy Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 1: 
Aerody nam ica. and Dyrtemics and Aeroetastidty 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL-13 p 25 N86- 166^ 

Stabifity and control metfiodology for oonceptuti aircraft 
design. Volume 1: Mettiodotogy rnvwat 
[AD-A1913143 p27 N88-22906 
FLIGHT CgWS 

What changes and wfwl endurea - The capafaWties and 
limitations of training and selection p 1 A88-10860 

Ttte Soviet cosmortaut team, 1978-1987 

p2 A88-30165 

A knowledge baaed approach to strategic on-board 
misston management p 31 A68-34205 

Cockpit Resource M a nagement ooncepte and Gaining 
strategies - Developing an artelysis of trainnig needs 

p5 Ae6-42963 

'But Captain, I've been doing this a lot longer than you 
have' • The eftecte of 'rote-reversal* on crew interaetton 
p5 Ae6-42966 

Cockpit resource management - New developmentt ana 
techniques p 13 A88-42970 

Evaluating cockpit resource management training 

p5 AB6-42971 

Sei o ction for opti ma l c ro w pflflormar^oe- R e lative Impact 
of salecten and training p5 A6&42972 

Proceedings of ttie Worturtiop on ttte Assessment of 
Crew Workload Measuremonts MetttodSt Tecfmiquea and 
Procedures. Vokjme 1: Preliminary So l o c tk i n of 



p94 Ae6-53148 



[AD-A169004] p8 N88^20e27 

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

Utitties Management System on the EAP demonstrator 
- Aircraft power system miegraton 
[SAE PAPER 671780] p 92 A88-30775 

Advanced blackboted approaches for cockpit 
irrf o r ma tkin management p 46 AB8-52229 

Vehtote Management Systems - The togical evokition 
of intepation 
[AlAA PAPER 88-3175] 
FLIGHT OPERATIONS 

'But Captain, IVe been doing this a k9« tonger than you 
have' - The eftecte of 'l oto r o v o r sa T on crew iii l aiac<to n 
p5 AB642968 
FLIGHT SAFETY 

Training - Behavioral and motivational sokittons? 

pi A66-10961 

SAFE Association. Annual Symposti^n, 24th, San 
Antonto. TX, Dec 11-13. 1966. Proceedings 
[AD^199275] P 96 AB8-13376 

Contractual methods of incentivizing improved apace 
flight safely p 105 A8&-15305 

tmplementaSon of the flight safety parte program 

p92 A86-22793 

Icing TecfMK>logy Bit>liograpfiy 
[SAE AIR 4015] plOI Ae8-54400 

Proceedings of the Woritshop on the Assessment of 
Crew Worktoad Maasuremente Methods. Techniques and 
Prooedurss. Votome 1: Preliminary Setoclton of 



pe N88-20627 



[AD-A1 69004] 
FLIGHT SIMULATION 

A proiect-orientod introduction to 



[AlAA PAPB^ 864)540] 



[AlAA PAPER 66-2116] p4 A68-36764 

Simulation - Antidote to risk p 100 A88-40S24 



A-13 



FLIGHT SIMULATORS 



SUBJECTINDEX 



FLIGHT SIMULATORS 

Simulator sickness research program at NASA-Ames 
Research Center p 3 A88-35437 

FLIGHT SURGEONS 

Psychosocial training for physicians on board the Space 
Station p4 A8e-37450 

FLIGHT TESTS 

Ramjet development testing - Are we doing it right? 

[AIAA PAPER 87-2185] p 99 A88-1865e 

European/U.S. cooperative flight testing - Some food 

for thought p 99 A88-26175 

Keeping a sharp technology edge p 20 A88-26646 

AIAA Flight Test Conference, 4th, San Diego, CA. May 

18-20, 1988, Technical Papers p 99 A8e-38701 

A project-oriented introduction to flight test 

engineering 

[AIAA PAPER 88-2116] p4 A88-38764 

Computer aided requirements management system 
(CARMS) and flight test 

[AIAA PAPER 88-2091 ] p 100 A88-40250 

Turbulent drag reduction research at NASA Langley - 
Progress and plans p 67 A88-46228 

The use of an automated flight test management system 
in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research 
facility 

[NASA-TM-100435] p 34 N88-20e96 

FLIGHT TRAINING 

Attention theory and training research 

p3 A88-35444 
A project-oriented introduction to flight test 
er>gineering 

[AIAA PAPER 88-2116] p 4 A88-3e764 

Selection for optimal crew performance - Relative impact 

of selection and training p 5 A88-42972 

Assessment of student attitudes in the flight training 

environment p 5 A88-42982 

Issues in managing total training systems 

p 6 A88-46443 
FLIR DETECTORS 

Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor 
technology 

[NASA-CP- 10004] p 24 N88- 14970 

FLUID FLOW 

NASA research Program: The roles of fluid motion and 
other transport phenomena in the morphology of 
materials 

[NASA-CR-182801] p 80 N88-25327 

FLUID MANAGEMENT 

Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop. 
Volume 2: Roundtable Discussion of Technology 
Requirements 

[NASA-CP- 10009] p 76 NB8-20599 

FLUID MECHANICS 

Research and technology 
[NASA-TM-100172] p 78 N88-22e51 

FOOD PRODUCTION (IN SPACE) 

Low earth orbit space farm p 66 A88-43959 

FORECASTING 

FAA aviation forecasts fiscal years 1988-1999 
[AD-A191711] p96 N88-24576 

FOREIGN POLICY 

Technology transfer to China. Volume 2: Working 
papers, part 2 

[PB88-158712] p 77 N88-21873 

FORTRAN 

Advances in personal computers for scientific 
applications 

[DE88-009824] p 52 N88-26107 

FRACTURE MECHANICS 

Role of fracture mechanics in modern technology; 
Proceedir>gs of the International Conference, Fukuoka, 
Japan, June 2-6, 1986 p 100 A88-41851 

NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 2: Materials 
and Structures, Propulsion and Drive Systems, Flight 
Dynamics arxJ Control, and Acoustics 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL-2] p 25 N88- 16632 

FUEL COMBUSTION 

Laser diagriostics and modeling of combustion — 
Book p 67 A88-46300 

FUEL CONSUMPTION 

Results of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Program 

p 92 A88-20785 
NASA advanced turboprop research and concept 
valklation program 

( NASA-TM- 1 00891 ] p 26 N88-22902 

NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology 
program 

[NASA-TM-1009291 p 28 N88-24641 

FUEL CONTROL 

Utilities systems management ■ Flying demonstrator 
[SAE PAPER 860851 ] p 92 A88-15585 

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS 
Panel on Space Station utilization benefits 
[AAS PAPER 86-421 ] p 63 Ae8-35055 



GALACTIC STRUCTURE 

Galactic dynamics — Book p 67 A68-45599 

GAS LASERS 

JPRS Report: Science and Technology. China 
[JPRS-CST.87-033] p 71 Ne8-12062 

GAS TRANSPORT 

Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Mk;rogravity 
Material Science Laboratory 

[AIAA PAPER 88-3510] p 65 A88-4290e 

GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT 

It's time to reinvent the general aviatwn airplane 

p27 N88-23726 
GENETICS 

JPRS report: Science and technology. USSR: Life 



[JPRS-ULS-87-009] p 71 N88-12915 

Genetic research in space 
[NASA.TT-20216] p 75 N88-19066 

GEOCHEMISTRY 

Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on 
Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials 
[NASA-CR-182519] p 74 N8e-17761 

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

Recent trends in geographic information system 
research p 36 Ae8-13623 

Geographic information systems for resource 
maruigement: A compendium — Book 

p 41 A88-23253 
GEOGRAPHY 

The Department of Defense report on the merit review 
process for competitive selection of university research 
projects and an analysis of the potential for expanding 
the geographic distribution of research for the Committees 
on Appropriations, United States Congress 
[AD-A191842] p113 N88-25379 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS 

International role of US geoscience 
[NASA-CR-182407] p 73 Ne8-16281 

GEOLOGY 

Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on 
Physk:s and Chemistry of Earth Materials 
[NASA-CR-182519] p 74 N88-17761 

GEOPHYSICS 

Earth science missions for the Space Station 

p57 A88-17039 
Proposed uses of ERS-1 p 59 A88-27833 

Advances in Geophysics. Volume 30 — Book 

p69 A88-53848 
Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on 
Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials 
[NASA-CR-1825191 p 74 N88-17761 

GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBITS 

Allotment planning for telecommunication satellites 

p 12 A88-22992 
Asia in space - The awakening of China and Japan 

p86 A88-28541 
Communication satellites in the geostatk)nary orfoit {2nd 
revised and enlarged edition) — Book 

p 109 A8e-44e67 
GET AWAY SPECIALS (STS) 

A systems-level performance history of get away 
specials after 25 Space Shuttle missions 
[AAS PAPER 86-291] p 63 A8e-35149 

Nusat I - The first gas can ejected satellite — 
Get-Away-Special 

[AAS PAPER 86-293] p 63 A88-35150 

The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's 
Symposium 

[NASA-CP-2500] p 74 N88-17691 

Lightsats and their attractk)n to txidget oriented Federal 
agencies p 74 N88-1 771 1 

GLOBAL AIR POLLUTION 

Global environmental change research 
[S-HRG-100-301) pill Ne8-12199 

GOAL THEORY 

Plans for discourse 
[AD-A192242] p 17 N88-26802 

GOALS 

Space technology to nrwet future needs 
[NASA-CR-181473] p 70 N8e-10ei9 

Spinoff 
[NASA-TM-89651] p 71 N8e-12426 

Present stage of space medicine p 7 N88-181 51 
Defending secrets, sharing data: New k>cks and keys 
for electronic information 

[PB88-143185] p 50 Ne8-20210 

Johnson Space Center's strategy game plan: Charting 
a course to the year 2000 and beyond 
(NASA-TM-89733] p 76 N88-21076 

NASA and the challenge of ISDN: The role of satellites 
in an ISDN worid 
[NASA-CR- 182749] p 90 N88-22676 



GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT 

Thirty years of space with McDonnell and Douglas 
[lAF PAPER 87-665) p 19 A88-16241 

MANPRINT handbook for RFP (Request For Proposal) 
development 

[AD-A188321] p 16 Ne8-21075 

GOVERNMENT/INDUSTRY RELATIONS 

Keeping a sharp technotogy edge p 20 A88-26646 

Future aerospace projects or engineering the future for 
UK Ltd p20 A88-31339 

Government policies on space commercialization - 
Industry waits at the altar p 107 A88-33435 

Congressional views on commercial space 
[AAS PAPER 86-454] p 107 A88-35076 

(Concept for private financing and operatron of the Space 
Statkxi 
[AAS PAPER 86-453] p 86 A88-350e4 

The National Laboratories • Past and future 
[AIAA PAPER 88-4199] p 63 AB8-37725 

Space law and government - A generation later 

p 109 A88-43972 

Space for rent? p 1 4 Ae8-51 1 33 

Economics of space and the role of government 

p88 A88-51826 

Economic benefits of commercial space activities 
[lAF PAPER 88-566] p 88 A88-55445 

New initiatives in the commercial development of 



[lAF PAPER 88-581 ] p 88 A88-55449 

Summaries of FY 1987 engineering research 

[DE88-002572] p 24 N88-15096 

Lightsats and their atfaction to budget oriented Federal 

agencies p 74 Ne8-17711 

A study of technology transfer arrangements for natk)nat 

laboratories 

[DE68-005423] p 75 N88-19382 

The Department of Defense report on the merit review 
process for competitive selection of university research 
projects and an analysis of the potential for expanding 
tfw geographic distribution of research for the Committees 
on Appropriatbns, United States Congress 
[AD-A191842] p113 N88-25379 

GOVERNMENTS 

National space polk^y - Is it made, or does it happen? 
[AAS PAPER 86-364] p 108 A88-3508e 

Freedom of Information Act: Fee waiver practices at 
the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) 
[PB87-216727] pllO Ne8-11573 

Role of the technical report in technological inrtovatton 
[PB87-232500] p 49 N88-14040 

Journal of Research of the Nattonal Bureau of Standards, 
volume 92, number 5, September-October 1987 
[PB88-124409] p 102 Ne8-18518 

Journal of Research of the Natkinal Bureau of Standards, 
volume 92, numt}er 6, November-December 1987 
[PBe8-138516] p 103 N88-ie519 

Technology transfer from US Federal laboratories: 
Report of a roundtable 

[PB88-144803] p 76 N88-20228 

GRAPHS (CHARTS) 

The SSO graph - A tool for project scheduling and 
visualization p 64 A88-39048 

GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS 

Ground-based microgravity materials science research 
at NASA's Mkirogravity Materials Science Laboratory 

p68 A68-49090 
NASA Workshop on Biological Adaptation 
[ NASA-TM-e9468 ] p 74 N88- 18174 

Proceedings of the 3rd European Symposium on Life 
Sciences Research in Space 

[ESA-SP-271] p8 N88-19893 

GRAVITATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY 

The ESA Anthrorack project - Integrated research in 

human physiology p 1 A88-12429 

Soviet space physiology from its origins to the 'close 

look' p62 A88-29768 

GREENHOUSE EFFECT 

Global environmental change research 
[S-HRG-100-301] pill N88-12199 

GROUND STATIONS 

Operatk>n of a multi-year, multi-agency project 

p 12 A88-22628 
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected 
spacecraft ^ound system automation scenarios 

p37 N88-30332 
GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS 

Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations 
p42 A88-33665 
The standardisation of on-board data management 
systems and its impact on ground systems 

p44 A88-45032 
Flight and ground packet telemetry systems activities 
at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center 

p66 A88-45037 



A-14 



SUBJECT/NDEX 



ICEI>REVENTION 



GROUND TESTS 

The NASA kitagrated Test Facttty and Us impact on 
ffight nuoaich 

[AlAA PAPER 8&<£095] p 99 A88-38711 

Aircran groimf vtiraiion testing at NASA Ames-Drycton 
RigN Beaeovch Fadtty p 101 A88-50e31 

GROUP DYNAMICS 

BuiidHig hi^ porforming engineering protect teams 

plO A8d-10401 



H 



HABrTABUJTY 

Space station group activities habitabiHty moduto study: 
A synapsis p6 Ne8-19e86 




[NASA<:R-3943] 
HABITATS 

PreNminary arariyits of wi integrated tog te ti cs system 
for OSSA paytoads. Volume 4: Si^iportabWy analysis of 
thai. em centrifuge p89 NB8-19481 

HALLETS COMET 

Going to lulara tiy way (rf ttie Moon - The role of a lunar 
base in Mars exploration p62 AB8-30400 

HAND <ANATOMY) 

A standard architecbjre for controlling robots 
[AO-A195929] p 37 N88-30371 

HANDBOOKS 

Engineer's guide to composite materiate ~ Book 

p38 A88-13111 

Engineering data compendium: Human perception and 

performance ~ Book p 6 AB8-51496 

MANPRINT handbook for RFP (Request For Proposal) 



[AD-Aie8321] p16 Nea-21075 
HARDWARE 

Maintaining tafige planning systems during rapid 

technotogical change p43 AB8-39049 

Hardware/ software roSobiity study — space progrEvns 

[REPT-es-seeei pso Ne8-i7307 

HAZARDS 

Poat-Chalongor evaktafion of space shutUe risk 



tNASA-CR-1824613 p 96 N68-2Q202 

MtALITI PHTSMCS 

Heiritft haiards of video dnplay terminals. A 
comprehensive, anrvytaled UUiogn^ihy on a uilicid ssue 
of workplace heatth and safety witti sources for obtaining 
items and list of tennintf suppliers 
[RSWAS^l ' p6 Ne8-12240 

HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS 

SuperaNoys II — Book p59 A88>24814 

Future aerospace-materials dvedions 

p20 A88-24e23 
HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLES 

Department of Housing and Urban 
Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations for 
fiscal yew- 19BB. Thursday, 9 April 1987: National 
Aeronautics and Space Administratkxt 

p111 NBe-12424 

Department of Housing and Urban 

Devetopment-lndeperxlent Agencies Appropfiabons for 

fisc^ yew 1966. Frklay, 10 April 1967: National 

Aerortautks arxl Space Atftfninistratkxi 

p 111 Ne8-12425 
HELICOPTER CONTROL 



p3 AB&<35444 
HELICOPTER DESIGN 

AdvOTced hefcopter cockpit information ma na gement 
p43 A86-^376 



FAA roles and outlook for safety p 100 A6a42917 
of techniciri personnel for qualty 
p4 A8e-42921 

NASA/Anny Rotorcraft Technotogy. Vokjme 1: 
Aerodyrarrecs. «id Dynamics and Aeroetesticily 
[NASA-CP-2495-VOL-1] p 25 N66-ie625 

NASA/ Army Rotorcraft Technotogy. Vokjma Z. Materia 
and Stmcturet. PropuMon and Drive Systems, Flight 
Oynamtes and Control, and Acoustics 
[NASA-CP'^49S-VOL-2] p25 NB8-16632 

Zaro/zaro rotorcraft certification laauas. Vokjma 1: 



[NASA-CR-177483.VOL-1] p 96 N86-^453 

Zaro/zaro l oto r oa f t cartlfication issues. Volume 2: 



[NASA<:R.1774S3-V0L-2] p96 N88-254S4 

Zaro/zaro rotorcraft cartHloalton lasuaa. Volums 3: 



p97 N86-254S6 



Ckister and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA 
to address problems in solar, hefiospheric, and space 
plasma physk» p69 ABB-55022 

hemodynamk:s 

JPRS Report Science and Technotogy. USSR: Space 
Biotogy and Aerospace Medicine, volume 21, no. 6. 
November - Decemftier 1967 

[JPRS-USB-eft«>4) p74 Ne8-18150 

HEURISTIC METHODS 

Planning acHviKes in space p 73 N8a-I6417 

HIGH L£VEL LANGUAGES 

AfChetyping: A aoflware geraration and management 
methodology p 54 N88-29382 

HIGH TEMPERATURE 

The High Temperature Materials Laboratory: A new 
luouuiLh wid user faoNty at the Oak Rklge National 
Laboratory 

[DE8S^10792] p 82 N88-28138 

HIGH TEMKRATURC RESEARCH 

Toward improved duraMHy in advanced aircraft engine 
hot sectons; Proceedings of ttie Thirty-third ASMB 
Intematnnal Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and 
ExposUkxi, Amster da m, Neftheriands, JunB 5-9. 1968 

p 101 A88-54137 
HISTORIES 

Practical sokJttons to problems in experimental 
mectiaracs, 1940-85: A history — Book 

p19 A86-17945 

An historical perspective on hypersonic aerodynamic 
research at ttie Langley Research Center 
[AIAA PAPER 88O230] p 59 A88-22172 

NASA los oa rch and devetopment • A return to 
legitimacy p 68 A86-53517 

Lewis Tnateriats research and tecfvx^ogy: An overview 
p95 N88-16699 

Present stage of space medkane p 7 N88-18151 

Marshall Space FSght Center 1960-1965: 25th 
anniversary report 
[NASA-TM-100328] p 78 N88-22852 

NASA history data book. Vokjme 1: NASA resources 
1956-1968 
[NASA-SP-4012-VOL-11 p 80 N68.25428 

NASA historical data book. Vokime & Programs and 
protects 1956-1966 
tNASA-SP-40l2-VOL-2] p 80 N88-25429 

NASA hisloriciri data book. Vokjme 3: Programs and 
profects 1969-1976 
CNASA-SP-4012-VOL-3] p 80 N88-25430 

1 ?c^?t?r?cr » r !!' i ? 'spacec??.*.ft* 

How the St8tk)nwil operate— operation, management, 
and maintonance in apace p95 A88-54852 

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE 

The promise of the Hubbte Space Telescope 

p61 A88-29230 
An overview of the Hubble Space Telescope command 
and data management system p43 A88-33671 

Department of Housing and Urban 
Development-Independent Agencies Appropriatkxw for 
fiscal year 1966, Friday. 10 April 1987: Natkxud 
Aeronautics and Space Adminis t r a tton 

pill N86-12425 
HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

Training - BehavkxBl and motivabona] sokittons? 

p 1 A88-10961 
The synergy diamorxt as a model for human behavnr 
On team problem solving situations) p5 A88-42969 
HUMAN FACTORS ENGMEERING 

Human Factors Society, Annual Meeting, 31st. New 

York, NY, Oct 19-23. 1987, Proceedings. Vokimes 1 & 2 

p2 A88-35401 

Mental models and faikjres in human-mactiine 

systems p6 A88-46S14 

Engirteering data cornpendum: Humvi perceptkxi and 

pertonnanoe — Book p6 A88-51496 

Reseflvch pliers and pubKcations (1961-1967): 

Worktoad research pro-am 

[NASA-TM-1 00016] p7 N86-12924 

New US book on aviation psychotogy reviewed 

p7 N86-15433 
Space Station Human Factors Research Review. 
Vokime 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: 
Architectural Research 

[NASA-CP-2426-VOL.3] p7 N88-19e83 

Space statton group activities habitabifty moduto study: 

Asynopais p8 N88-19686 

Advanced human factors engineering toot 



tAD^1893903 P51 N86.20e2S 

Human Inlarfaoas in remote driving 
IDE88.00e843] P 34 N88.21643 

Napping and human functioning during prolongad 



Human prot)lnn solving ir 
enwonments 
[AD-A190786] p 16 N88-25142 

Hivnan performance issues arising from mwwied space 
station missions 
[NASA-CR-3942] p9 N86-25156 

Space station habitabiMy recommendattons baaed on 
a systematic comparative analysis of 



[NASA-CR-3943] 

Introduction to human factors 
[DE8W)09021] 



p9 N88-25372 
p9 N88-26103 



Buikfing high performing engineering profect t 

plO A86-10401 

Models of prooedurtti control for human pwfoi'maiKio 
simutatton pi A68.12642 

The effects of modaKty and sfress across task type on 
htmwHi p erfor ma nce p3 A68-35439 

High performance cognitive skil a c c|u rrt ion 
Perceptual/njte learning p3 A88-3S445 

The interaction of txiMom-up and top-down coiiaislency 
in the development of sfcils p4 AB8-35464 

Engineering d